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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332620/light-up-adhd-ii-neuropharmacological-effects-measured-by-near-infrared-spectroscopy-is-there-a-biomarker
#1
REVIEW
Grazioli Silvia, Mauri Maddalena, Crippa Alessandro, Maggioni Eleonora, Molteni Massimo, Brambilla Paolo, Nobile Maria
BACKGROUND: Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by deficits in self-controlling attention, behavior, and emotions. In recent years, noninvasive optical techniques, such as near infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), have been used to measure the neural correlates of pharmacological-therapy outcomes in children and adolescents with ADHD. METHODS: We reviewed a short series of articles that investigated the results of functional NIRS (fNIRS) on developmental-age ADHD...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314873/facial-nerve-palsy-associated-with-atomoxetine-induced-hypertension
#2
Hironobu Kobayashi, Katsunori Fujii, Masayo Kobayashi, Naoki Saito, Kentaro Okunushi, Ryota Ebata, Tadashi Shiohama, Daisuke Sawada, Naoki Shimojo
BACKGROUND: Peripheral facial nerve palsy is characterized by unilateral facial paresis due to ipsilateral facial nerve dysfunction. Most cases are idiopathic; however, some have specific etiologies, such as herpesvirus infection, immunological disorders, and hypertension. Atomoxetine is a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor that is used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This drug is known to cause adverse effects, such as nausea, appetite loss, headache, insomnia, and hypertension...
October 9, 2018: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267796/atomoxetine-prevents-working-memory-loss-in-hyperactive-rats-mediating-plastic-changes-in-prefrontal-cortex-pyramidal-neurons
#3
Néstor I Martínez-Torres, David González-Tapia, Nallely Vázquez-Hernández, Ignacio González-Burgos
Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) causes impaired visuospatial working memory (VWM), which primarily maps to the prefrontal cortex. However, little is known about the synaptic processes underlying cognitive loss in ADHD, or those ultimately involved in the preventive effect observed through the clinical use of Atomoxetine (ATX). To investigate the plasticity underlying ADHD related cognitive loss, and that potentially involved in the preventive action of Atomoxetine, allocentric VWM was assessed, as well as the dendritic spine number and proportional density on pyramidal neurons in the prefrontal cerebral cortex layer III of neonatal 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned rats...
September 26, 2018: Pharmacology, Biochemistry, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30198448/therapy-for-fatigue-and-cognitive-dysfunction-in-postural-orthostatic-tachycardia-syndrome
#4
Jeffrey R Boris, Thomas Bernadzikowski
IntroductionSevere fatigue and cognitive dysfunction are frequent symptoms in patients with postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome. They can be debilitating, and often do not resolve despite improvement in haemodynamic symptoms. Our analysis was intended to assess clinical outcomes of medication treatment for these symptoms in a large, single-centre paediatric programme.Materials and MethodsWe performed a retrospective review of patients treated for fatigue and cognitive dysfunction. Patients aged 18 years or younger at the time of initial diagnosis were included...
September 10, 2018: Cardiology in the Young
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30178479/systematic-review-of-the-screening-diagnosis-and-management-of-adhd-in-children-with-epilepsy-consensus-paper-of-the-task-force-on-comorbidities-of-the-ilae-pediatric-commission
#5
Stéphane Auvin, Elaine Wirrell, Kirsten A Donald, Madison Berl, Hans Hartmann, Kette D Valente, Patrick Van Bogaert, J Helen Cross, Makiko Osawa, Hideaki Kanemura, Masao Aihara, Marilisa M Guerreiro, Pauline Samia, Kollencheri Puthenveettil Vinayan, Mary Lou Smith, Lionel Carmant, Michael Kerr, Bruce Hermann, David Dunn, Jo M Wilmshurst
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common and challenging comorbidity affecting many children with epilepsy. A working group under the International League Against Epilepsy (ILAE) Pediatric Commission identified key questions on the identification and management of ADHD in children with epilepsy. Systematic reviews of the evidence to support approaches to these questions were collated and graded using criteria from the American Academy of Neurology Practice Parameter. Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) requirements were followed, with PROSPERO registration (CRD42018094617)...
September 3, 2018: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30172446/management-of-attention-deficit-disorder-and-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-drug-intoxication-in-dogs-and-cats-an-update
#6
REVIEW
Laura Stern, Mary Schell
Amphetamines and the nonamphetamine atomoxetine are commonly used in the treatment of attention-deficit disorder/attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in humans. Because these medications are often found in homes, dog and cat exposure to these medications is a common intoxication. Amphetamine intoxication can cause life-threatening central nervous system and cardiovascular stimulation, even when small amounts are ingested.
November 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30126223/antihyperalgesic-activity-of-atomoxetine-on-diabetes-induced-neuropathic-pain-contribution-of-noradrenergic-and-dopaminergic-systems
#7
Mustafa Burak Barbaros, Özgür Devrim Can, Umut İrfan Üçel, Nazlı Turan Yücel, Ümide Demir Özkay
Atomoxetine is a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor drug. Based on the knowledge that agents increasing monoamine levels in the central nervous system have therapeutic potential for neuropathic pain, it is planned to investigate the possible efficacy of atomoxetine on diabetes-induced hyperalgesia, in this study. Randall-Selitto (mechanical noxious stimuli) and Hargreaves (thermal noxious stimuli) tests were used to evaluate nociceptive perception of rats. Obtained data indicated that streptozotocin-induced diabetes causes significant decreases in the paw withdrawal threshold and paw withdrawal latency values of the animals, respectively...
August 19, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125623/the-atxn7-overexpressing-mice-showed-hyperactivity-and-impulsivity-which-were-ameliorated-by-atomoxetine-treatment-a-possible-animal-model-of-the-hyperactive-impulsive-phenotype-of-adhd
#8
Irene Joy I Dela Peña, Chrislean Jun Botanas, June Bryan de la Peña, Raly James Custodio, Ike Dela Peña, Zae Young Ryoo, Bung-Nyun Kim, Jong Hoon Ryu, Hee Jin Kim, Jae Hoon Cheong
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a heterogeneous neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by varying levels of hyperactivity, inattention, and impulsivity. Patients with ADHD are often classified as (1) predominantly hyperactive-impulsive, (2) predominantly inattentive, and (3) combined type. There is a growing interest in developing specific animal models that would recapitulate specific clinical forms of ADHD, with the goal of developing specific therapeutic strategies. In our previous study, we have identified Ataxin-7 (Atxn7) as a hyperactivity-associated gene...
January 10, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30122296/-supervised-off-label-prescribing-of-methylphenidate-in-adult-adhd
#9
L Carton, T Dondaine, S Deheul, C Marquié, F Brigadeau, A Amad, D Devos, T Danel, R Bordet, O Cottencin, S Gautier, O Ménard
OBJECTIVE: Off-label prescription is a common practice in psychiatry, raising health and economic concerns. Collegial consultation could allow a framed prescription of treatments that are not authorized in specific indications. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity in adult populations (ADHD) is a striking example of a pathology where off-label prescription is frequent. First considered to be a childhood disorder, the awareness of this condition in adults is increasing, leading to the development of new clinical practices and treatments...
August 16, 2018: L'Encéphale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102629/incidence-of-heart-failure-and-cardiomyopathy-following-initiation-of-medications-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-descriptive-study
#10
Andrew D Mosholder, Lockwood Taylor, Glenn Mannheim, Lisa Ortendahl, Tiffany S Woodworth, Sengwee Toh
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Stimulant abuse is associated with cardiomyopathy, but cardiomyopathy rates with therapeutic use of stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are poorly characterized. Labels for methylphenidate, amphetamine, and atomoxetine caution against use in patients with cardiovascular disease. We sought to assess the incidence of new-onset heart failure or cardiomyopathy among initiators of these medications. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Using the Sentinel distributed database, we analyzed new-onset heart failure or cardiomyopathy among initiators of selected ADHD medications (amphetamine products including lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate, and atomoxetine), by duration of use (0-90, 91-180, 181-270, 271-365, 366-730, and 731-1095 days) and age group (<22, 22-44, 45-64, and ≥65 years)...
October 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097390/comparative-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-medications-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#11
Samuele Cortese, Nicoletta Adamo, Cinzia Del Giovane, Christina Mohr-Jensen, Adrian J Hayes, Sara Carucci, Lauren Z Atkinson, Luca Tessari, Tobias Banaschewski, David Coghill, Chris Hollis, Emily Simonoff, Alessandro Zuddas, Corrado Barbui, Marianna Purgato, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Farhad Shokraneh, Jun Xia, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: The benefits and safety of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remain controversial, and guidelines are inconsistent on which medications are preferred across different age groups. We aimed to estimate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of oral medications for ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. METHODS: We did a literature search for published and unpublished double-blind randomised controlled trials comparing amphetamines (including lisdexamfetamine), atomoxetine, bupropion, clonidine, guanfacine, methylphenidate, and modafinil with each other or placebo...
September 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30037827/amplification-and-suppression-of-distinct-brainwide-activity-patterns-by-catecholamines
#12
Ruud L van den Brink, Sander Nieuwenhuis, Tobias H Donner
The widely projecting catecholaminergic (norepinephrine and dopamine) neurotransmitter systems profoundly shape the state of neuronal networks in the forebrain. Current models posit that the effects of catecholaminergic modulation on network dynamics are homogeneous across the brain. However, the brain is equipped with a variety of catecholamine receptors with distinct functional effects and heterogeneous density across brain regions. Consequently, catecholaminergic effects on brainwide network dynamics might be more spatially specific than assumed...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982276/orthostatic-hypotension-in-the-hypertensive-patient
#13
Italo Biaggioni
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is an important and common medical problem, particularly in the frail elderly with multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy. OH is an independent risk factor for falls and overall mortality. Hypertension is among the most common comorbidities associated with OH, and its presence complicates the management of these patients because treatment of one can worsen the other. However, there is evidence that uncontrolled hypertension worsens OH so that both should be managed. The limited data available suggest that angiotensin receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers are preferable antihypertensives for these patients...
July 2, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944175/pharmacological-treatment-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-children-with-comorbid-tic-disorders
#14
REVIEW
Sydney T Osland, Thomas Dl Steeves, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 4, 2011.Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent of the comorbid psychiatric disorders that complicate tic disorders. Medications commonly used to treat ADHD symptoms include stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamine; non-stimulants, such as atomoxetine; tricyclic antidepressants; and alpha agonists. Alpha agonists are also used as a treatment for tics. Due to the impact of ADHD symptoms on the child with tic disorder, treatment of ADHD is often of greater priority than the medical management of tics...
June 26, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940719/effects-of-atomoxetine-on-height-and-weight-in-korean-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-retrospective-chart-review
#15
Kukju Kweon, Je Sik Yoon, Kee Jeong Park, Seon-Ok Kim, Jin-Ho Choi, Hyo-Won Kim
Objective: We aimed to investigate the long-term effects of atomoxetine on growth in Korean children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: The medical records of 82 subjects (mean age, 9.0±2.0 years; 64 boys) with ADHD treated with atomoxetine for at least 1 year at the Department of Psychiatry at Asan Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed. Height and weight data were prospectively obtained and retrospectively gathered and converted to age- and gender-corrected z scores using norms from Korean youths...
June 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927781/long-term-tolerability-and-safety-of-pharmacological-treatment-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-6-year-prospective-naturalistic-study
#16
Dan Edvinsson, Lisa Ekselius
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder typically treated with stimulants and atomoxetine. Data on long-term tolerability and safety of such pharmacological treatment in subjects diagnosed in adulthood are limited. METHODS: A cohort of adults diagnosed with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria was followed-up on an average of 6 years after first evaluation. Of 168 adults, 112 (67%) who initiated medication were available for follow-up...
August 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926268/investigation-into-the-plasma-concentration-of-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-japanese-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-patients
#17
Ken Yonezawa, Shunsuke Nonaka, Yuka Iwakura, Yuka Kusano, Yuko Funamoto, Nobukazu Kanchi, Naohiro Yamaguchi, Yuko Kusumoto, Akira Imamura, Hiroki Ozawa
Several studies report that patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a low plasma concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Since fish intake varies among countries and is high in Japan, those results may not apply to Japanese patients with ADHD. However, there is currently not enough evidence to support this. We compared the plasma PUFAs levels of patients with ADHD with the standard reference levels for healthy subjects, and examined the relationship between those PUFAs levels and the subject's psychological evaluation...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693461/an-update-on-pharmacotherapy-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents
#18
Ritu Goel, Ji Su Hong, Robert L Findling, Na Young Ji
To date, no medication is proven to be effective in treating core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Psychotropic medications are widely used to target emotional and behavioural symptoms in ASD. This article reviewed evidence for pharmacotherapy, novel therapeutic agents, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in children and adolescents with ASD. Currently, only risperidone and aripiprazole have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of irritability associated with ASD in children and adolescents...
February 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682780/pharmacogenomic-information-in-the-warning-section-of-drug-labels-a-comparison-between-labels-in-the-united-states-and-those-in-five-other-countries-regions
#19
COMPARATIVE STUDY
T Imatoh, K Sai, Y Saito
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Clinically validated pharmacogenomic information useful for patient selection and/or dose adjustment is included in drug labels. However, the label information may differ among countries. This commentary summarizes the pharmacogenomic information on drug labels in different countries. COMMENT: We selected six drugs, namely, clopidogrel, atomoxetine, irinotecan, mercaptopurine, abacavir and carbamazepine and compared the pharmacogenomic information in the "Warning" section of these drug labels in the United States and 5 other countries/regions...
August 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674270/response-inhibition-and-emotional-cognition-improved-by-atomoxetine-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-the-action-randomized-controlled-trial
#20
Kristi R Griffiths, John E Leikauf, Tracey W Tsang, Simon Clarke, Daniel F Hermens, Daryl Efron, Leanne M Williams, Michael R Kohn
Although the non-stimulant medication atomoxetine is effective for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge about whether atomoxetine improves anxiety symptoms or cognition in children. Furthermore, while cognition has been proposed as an intermediate phenotype for ADHD dysfunction, the relationships between clinical and cognitive outcomes are not yet understood. We addressed these knowledge gaps in a controlled trial using objective assessments of both general and emotional cognitive functions implicated in ADHD and in anxiety, which commonly co-occurs with ADHD...
July 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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