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New materials

D Gareth Jones
New technological developments have frequently had major consequences for anatomy education, and have raised ethical queries for anatomy educators. The advent of three-dimensional (3D) printing of human material is showing considerable promise as an educational tool that fits alongside cadaveric dissection, plastination, computer simulation, and anatomical models and images. At first glance its ethical implications appear minimal, and yet the more extensive ethical implications around clinical bioprinting suggest that a cautious approach to 3D printing in the dissecting room is in order...
December 15, 2018: Anatomical Sciences Education
David Donnermeyer, Sebastian Bürklein, Till Dammaschke, Edgar Schäfer
Recently, sealers based on calcium silicates were developed as a new class of endodontic sealers. Inspired by the excellent sealing ability and biocompatibility of calcium silicate-based cements, these sealers establish a biological point of view on the obturation of root canals. No longer, the bacteria-tight seal against reinfection of the root canal is the only goal of root canal obturation. Antibacterial properties as well as bioactive inducement of periapical healing and hard tissue formation are added to the portfolio of sealers...
December 15, 2018: Odontology
Elena Eremeeva, Piet Herdewijn
To increase the scope of natural biosystem, nucleic acids have been intensively modified. One direction includes the development of a synthetic alternative to the native DNA and RNA, denoted Xenobiotic nucleic acids (XNAs) that are able to store and transfer genetic information either by base-modification or backbone-modification. Another line of research aims to develop alternative third base pair additional to natural A:T and G:C. These unnatural base pairs (UBPs) can store increased information content encoded in three base pairs...
December 13, 2018: Current Opinion in Biotechnology
Viacheslav Y Fofanov, Kinnari Upadhyay, Alexander Pearlman, Johnny Loke, Vivian O, Yongzhao Shao, Stephen Freedland, Harry Ostrer
Prostate cancer is the most commonly diagnosed male cancer and the second leading cause of cancer deaths among men in the United States, with approximately 220,000 new diagnoses and approximately 27,000 deaths each year. Men with clinical low-risk disease can receive active surveillance to safely preserve quality of life, provided that the risk of an undetected aggressive cancer can be managed. Thus, prediction of a tumor's metastatic potential, ideally using only a biopsy sample, is critical to choosing appropriate treatment...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Diagnostics: JMD
Drew C Hayman, R Andrew Shalliker
The performance of a particle packed column will inevitably degrade through use or misadventure. 'Active flow technology' (AFT) is known to greatly improve the performance of pristine columns, but is as of yet untested when used on columns that have degraded significantly. In this study AFT was used to regenerate a degraded column, where the reduced plate height and asymmetry values were 3.5 and 1.25 respectively. Once the AFT fittings were fitted to the column outlet and the flow segmentation ratio adjusted to 28% from the radial central exit port, the reduced plate height decreased to 2...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Peng Liu, Ying Li, Xiaoqin Shang, Fengwei Xie
In this work, we found that ZnCl2 solution can not only be used as a plasticizer for starch but also provide a mechanical reinforcement effect to the resultant starch-based materials. By a one-step compression molding process, well-plasticized starch-based films could be obtained at 120 °C with a 15 wt.% ZnCl2 solution. Both the tensile strength and elongation at break of the films increased with a rise in ZnCl2 concentration, which demonstrates a mechanical reinforcement. This reinforcement could be mainly ascribed to the in-situ formed starch-zinc complexes and the enhanced starch molecular interactions...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Xiaozhi Yuan, Rajendran Amarnath Praphakar, Murugan A Munusamy, Abdullah A Alarfaj, Subbiah Suresh Kumar, Mariappan Rajan
Natural polymer guar gum has one of the highest viscosities in water solution and hence, these are significantly used in pharmaceutical applications. Guar gum inter-connected micelles as a new carrier has been developed for poor water soluble rifampicin drug. The hydrogel inter-connected micelle core was formulated as a hydrophilic inner and hydrophobic outer core by using guar gum/chitosan/polycaprolactone and the carrier interaction with rifampicin was confirmed by FT-IR. The morphological observations were carried out through TEM, SEM and AFM analysis...
February 15, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
N Antolino, C Muhlstein, G Hayes, J Adair, R Bermejo
Micro-surgical instruments are a new application for mesoscale ceramics formed using the lost mold-rapid infiltration forming (LM-RIF) process. Instrument strength and reliability are the foremost concerns for this sensitive application. It is hypothesized that increasing grain size can improve the damage tolerance of the parts associated with the transformation toughening in the 3Y-TZP material, while retaining high strength. In this work, mesoscale bend bars (314 × 22 × 18 µm) of 3Y-TZP fabricated using the LM-RIF process were heat treated at 1400 °C for 1 h, 8 h, or 16 h, respectively, to obtain samples with different grain sizes...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Leila Saedi, Elham Alipour, Zahra Javanshir, Vahid Vahabi
In the present work, we have studied a new allotrope of graphene, denoted as T-graphene (TG) flake as a versatile material in hydrogen storage. Recently, the metallic character of TG has been revealed. Our results show that the Li-decoration has a significant effect on the electronic properties of TG flake. Our density functional theory (DFT) calculations exhibit that the energy band gap of TG flake is decreased by decorating of the Li atom. Hydrogen adsorption on Li-decorated TG flake (Li/TG) under the influence of different external electric fields (EFs) is also explored by DFT calculations...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Jasmina Petrova, Gergana Gocheva, Nikoleta Ivanova, Stoyan Iliev, Boyana Atanasova, Galia Madjarova, Anela Ivanova
The study is focused on description of folate and several antifolates at physiological conditions. Knowledge of the molecular structure and dynamics is important for understanding their biological activity and therapeutic application. They are modelled in saline by atomistic molecular dynamics simulations and characterized in detail. In addition, quantum chemical calculations are used for determining the electronic structure of the six compounds. All molecules are highly flexible and have similar interactions with water...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Sang Hun Lee, Jihwan Song, Byungrae Cho, SoonGweon Hong, Ori Hoxha, Taewook Kang, Dongchoul Kim, Luke P Lee
Microfluidic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) has been of great interest owing to its ability to perform rapid and specific nucleic acid amplification and analysis on small volumes of samples. One of the major drawbacks of microfluidic PCR is bubble generation and reagent evaporation, which can cause malfunctions. Here, through theoretical modeling and characterization of bubble behavior, we propose a bubble-free microfluidic PCR device via controlled fluid transfer. Our approach exploits a thin impermeable polyethylene (PE) top layer that minimizes the generation of bubbles by inhibiting mass transport along a vertical direction...
October 11, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Chengliang Deng, Shusen Chang, Zairong Wei, Wenhu Jin, Hai Li, Kaiyu Nie, Xiujun Tang, Dali Wang
BACKGROUND The design and harvest of the anterolateral thigh (ALT) multi-paddled flap is a critical step in reconstructive surgeries. However, limited perforator distribution patterns of traditional design methods have gradually emerged in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a new technique (the 3-5 system) on ALT multi-paddled flap design. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 151 ALT flaps were harvested from 149 patients over a 26-month period. Among them, 100 ALT flaps were examined preoperatively using a handheld Doppler device to localize vascular perforators...
December 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Lan Hui, Yurui Xue, Bolong Huang, Huidi Yu, Chao Zhang, Danyan Zhang, Dianzeng Jia, Yingjie Zhao, Yongjun Li, Huibiao Liu, Yuliang Li
It is of great urgency to develop efficient, cost-effective, stable and industrially applicable electrocatalysts for renewable energy systems. But there are still few candidate materials. Here we show a bifunctional electrocatalyst, comprising graphdiyne-exfoliated and -sandwiched iron/cobalt layered double-hydroxide nanosheet arrays grown on nickel foam, for the oxygen and hydrogen evolution reactions. Theoretical and experimental data revealed that the charge transport kinetics of the structure were superior to iron/cobalt layered double-hydroxide, a prerequisite for improved electrocatalytic performance...
December 14, 2018: Nature Communications
Eva Hellmann, Donghwi Ko, Raili Ruonala, Ykä Helariutta
For centuries, humans have grown and used structures based on vascular tissues in plants. One could imagine that life would have developed differently without wood as a resource for building material, paper, heating energy, or fuel and without edible tubers as a food source. In this review, we will summarise the status of research on Arabidopsis thaliana vascular development and subsequently focus on how this knowledge has been applied and expanded in research on the wood of trees and storage organs of crop plants...
December 13, 2018: Plants (Basel, Switzerland)
Shelley Stafford, Coralie Garnier, Yurii K Gun'ko
In this work, new magnetic-plasmonic nanocomposites have been developed through the use of two complementary polyelectrolytes⁻polystyrene sulfonate (PSS) and poly(allylamine hydrochloride) (PAH). PSS, a negatively charged polyelectrolyte, was utilized as a stabiliser for magnetite nanoparticles, and PAH, a positively charged polyelectrolyte, was used to stabilize gold nanoparticles. The combination of these two entities resulted in a magnetic-plasmonic nanocomposite that is highly reproducible and scalable...
December 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
Lin Chi, Zheng Wang, Youfang Zhou, Shuang Lu, Yan Yao
In this study, the chloride adsorption behaviors of CaAl-Cl LDH precursors with various Ca:Al ratios were investigated. The optimal chloride ion removal rate was 87.06% due to the formation of hydrocalumite. The chloride adsorption products of CaAl-Cl LDH precursors were further characterized by X-ray diffraction analysis and atomic structure analysis, the adsorption mechanism was considered to be co-precipitate process. The chloride adsorption behaviors of cementitious materials blended with CaAl-Cl LDH precursors were further investigated...
December 13, 2018: Materials
Tejashree Waghule, Gautam Singhvi, Sunil Kumar Dubey, Murali Monohar Pandey, Gaurav Gupta, Mahaveer Singh, Kamal Dua
The most widely used methods for transdermal administration of the drugs are hypodermic needles, topical creams, and transdermal patches. The effect of most of the therapeutic agents is limited due to the stratum corneum layer of the skin, which serves as a barrier for the molecules and thus only a few molecules are able to reach the site of action. A new form of delivery system called the microneedles helps to enhance the delivery of the drug through this route and overcoming the various problems associated with the conventional formulations...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ana Sanchis, J-Pablo Salvador, M-Pilar Marco
Nanomaterials have been the focus of attention in several fields, including biomedicine, electronics, or catalysis, mainly due to the novel properties of the materials at the nanoscale. In the field of diagnosis, nanomaterials have been contemplated as an opportunity to improve sensitivity and time of response, therefore, facilitating early treatment and monitoring of the disease. For therapeutic applications, new drug delivery nanosystems aiming to provide enhanced efficiency have been proposed often addressing selective or controlled delivery of therapeutic agents to particular cells to maximize treatment efficacy minimizing adverse effects...
January 1, 2019: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Yurika Fujita, Hiroshi Honda, Masayuki Yamane, Takeshi Morita, Tomonari Matsuda, Osamu Morita
Genotoxicity evaluation has been widely used to estimate the carcinogenicity of test substances during safety evaluation. However, the latest strategies using genotoxicity tests give more weight to sensitivity; therefore, their accuracy has been very low. For precise carcinogenicity evaluation, we attempted to establish an integrated testing strategy for the tailor-made carcinogenicity evaluation of test materials, considering the relationships among genotoxicity test results (Ames, in vitro mammalian genotoxicity and in vivo micronucleus), carcinogenicity test results and chemical properties (molecular weight, logKow and 179 organic functional groups)...
December 14, 2018: Mutagenesis
Claudia Schmid-Dannert, Fernando López-Gallego
During the past decades, biocatalysis has made important contributions to chemical manufacturing by using both whole-cell and cell-free biotransformation reactions. More recently, multi-enzyme systems that can run step-wise reactions in one-pot with high selectivity are increasingly being developed. The use of multiple isolated enzymes to perform a series of reactions offers operational and process advantages over the use of living or resting cells, but such cell free processes need to be optimized to meet industrial productivity and titer requirements...
December 11, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
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