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Jacquelyn Gerhart, Colleen Withers, Colby Gerhart, Liliana Werner, Nick Mamalis, Arturo Bravo-Nuevo, Victoria Scheinfeld, Paul FitzGerald, Robert Getts, Mindy George-Weinstein
Myo/Nog cells, named for their expression of MyoD and noggin, enter the eye during early stages of embryonic development. Their release of noggin is critical for normal morphogenesis of the lens and retina. Myo/Nog cells are also present in adult eyes. Single nucleated skeletal muscle cells designated as myofibroblasts arise from Myo/Nog cells in cultures of lens tissue. In this report we document the presence of Myo/Nog cells in the lens, ciliary body and on the zonule of Zinn in mice, rabbits and humans. Myo/Nog cells were rare in all three structures...
March 17, 2018: Experimental Eye Research
D Mardosaitė-Busaitienė, J Radzijevskaja, L Balčiauskas, A Paulauskas
A total of 489 small mammals belonging to seven species captured in Lithuania during 2013-2014 were investigated for Rickettsia pathogens. The overall prevalence of Rickettsia spp. was 27.6%, with a higher prevalence detected in Micromys minutus (45.9%), followed by Apodemus flavicollis (29.4%), Sorex araneus (25%) and Myodes glareolus (23.7%). Sequence analysis of the gltA gene and the 17 kDa protein coding gene revealed the presence Rickettsia helvetica. This study demonstrates not only the first reported presence of R...
March 2018: New Microbes and New Infections
Jing Gao, Wei Nie, Fenglai Wang, Yuming Guo
The present study aimed to investigate the influence of maternal selenium supplementation on the skeletal muscle development of the offspring. A total of 720 Ross 308 broiler breeders at 24-week-old were allocated into 3 treatments with 6 replicates of 40 hens each and fed with 0 mg/kg-(group Se/C), 0.5 mg/kg organic-(group Se/O), and 0.5 mg/kg inorganic-(group Se/I) selenium, respectively for 8 weeks. The male offspring from each nutritional treatment were divided and housed into 8 cages of 12 birds each and fed with a commercial diet supplemented with selenium from Na2 SeO3 at 0...
March 9, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
F Chen, W Yuan, X Mo, J Zhuang, Y Wang, J Chen, Z Jiang, X Zhu, Q Zeng, Y Wan, F Li, Y Shi, L Cao, X Fan, S Luo, X Ye, Y Chen, G Dai, J Gao, X Wang, H Xie, P Zhu, Y Li, X Wu
Four-and-a-half LIM domains protein 1 (FHL1) mutations are associated with human myopathies. However, the function of this protein in skeletal development remains unclear. Zebrafish Fhl1A is the homologue of human FHL1. In the present study, we showed that fhl1A knockdown causes defective skeletal muscle development, while injection with fhl1A mRNA largely recovered the muscle development in these fhl1A morphants. We also demonstrated that fhl1A knockdown decreases the number of satellite cells. This decrease in satellite cells and the emergence of skeletal muscle abnormalities were associated with alterations in the gene expression of myoD, pax7, mef2ca and skMLCK...
March 7, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
Carolyn M Dancevic, Yann Gibert, Joachim Berger, Adam D Smith, Clifford Liongue, Nicole Stupka, Alister C Ward, Daniel R McCulloch
The ADAMTS5 metzincin, a secreted zinc-dependent metalloproteinase, modulates the extracellular matrix (ECM) during limb morphogenesis and other developmental processes. Here, the role of ADAMTS5 was investigated by knockdown of zebrafish adamts5 during embryogenesis. This revealed impaired Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) signaling during somite patterning and early myogenesis. Notably, synergistic regulation of myod expression by ADAMTS5 and Shh during somite differentiation was observed. These roles were not dependent upon the catalytic activity of ADAMTS5...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Chayanit Chaweewannakorn, Masahiro Tsuchiya, Masashi Koide, Hiroyasu Hatakeyama, Yukinori Tanaka, Shinichirou Yoshida, Shunji Sugawara, Yoshihiro Hagiwara, Keiichi Sasaki, Makoto Kanzaki
Skeletal muscle regeneration after injury is a complex process involving interactions between inflammatory microenvironments and satellite cells. Interleukin (IL)-1 is a key mediator of inflammatory responses and exerts pleiotropic impacts on various cell types. Thus, we aimed to investigate the role of IL-1 during skeletal muscle regeneration. We herein show that IL-1α/β-double-knockout (IL-1KO) mice exhibit delayed muscle regeneration after cardiotoxin (CTX) injection, characterized by delayed infiltrations of immune cells accompanied by suppressed local production of pro-inflammatory factors including IL-6 and delayed increase of PAX7-positive satellite cells post-injury as compared with those of wild-type (WT) mice...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Mailin Gan, Jingjing Du, Linyuan Shen, Dongli Yang, Anan Jiang, Qiang Li, Yanzhi Jiang, Guoqing Tang, Mingzhou Li, Jinyong Wang, Xuewei Li, Shunhua Zhang, Li Zhu
The development of skeletal muscle is a complex process involving the proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and changing of muscle fiber types in myoblasts. Many reports have described the involvement of microRNAs in the myogenesis of myoblasts. In this study, we found that the expression of miR-152 was gradually down-regulated during myoblast proliferation, but gradually up-regulated during the differentiation of myoblasts. Transfection with miR-152 mimics restrained cell proliferation and decreased the expression levels of cyclin E, CDK4, and cyclin D1, but promoted myotube formation and significantly increased the mRNA expression levels of MyHC, MyoD, MRF4, and MyoG in C2C12 myoblasts...
March 5, 2018: In Vitro Cellular & Developmental Biology. Animal
Yajuan Huang, Haishen Wen, Meizhao Zhang, Nan Hu, Yufeng Si, Siping Li, Feng He
Many genes related to muscle growth determine the proliferation of myoblasts, initiate myoblast differentiation and muscle hypertrophy. MyoD is a myogenic determination factor and contributes to myoblast determination, and IGF-I regulates muscle hypertrophy and muscle mass. MyoD interacted with IGF-I in regulating muscle hypertrophy and muscle mass. The aim of our study was to assess DNA methylation and mRNA expression patterns of MyoD and IGF-I during different developmental stages of Japanese flounder, and to examine the relationship between MyoD and IGF-I gene...
February 24, 2018: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part B, Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Marine Theret, Linda Gsaier, Sabrina Ben Larbi, Michèle Weiss-Gayet, Rémi Mounier
In this chapter, we describe the methods to isolate and culture muscle stem cells (MuSCs) from murine skeletal muscle in order to decipher the intrinsic effect of AMP-activated kinase activity on MuSC fate. Culture of MuSCs is a powerful model to recapitulate every step of stem cell behavior observed in vivo: activation, proliferation, differentiation, fusion and also self-renewal. We provide the detailed procedures to isolate pure MuSCs by a flow cytometry-based method using the selection of a combination of specific markers and to characterize MuSC fate (quiescence, activation, and differentiation) in response to AMPK activity modulation by assessing of the expression of stem cell (e...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Masakazu Yamamoto, Nicholas P Legendre, Arpita A Biswas, Alexander Lawton, Shoko Yamamoto, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Gabrielle Kardon, David J Goldhamer
MyoD and Myf5 are fundamental regulators of skeletal muscle lineage determination in the embryo, and their expression is induced in satellite cells following muscle injury. MyoD and Myf5 are also expressed by satellite cell precursors developmentally, although the relative contribution of historical and injury-induced expression to satellite cell function is unknown. We show that satellite cells lacking both MyoD and Myf5 (double knockout [dKO]) are maintained with aging in uninjured muscle. However, injured muscle fails to regenerate and dKO satellite cell progeny accumulate in damaged muscle but do not undergo muscle differentiation...
February 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reports
Matthew J Brooks, Ameena Hajira, Junaith S Mohamed, Stephen E Alway
Reloading of atrophied muscles after hindlimb suspension unloading (HSU) can induce injury and prolong recovery. Low-impact exercise, such as voluntary wheel running, has been identified as a non-damaging rehabilitation therapy in rodents, but its effects on muscle function, morphology, and satellite cell activity after HSU are unclear. This study tested the hypothesis that low impact wheel running would increase satellite cell proliferation and improve recovery of muscle structure and function after HSU in mice...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Stefan Fischer, Anne Mayer-Scholl, Christian Imholt, Nastasja G Spierling, Elisa Heuser, Sabrina Schmidt, Daniela Reil, Ulrike M Rosenfeld, Jens Jacob, Karsten Nöckler, Rainer G Ulrich
Leptospirosis is a worldwide emerging infectious disease caused by zoonotic bacteria of the genus Leptospira. Numerous mammals, including domestic and companion animals, can be infected by Leptospira spp., but rodents and other small mammals are considered the main reservoir. The annual number of recorded human leptospirosis cases in Germany (2001-2016) was 25-166. Field fever outbreaks in strawberry pickers, due to infection with Leptospira kirschneri serovar Grippotyphosa, were reported in 2007 and 2014. To identify the most commonly occurring Leptospira genomospecies, sequence types (STs), and their small mammal host specificity, a monitoring study was performed during 2010-2014 in four federal states of Germany...
February 22, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Osvaldo Contreras, Maximiliano Villarreal, Enrique Brandan
BACKGROUND: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) are effective therapies with demonstrated antineoplastic activity. Nilotinib is a second-generation FDA-approved TKI designed to overcome Imatinib resistance and intolerance in patients with chronic myelogenous leukemia (CML). Interestingly, TKIs have also been shown to be an efficient treatment for several non-malignant disorders such fibrotic diseases, including those affecting skeletal muscles. METHODS: We investigated the role of Nilotinib on skeletal myogenesis using the well-established C2C12 myoblast cell line...
February 20, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
Shu-Juan Xie, Jun-Hao Li, Hua-Feng Chen, Ye-Ya Tan, Shu-Rong Liu, Yin Zhang, Hui Xu, Jian-Hua Yang, Shun Liu, Ling-Ling Zheng, Mian-Bo Huang, Yan-Hua Guo, Qi Zhang, Hui Zhou, Liang-Hu Qu
Skeletal muscle differentiation is controlled by multiple cell signaling pathways, however, the JNK/MAPK signaling pathway dominating this process has not been fully elucidated. Here, we report that the JNK/MAPK pathway was significantly downregulated in the late stages of myogenesis, and in contrast to P38/MAPK pathway, it negatively regulated skeletal muscle differentiation. Based on the PAR-CLIP-seq analysis, we identified six elevated miRNAs (miR-1a-3p, miR-133a-3p, miR-133b-3p, miR-206-3p, miR-128-3p, miR-351-5p), namely myogenesis-associated miRNAs (mamiRs), negatively controlled the JNK/MAPK pathway by repressing multiple factors for the phosphorylation of the JNK/MAPK pathway, including MEKK1, MEKK2, MKK7, and c-Jun but not JNK protein itself, and as a result, expression of transcriptional factor MyoD and mamiRs were further promoted...
February 15, 2018: Cell Death and Differentiation
Kornélia Kurucz, Mónika Madai, Dominika Bali, Dávid Hederics, Győző Horváth, Gábor Kemenesi, Ferenc Jakab
Rodents are important reservoir hosts for several zoonotic pathogens that cause significant morbidity and mortality in humans. Among others, leptospirosis is one of the most widespread zoonotic diseases worldwide and has the similar clinical manifestation with hantavirus infection in humans. Despite the fact that both pathogens have great epidemiological significance in Europe, no epizootiological data exist for urbanized areas so far. Therefore, this study was conducted to investigate the occurrence and prevalence of Leptospira spp...
February 13, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Francesca Torelli, Steffen Zander, Heinz Ellerbrok, Georg Kochs, Rainer G Ulrich, Christian Klotz, Frank Seeber
Rodent species like Myodes glareolus and Microtus spp. are natural reservoirs for many zoonotic pathogens causing human diseases and are gaining increasing interest in the field of eco-immunology as candidate animal models. Despite their importance the lack of immunological reagents has hampered research in these animal species. Here we report the recombinant production and functional characterization of IFN-γ, a central mediator of host's innate and adaptive immune responses, from the bank vole M. glareolus...
February 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
G H An, M Chen, W F Zhan, B Hu, H X Zhang
Objective: To explore the protective effect of electrical stimulation of phrenic nerve on diaphragmatic function during mechanical ventilation. Methods: Forty healthy adult SD rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: blank control group (BC), spontaneous breathing group (SB), electrical stimulation group (ES), mechanical ventilation group (MV), and electrical stimulation and mechanical ventilation group (MS). The rats in each group were treated for 18 h except for the BC group. After treatment, the diaphragm muscle tissue was obtained and the diaphragm contractility including peak-to-peak value(Vpp) and maximum rate of contraction(+ dT/dt max) were measured...
February 12, 2018: Chinese Journal of Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
Claudia Kalbe, Manuela Zebunke, Dorothea Lösel, Julia Brendle, Steffen Hoy, Birger Puppe
Self-determined physical activity is an essential behavioural need and can vary considerably between individuals of a given species. Although locomotion is suggested as a prerequisite for adequate function of skeletal muscle, domestic pigs are usually reared under limited space allowance. The aim of our study was to investigate if a different voluntary locomotor activity leads to altered properties in the muscle structure, biochemistry and mRNA expression of selected genes involved in myogenesis and skeletal muscle metabolism...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
James F Markworth, Cameron J Mitchell, Randall F D'Souza, Kirsten M M Aasen, Brenan R Durainayagam, Sarah M Mitchell, Alex H C Chan, Andrew J Sinclair, Manohar Garg, David Cameron-Smith
Arachidonic acid (ARA), an omega-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), is the metabolic precursor to the eicosanoid family of lipid mediators. Eicosanoids have potent pro-inflammatory actions, but also act as important autocrine/paracrine signaling molecules in skeletal muscle growth and development. Whether dietary ARA is incorporated into skeletal muscle phospholipids and the resulting impact on intramuscular inflammatory and adaptive processes in-vivo is not known. In the current study, resistance trained men (≥1 year) received dietary supplementation with 1...
January 2018: Prostaglandins, Leukotrienes, and Essential Fatty Acids
Ankita Awasthi, Vikrant Nain, Rekha Puria
mTOR regulates multiple cellular processes that are critical for proper maintenance of cell growth and development. However, mechanisms and factors responsible for transcriptional regulation of mTOR are partially known. To identify different transcription factor binding sites in promoter region of mTOR, we performed in silico phylogenetic foot printing analysis of diverse set of human orthologs. Phylogenetic tree for the orthologs was generated to establish the evolutionary relationships among them. Conserved binding sites among the species were predicted by tool MEME...
February 6, 2018: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
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