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Viviana Peña, Line Le Gall, Anja Rösler, Claude E Payri, Juan Carlos Braga
Adeylithon gen. nov. with one species, A. bosencei sp. nov., belonging to the subfamily Hydrolithoideae is described from Pacific coral reefs based on psbA sequences and morpho-anatomy. In contrast with Hydrolithon, A. bosencei showed layers of large polygonal "cells", which resulted from extensive lateral fusions of perithallial cells, interspersed among layers of vegetative cells. This anatomical feature is shared with the fossil Aethesolithon, but lacking DNA sequences from the fossils and the fragmentary nature of Aethesolithon type material, we cannot ascertain if Adeylithon and Aethesolithon are congeneric...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Phycology
Lu Ma, Junyi Jiao, Yongli Zhang
Intracellular membrane fusion mediates material and information exchange among different cells or cellular compartments with high accuracy and spatiotemporal resolution. Fusion is driven by ordered folding and assembly of soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor (NSF) attachment protein (SNAP) receptors (SNAREs) and regulated by many other proteins. Understanding regulated SNARE assembly is key to dissecting mechanisms and physiologies of various fusion processes and their associated diseases. Yet, it remains challenging to study regulated SNARE assembly using traditional ensemble-based experimental approaches...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Mohammad Zarei, Jamal Aalaie
The use of nanomaterials in the chemical, biomedical, and biotechnological sciences is growing, increasing the possible release of these materials into the environment and contact with living organisms. Because of their large surface area, biomolecules can be adsorbed on the surface of nanomaterials. Proteins bind to the surface of nanoparticles (NPs), forming a biological layer around the NP, the "protein corona," which gives new characteristics to the NPs in biological milieu and may affect biomedical applications or induce nanotoxicological effects...
October 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Philippe Francois, Elsa Vennat, Stéphane Le Goff, Nathalie Ruscassier, Jean-Pierre Attal, Elisabeth Dursun
OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the shear bond strength (SBS) and interface between a resin composite and a new high-viscous glass ionomer cement (HV-GIC), a HV-GIC, a resin-modified glass ionomer cement (RM-GIC), a bulk-fill flowable composite, and a regular flowable composite bonded with various adhesive systems. METHODS AND MATERIALS: A resin composite (Filtek Z350) was bonded to a new HV-GIC (EQUIA Forte Fil) using various adhesive systems, including a universal adhesive in self-etch and etch-and-rinse mode (Scotchbond Universal), a two-step etch-and-rinse adhesive (Scotchbond 1-XT), a one-step self-etch adhesive (Optibond All-in-one) tested also after silane application (Monobond Plus), and a coating material (EQUIA Forte Coat)...
October 13, 2018: Clinical Oral Investigations
Nageswary Appalanaidu, Roozbeh Shafafy, Christopher Gee, Kit Brogan, Shuaib Karmani, Giuseppe Morassi, Sherief Elsayed
PURPOSE: Spondylodiscitis represents a condition with significant heterogeneity. A significant proportion of patients are managed without surgical intervention, but there remains a group where surgery is mandated. The aim of our study was to create a scoring system to guide clinicians as to which patients with spondylodiscitis may require surgery. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of patients presenting to our institution with a diagnosis of spondylodiscitis between 2005 and 2014 was performed...
October 13, 2018: European Spine Journal
Tao Huang, Xiao Wang, Xiaokun Yang, Jianlei Ji, Qinghai Wang, Xuan Yue, Zheng Dong
BACKGROUND Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is one of the common malignant tumors in the urinary system, which endangers human health for a long time. The past decade, the molecular biology of renal cell carcinoma has made considerable progress, so that we have a more profound understanding of renal cell carcinoma. Molecular biological mechanism of renal cell carcinoma remains to be explored. Evidence indicates that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) may be important players in human cancer progression, including RCC...
October 14, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Xian Tong, Dechuang Zhang, Xiaotuan Zhang, Yingchao Su, Zimu Shi, Kun Wang, Jianguo Lin, Yuncang Li, Jixing Lin, Cuie Wen
Zinc (Zn)-based alloys are considered a new class of biodegradable implant materials due to their superior chemical stability and processability compared to biodegradable magnesium (Mg) alloys. In this study, we report a new biodegradable Zn-5Ge alloy with highly desirable mechanical, corrosion, and biological properties. Microstructural characterization revealed the effective grain-refining effect of germanium (Ge) on the Zn alloy. Tensile test results indicated that the hot-rolled Zn-5Ge alloy showed an ultimate tensile strength of 237...
October 11, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Tamoghna Das, Jack F Douglas
We investigate local structural fluctuations in a model equilibrium fluid with the aim of better understanding the structural basis of locally heterogeneous dynamics identified in recent simulations and experimental studies of glass-forming liquids and other strongly interacting particle systems, such as lipid membranes, dusty plasmas, interfacial dynamics of crystals, the internal dynamics of proteins, etc. In particular, we utilize molecular dynamics simulation methods to study a single component Lennard-Jones condensed material at constant temperature in two dimensions over a range of densities covering both liquid and crystalline phase regimes...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Wei Zhou, Mingjie Shen, James C W Lam, Mingshan Zhu, Liangying Liu, Hui Chen, Bibai Du, Lixi Zeng, Eddy Y Zeng
Chlorinated paraffins (CPs) are now attracting special concerns worldwide as one type of new persistent toxic substances as classified by the Stockholm Convention. CPs are extensively applied in household goods and indoor decoration materials, but information on their occurrence and exposure risk in such environments is still very scarce. In this study, the current concentrations, particle size distributions, and inhalation exposure characteristics and risk of CPs were investigated in regard to indoor air particulate matter...
October 10, 2018: Environment International
Md Manik Mian, Guijian Liu
Novel TiO2 /Fe/Fe3 C-biochar composite, as a heterogeneous catalyst, has been synthesized by a single-step route, where sewage sludge (SS) and different ratios of nanoparticles (NPs: Fe and Ti) impregnated with chitosan using coagulation and flocculation techniques for subsequent thermal decomposition at 800 °C. The physiochemical properties of samples have been characterized thoroughly and employed in methylene blue (MB) degradation tests. It was found that NPs ratio and chitosan support have significant influences on the properties and catalytic activity of catalysts...
October 6, 2018: Chemosphere
Peter E Burby, Zackary W Simmons, Lyle A Simmons
Bacteria coordinate DNA replication and cell division, ensuring a complete set of genetic material is passed onto the next generation. When bacteria encounter DNA damage, a cell cycle checkpoint is activated by expressing a cell division inhibitor. The prevailing model is that activation of the DNA damage response and protease mediated degradation of the inhibitor is sufficient to regulate the checkpoint process. Our recent genome-wide screens identified the gene ddcA as critical for surviving exposure to DNA damage...
October 13, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Bingmei M Fu
Tumor cell metastasis through blood circulation is a complex process and is one of the great challenges in cancer research as metastatic spread is responsible for ∼90% of cancer-related mortality. Tumor cell intravasation into, arrest and adhesion at, and extravasation from the microvessel walls are critical steps in metastatic spread. Understanding these steps may lead to new therapeutic concepts for tumor metastasis. Vascular endothelium forming the microvessel wall and the glycocalyx layer at its surface are the principal barriers to and regulators of the material exchange between circulating blood and body tissues...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Lishu Zhang, Xinyue Dai, Tao Li, Jie Li, Hui Li
We employ first-principles density functional theory (DFT) calculations to study CH3 NH3 PbX3 (X = I, Br) and its encapsulation into the silicon carbide nanotube and carbon nanotube (CNT). Our results indicate that these devices show diode behaviors which act on negative bias voltage but do not work under positive voltage. When they are encapsulated into SiC nanotube and CNT, their electronic properties would be changed, especially, electric currents mainly exist at positive bias region. Corresponding transmission spectra and density of states are provided to interpret the transport mechanism of the CH3 NH3 PbX3 (X = I, Br) as a diode...
October 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
Todd C Soesbe, Matthew A Lewis, Khaled Nasr, Lakshmi Ananthakrishnan, Robert E Lenkinski
RATIONALE AND OBJECTIVES: To show that water and iodine two-material decomposition images from dual-layer dual-energy spectral X-ray computed tomography (DECT) can be used to separate intravascular iodine contrast from simultaneously administered oral tantalum, tungsten, or rhenium contrast in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee approved study, four female Fischer rats were given simultaneous intravenous and oral X-ray computed tomography contrast...
October 9, 2018: Academic Radiology
Xiaolin Cai, Zhili Zhu, Weiyang Yu, Chunyao Niu, Jianjun Wang, Baoji Wang, Xiaohua Li, Liwei Zhang, Ruiqi Zhao, Yu Jia
On the basis of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, we propose a stable two-dimensional (2D) monolayer phosphorus carbide (PC) with a GaSe-like structure, which has intriguing electronic and optical properties. Our calculated results show that this 2D monolayer structure is more stable than the other allotropes predicted by Tománek et al. [ Nano Lett., 2016, 16, 3247⁻3252 ]. More importantly, this structure exhibits superb optical absorption, which can be mainly attributed to its direct band gap of 2...
October 11, 2018: Materials
Lenka Neal, Madeleine J Brasier, Helena Wiklund
Increased sampling efforts in unexplored regions of the Southern Ocean (including depths >500 m) combined with the use of an epibenthic sledge resulted in a large collection of mobile, scale-bearing worms from the family Polynoidae Kinberg, 1856. The greatest taxonomic novelty was found in the genus Macellicephala McIntosh, 1885, the type genus of the exclusively deep-sea polynoid sub-family Macellicephalinae Hartmann-Schröder, 1971. Recently collected material from the Amundsen Sea led to discovery of four new species based on morphology and COI, 16S and 18S genes-Macellicephala gloveri sp...
August 1, 2018: Zootaxa
Xiaoshuan Bai, Ernst Heiss, Wanzhi Cai
Based on new topotypical material, the apterous carventine genus Crassocoris Bai, Heiss Cai, 2007 (Hemiptera: Heteroptera: Aradidae) with the type species C. hsiaoi Bai, Heiss Cai, 2007, is redescribed. A new, closely related apterous genus and species, Paracrassocoris hekouensis gen. nov., sp. nov. is described from Hainan, China. The diagnostic morphological features of both taxa are described and illustrated.
August 3, 2018: Zootaxa
Tomoyuki Komai, Susumu Ohtsuka, Shuhei Yamaguchi, Kazumitsu Nakaguchi
Six species of caridean shrimps from four families are recorded from Japanese waters for the first time on the basis of material from the Ryukyu Islands and its adjacent waters, collected during research cruises of the T/RV "Toyoshio-maru" of Faculty of Applied Biological Science, Hiroshima University: two species of Crangonidae, Lissosabinea unispinosa Komai, 2006 and Pseudopontophilus serratus Komai, 2004; one species of Oplophoridae, Systellaspis pellucida (Filhol, 1885); one species of Pandalidae, Calipandalus elachys Komai Chan, 2003; and two species of Pasiphaeidae, Pasiphaea debitusae Hayashi, 1999 and P...
August 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Daniel Burckhardt, Anamika Sharma, Anantanarayanan Raman
A checklist comprising information on taxonomy, distribution and host plants is provided for 161 species of jumping plant-lice from the Indian subcontinent (Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Pakistan, Sri Lanka) based on published records and museum material. In addition there are 15 species recorded in the literature which are identified to genus only. Museum material provides eight new country and two new state (within India) records. The taxonomy is updated and following nomenclatorial acts are proposed: new genus (1), new generic synonymies (2), designation of type species (1), new species synonymies (5), replacement names for primary homonyms at species level (3), new status of subspecies (3), new combinations (23)...
August 7, 2018: Zootaxa
Fred Kraus
I clarify the correct provenance and taxonomic identity of the poorly known canopy-dwelling frog, Litoria graminea, from New Guinea. I base my redescription upon analysis of relevant historical material as well as upon more recently obtained specimens from several localities in Papua New Guinea. Determining the correct identity of L. graminea makes clear that one recently named species (L. dux Richards Oliver) is a junior synonym of that taxon and that additional close relatives of that species remain undescribed, two of which I describe here...
August 8, 2018: Zootaxa
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