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Sang-Jin Lee, Jeongmi Hwang, Hyeon-Ju Jeong, Miran Yoo, Ga-Yeon Go, Jae-Rin Lee, Young-Eun Leem, Jong Woo Park, Dong-Wan Seo, Yong Kee Kim, Myong-Joon Hahn, Jeung-Whan Han, Jong-Sun Kang, Gyu-Un Bae
Skeletal myogenesis is coordinated by multiple signaling pathways that control cell adhesion/migration, survival and differentiation accompanied by muscle-specific gene expression. A cell surface protein Cdo is involved in cell contact-mediated promyogenic signals through activation of p38MAPK and AKT. Protein kinase C-related kinase 2 (PKN2/PRK2) is implicated in regulation of various biological processes, including cell migration, adhesion and death. It has been shown to interact with and inhibit AKT thereby inducing cell death...
October 20, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
Shinichiro Hayashi, Ichiro Manabe, Yumi Suzuki, Frédéric Relaix, Yumiko Oishi
Krüppel-like factor 5 (Klf5) is a zinc-finger transcription factor that controls various biological processes, including cell proliferation and differentiation. We show that Klf5 is also an essential mediator of skeletal muscle regeneration and myogenic differentiation. During muscle regeneration after injury (cardiotoxin injection), Klf5 was induced in the nuclei of differentiating myoblasts and newly formed myofibers expressing myogenin in vivo. Satellite cell-specific Klf5 deletion severely impaired muscle regeneration, and myotube formation was suppressed in Klf5-deleted cultured C2C12 myoblasts and satellite cells...
October 15, 2016: ELife
Angela Zissler, Peter Steinbacher, Reinhold Zimmermann, Stefan Pittner, Walter Stoiber, Arne C Bathke, Alexandra M Sänger
BACKGROUND: Muscle injuries are among the most common sports-related lesions in athletes; however, optimal treatment remains obscure. Extracorporeal shock wave therapy (ESWT) may be a promising approach in this context, because it has gained increasing importance in tissue regeneration in various medical fields. HYPOTHESIS: ESWT stimulates and accelerates regenerative processes of acute muscle injuries. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
October 11, 2016: American Journal of Sports Medicine
Jonathan Shintaku, Jennifer M Peterson, Erin E Talbert, Jin-Mo Gu, Katherine J Ladner, Dustin R Williams, Kambiz Mousavi, Ruoning Wang, Vittorio Sartorelli, Denis C Guttridge
MyoD is a key regulator of skeletal myogenesis that directs contractile protein synthesis, but whether this transcription factor also regulates skeletal muscle metabolism has not been explored. In a genome-wide ChIP-seq analysis of skeletal muscle cells, we unexpectedly observed that MyoD directly binds to numerous metabolic genes, including those associated with mitochondrial biogenesis, fatty acid oxidation, and the electron transport chain. Results in cultured cells and adult skeletal muscle confirmed that MyoD regulates oxidative metabolism through multiple transcriptional targets, including PGC-1β, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis...
October 4, 2016: Cell Reports
Naoyuki Kawao, Hironobu Morita, Koji Obata, Yukinori Tamura, Katsumi Okumoto, Hiroshi Kaji
Gravity changes concurrently affect muscle and bone as well as induce alterations in vestibular signals. However, the role of vestibular signals in the changes in muscle and bone induced by gravity changes remains unknown. We therefore investigated the effects of vestibular lesions (VL) on the changes in muscle and bone induced by 3 g hypergravity for 4 weeks in C57BL/6J mice. Quantitative computed tomography analysis revealed that hypergravity increased muscle mass surrounding the tibia and trabecular bone mineral content, adjusting for body weight in mice...
October 2016: Physiological Reports
Gilian van Duijvendijk, Wouter van Andel, Manoj Fonville, Gerrit Gort, Joppe W Hovius, Hein Sprong, Willem Takken
Several microorganisms have been shown to manipulate their host or vector to enhance their own transmission. Here we examined whether an infection with Borrelia afzelii affects its transmission between its bank vole (Myodes glareolus, Schreber, 1780) host and tick vector. Captive-bred bank voles were inoculated with B. afzelii or control medium, after which host preference of Ixodes ricinus L. nymphs was determined in a Y-tube olfactometer. Thereafter, infected and uninfected bank voles were placed in a semifield arena containing questing larvae to measure larval tick attachment...
September 30, 2016: Journal of Medical Entomology
Agata Miska-Schramm, Joanna Kapusta, Małgorzata Kruczek
Human impact on the environment is steadily increasing the amounts of aluminum in the ecosystems. This element accumulates in plants and water, potentially exposing herbivores to its harmful effect. In heavily polluted sites, a decrease in the density of small rodent populations has been observed. This decline may be caused by many factors, including decreased fertility. The aim of the presented research was to determine how aluminum, administered at concentrations similar to those recorded in industrial districts (Al I = 3 mg/l, Al II = 200 mg/l), affects the reproductive abilities of small rodents...
September 29, 2016: Biological Trace Element Research
Hannu Pöysä, Kaisa Jalava, Antti Paasivaara
The alternative prey hypothesis (APH) states that when the density of the main prey declines, generalist predators switch to alternative prey and vice versa, meaning that predation pressure on the alternative prey should be negatively correlated with the density of the main prey. We tested the APH in a system comprising one generalist predator (pine marten, Martes martes), cyclic main prey (microtine voles, Microtus agrestis and Myodes glareolus) and alternative prey (cavity nests of common goldeneye, Bucephala clangula); pine marten is an important predator of both voles and common goldeneye nests...
December 2016: Oecologia
C Kalbe, D Lösel, J Block, L Lefaucheur, K-P Brüssow, O Bellmann, R Pfuhl, B Puppe, W Otten, C C Metges, C Rehfeldt
The aim of our study was to characterize the immediate phenotypic and adaptive regulatory responses of fetuses to different in utero conditions reflecting inadequate maternal protein supply during gestation. The gilts fed high- (250% above control) or low- (50% under control) protein diets isoenergetically adjusted at the expense of carbohydrates from the day of insemination until the fetuses were collected at day 64 or 94 of gestation. We analyzed body composition, histomorphology, biochemistry, and messenger RNA (mRNA) expression of fetal skeletal muscle...
August 16, 2016: Domestic Animal Endocrinology
X Shawn Liu, Hao Wu, Xiong Ji, Yonatan Stelzer, Xuebing Wu, Szymon Czauderna, Jian Shu, Daniel Dadon, Richard A Young, Rudolf Jaenisch
Mammalian DNA methylation is a critical epigenetic mechanism orchestrating gene expression networks in many biological processes. However, investigation of the functions of specific methylation events remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that fusion of Tet1 or Dnmt3a with a catalytically inactive Cas9 (dCas9) enables targeted DNA methylation editing. Targeting of the dCas9-Tet1 or -Dnmt3a fusion protein to methylated or unmethylated promoter sequences caused activation or silencing, respectively, of an endogenous reporter...
September 22, 2016: Cell
Chintan K Kikani, Xiaoying Wu, Litty Paul, Hana Sabic, Zuolian Shen, Arvind Shakya, Alexandra Keefe, Claudio Villanueva, Gabrielle Kardon, Barbara Graves, Dean Tantin, Jared Rutter
PAS domain containing protein kinase (Pask) is an evolutionarily conserved protein kinase implicated in energy homeostasis and metabolic regulation across eukaryotic species. We now describe an unexpected role of Pask in promoting the differentiation of myogenic progenitor cells, embryonic stem cells and adipogenic progenitor cells. This function of Pask is dependent upon its ability to phosphorylate Wdr5, a member of several protein complexes including those that catalyze histone H3 Lysine 4 trimethylation (H3K4me3) during transcriptional activation...
2016: ELife
Xuefeng Wei, Hui Li, Bowen Zhang, Caixia Li, Dong Dong, Xianyong Lan, Yongzhen Huang, Yueyu Bai, Fengpeng Lin, Xue Zhao, Hong Chen
Muscle development, or myogenesis, is a highly regulated, complex process. A subset of microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified as critical regulators of myogenesis. Recently, miR-378a was found to be involved in myogenesis, but the mechanism of how miR-378a regulates the proliferation and differentiation of myoblasts has not been determined. We found that miR-378a-3p expression in muscle was significantly higher than in other tissues, suggesting an important effect on muscle development. Overexpression of miR-378a-3p increased the expression of MyoD and MHC in C2C12 myoblasts both at the level of mRNA and protein, confirming that miR-378a-3p promoted muscle cell differentiation...
September 23, 2016: RNA Biology
Ellis Y Kim, Patrick Page, Lisa M Dellefave-Castillo, Elizabeth M McNally, Eugene J Wyatt
BACKGROUND: Cellular models of muscle disease are taking on increasing importance with the large number of genes and mutations implicated in causing myopathies and the concomitant need to test personalized therapies. Developing cell models relies on having an easily obtained source of cells, and if the cells are not derived from muscle itself, a robust reprogramming process is needed. Fibroblasts are a human cell source that works well for the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells, which can then be differentiated into cardiomyocyte lineages, and with less efficiency, skeletal muscle-like lineages...
2016: Skeletal Muscle
Jeong-Seok Kim, Young-Hee Lee, Ho-Keun Yi
Recent evidence suggests that autophagy and bone morphogenetic protein signaling pathway regulate skeletal muscle growth and bone formation in aged rats. However, the effect of downhill running on muscle growth and bone formation is not well understood. Thus, we investigated the effect of downhill and uphill running on age-related muscle and bone weakness. Young and late middle-aged rats were randomly assigned to control groups; young (YC) and late middle-aged (LMC), and two types of running training groups: late middle-aged downhill (LMD) and late middle-aged uphill (LMU)...
September 19, 2016: Experimental Physiology
Miji Yeo, Hyeongjin Lee, Geun Hyung Kim
Biomedical scaffolds must be used in tissue engineering to provide physical stability and topological/biochemical properties that directly affect tissue regeneration. In this study, a new cell-laden scaffold was developed that supplies micro/nano-topological cues and promotes efficient release of cells. The hierarchical structure consisted of poly(ε-caprolactone) macrosized struts for sustaining a three-dimensional structural shape, aligned nanofibers obtained with optimized electrospinning, and cell-printed myoblasts...
2016: Biofabrication
Renata Świergosz-Kowalewska, Anita Tokarz
: In a full factorial laboratory experiment, the effects of temperature and two chemical stressors (nickel and chlorpyrifos) on the accumulation of nickel in the liver and kidney of bank voles were studied. The nine-week experiment consisted of three periods: acclimatisation (3 days), intoxication (6 weeks) and elimination (3 weeks). During the main intoxication phase the animals were orally exposed for 42 days to different doses of nickel (Ni) (0, 300 and 800mg/kg food) or chlorpyrifos (CPF) (0, 50 and 350mg/kg food) or a mixture of both chemicals...
September 12, 2016: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Bilal Al Jaam, Katy Heu, Florian Pennarubia, Alexandre Segelle, Laetitia Magnol, Agnès Germot, Sébastien Legardinier, Véronique Blanquet, Abderrahman Maftah
Postnatal skeletal muscle growth results from the activation of satellite cells and/or an increase in protein synthesis. The Notch signalling pathway maintains satellite cells in a quiescent state, and once activated, sustains their proliferation and commitment towards differentiation. In mammals, POFUT1-mediated O-fucosylation regulates the interactions between NOTCH receptors and ligands of the DELTA/JAGGED family, thus initiating the activation of canonical Notch signalling. Here, we analysed the consequences of downregulated expression of the Pofut1 gene on postnatal muscle growth in mutant Pofut1(cax/cax) (cax, compact axial skeleton) mice and differentiation of their satellite cell-derived myoblasts (SCDMs)...
September 2016: Open Biology
Oriella Andresini, Agnese Ciotti, Marianna N Rossi, Cecilia Battistelli, Mariarosaria Carbone, Rossella Maione
The cdk inhibitor p57(kip2), encoded by the Cdkn1c gene, plays a critical role in mammalian development and in the differentiation of several tissues. Cdkn1c protein levels are carefully regulated via imprinting and other epigenetic mechanisms affecting both the promoter and distant regulatory elements, which restrict its expression to particular developmental phases or specific cell types. Inappropriate activation of these regulatory mechanisms leads to Cdkn1c silencing, causing growth disorders and cancer...
September 9, 2016: Epigenetics: Official Journal of the DNA Methylation Society
Jinyue Wang, Xiaohong Wang, Weidou Feng
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this paper was to study the effect of transforming growth factor beta (TGFβ) signaling pathway on reloading-mediated restoration of disuse muscle loss induced by hind limb suspension in rats. DESIGN: Rats were divided into 4 groups: control group (CON), HLS group (hind limb suspension for 2 weeks), HLS + R group (hind limb suspension for 2 weeks followed by 2 weeks of natural reloading), and HRS + E group (hind limb suspension for 2 weeks followed by 2 weeks of treadmill exercise)...
September 8, 2016: American Journal of Physical Medicine & Rehabilitation
Jaewoo Lee, Li Xu, Tyler M Gibson, Charles A Gersbach, Bruce A Sullenger
Transfection with in vitro transcribed mRNAs is a safe and effective tool to convert somatic cells to any cell type of interest. One caveat of mRNA transfection is that mRNAs are recognized by multiple RNA-sensing toll like receptors (TLRs). These TLRs can both promote and inhibit cellular reprogramming. We demonstrated that mRNA transfection stimulated TLR3 and TLR7 and induced cytotoxicity and IFN-β expression in human and mouse fibroblasts. Furthermore, mRNA transfection induced paracrine inhibition of repeated mRNA transfection through type I IFNs...
September 23, 2016: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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