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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102629/incidence-of-heart-failure-and-cardiomyopathy-following-initiation-of-medications-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-descriptive-study
#1
Andrew D Mosholder, Lockwood Taylor, Glenn Mannheim, Lisa Ortendahl, Tiffany S Woodworth, Sengwee Toh
PURPOSE/BACKGROUND: Stimulant abuse is associated with cardiomyopathy, but cardiomyopathy rates with therapeutic use of stimulants for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are poorly characterized. Labels for methylphenidate, amphetamine, and atomoxetine caution against use in patients with cardiovascular disease. We sought to assess the incidence of new-onset heart failure or cardiomyopathy among initiators of these medications. METHODS/PROCEDURES: Using the Sentinel distributed database, we analyzed new-onset heart failure or cardiomyopathy among initiators of selected ADHD medications (amphetamine products including lisdexamfetamine, methylphenidate, and atomoxetine), by duration of use (0-90, 91-180, 181-270, 271-365, 366-730, and 731-1095 days) and age group (<22, 22-44, 45-64, and ≥65 years)...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097390/comparative-efficacy-and-tolerability-of-medications-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-in-children-adolescents-and-adults-a-systematic-review-and-network-meta-analysis
#2
Samuele Cortese, Nicoletta Adamo, Cinzia Del Giovane, Christina Mohr-Jensen, Adrian J Hayes, Sara Carucci, Lauren Z Atkinson, Luca Tessari, Tobias Banaschewski, David Coghill, Chris Hollis, Emily Simonoff, Alessandro Zuddas, Corrado Barbui, Marianna Purgato, Hans-Christoph Steinhausen, Farhad Shokraneh, Jun Xia, Andrea Cipriani
BACKGROUND: The benefits and safety of medications for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) remain controversial, and guidelines are inconsistent on which medications are preferred across different age groups. We aimed to estimate the comparative efficacy and tolerability of oral medications for ADHD in children, adolescents, and adults. METHODS: We did a literature search for published and unpublished double-blind randomised controlled trials comparing amphetamines (including lisdexamfetamine), atomoxetine, bupropion, clonidine, guanfacine, methylphenidate, and modafinil with each other or placebo...
August 7, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30037827/amplification-and-suppression-of-distinct-brain-wide-activity-patterns-by-catecholamines
#3
R L van den Brink, S Nieuwenhuis, T H Donner
The widely projecting catecholaminergic (norepinephrine and dopamine) neurotransmitter systems profoundly shape the state of neuronal networks in the forebrain. Current models posit that the effects of catecholaminergic modulation on network dynamics are homogenous across the brain. However, the brain is equipped with a variety of catecholamine receptors with distinct functional effects and heterogeneous density across brain regions. Consequently, catecholaminergic effects on brain-wide network dynamics might be more spatially specific than assumed...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29982276/orthostatic-hypotension-in-the-hypertensive-patient
#4
Italo Biaggioni
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is an important and common medical problem, particularly in the frail elderly with multiple comorbidities and polypharmacy. OH is an independent risk factor for falls and overall mortality. Hypertension is among the most common comorbidities associated with OH, and its presence complicates the management of these patients because treatment of one can worsen the other. However, there is evidence that uncontrolled hypertension worsens OH so that both should be managed. The limited data available suggest that angiotensin receptor blockers and calcium channel blockers are preferable antihypertensives for these patients...
July 2, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29944175/pharmacological-treatment-for-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-adhd-in-children-with-comorbid-tic-disorders
#5
REVIEW
Sydney T Osland, Thomas Dl Steeves, Tamara Pringsheim
BACKGROUND: This is an update of the original Cochrane Review published in Issue 4, 2011.Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is the most prevalent of the comorbid psychiatric disorders that complicate tic disorders. Medications commonly used to treat ADHD symptoms include stimulants such as methylphenidate and amphetamine; non-stimulants, such as atomoxetine; tricyclic antidepressants; and alpha agonists. Alpha agonists are also used as a treatment for tics. Due to the impact of ADHD symptoms on the child with tic disorder, treatment of ADHD is often of greater priority than the medical management of tics...
June 26, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29940719/effects-of-atomoxetine-on-height-and-weight-in-korean-children-and-adolescents-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-retrospective-chart-review
#6
Kukju Kweon, Je Sik Yoon, Kee Jeong Park, Seon-Ok Kim, Jin-Ho Choi, Hyo-Won Kim
Objective: We aimed to investigate the long-term effects of atomoxetine on growth in Korean children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Methods: The medical records of 82 subjects (mean age, 9.0±2.0 years; 64 boys) with ADHD treated with atomoxetine for at least 1 year at the Department of Psychiatry at Asan Medical Center were retrospectively reviewed. Height and weight data were prospectively obtained and retrospectively gathered and converted to age- and gender-corrected z scores using norms from Korean youths...
June 2018: Psychiatry Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29927781/long-term-tolerability-and-safety-of-pharmacological-treatment-of-adult-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-6-year-prospective-naturalistic-study
#7
Dan Edvinsson, Lisa Ekselius
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a behavioral disorder typically treated with stimulants and atomoxetine. Data on long-term tolerability and safety of such pharmacological treatment in subjects diagnosed in adulthood are limited. METHODS: A cohort of adults diagnosed with ADHD according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, criteria was followed-up on an average of 6 years after first evaluation. Of 168 adults, 112 (67%) who initiated medication were available for follow-up...
August 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29926268/investigation-into-the-plasma-concentration-of-%C3%AF-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-in-japanese-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-patients
#8
Ken Yonezawa, Shunsuke Nonaka, Yuka Iwakura, Yuka Kusano, Yuko Funamoto, Nobukazu Kanchi, Naohiro Yamaguchi, Yuko Kusumoto, Akira Imamura, Hiroki Ozawa
Several studies report that patients with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have a low plasma concentration of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). Since fish intake varies among countries and is high in Japan, those results may not apply to Japanese patients with ADHD. However, there is currently not enough evidence to support this. We compared the plasma PUFAs levels of patients with ADHD with the standard reference levels for healthy subjects, and examined the relationship between those PUFAs levels and the subject's psychological evaluation...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Neural Transmission
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29693461/an-update-on-pharmacotherapy-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
Ritu Goel, Ji Su Hong, Robert L Findling, Na Young Ji
To date, no medication is proven to be effective in treating core symptoms of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Psychotropic medications are widely used to target emotional and behavioural symptoms in ASD. This article reviewed evidence for pharmacotherapy, novel therapeutic agents, and Complementary and Alternative Medicine (CAM) in children and adolescents with ASD. Currently, only risperidone and aripiprazole have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for treatment of irritability associated with ASD in children and adolescents...
February 2018: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682780/pharmacogenomic-information-in-the-warning-section-of-drug-labels-a-comparison-between-labels-in-the-united-states-and-those-in-five-other-countries-regions
#10
T Imatoh, K Sai, Y Saito
WHAT IS KNOWN AND OBJECTIVE: Clinically validated pharmacogenomic information useful for patient selection and/or dose adjustment is included in drug labels. However, the label information may differ among countries. This commentary summarizes the pharmacogenomic information on drug labels in different countries. COMMENT: We selected six drugs, namely, clopidogrel, atomoxetine, irinotecan, mercaptopurine, abacavir and carbamazepine and compared the pharmacogenomic information in the "Warning" section of these drug labels in the United States and 5 other countries/regions...
August 2018: Journal of Clinical Pharmacy and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674270/response-inhibition-and-emotional-cognition-improved-by-atomoxetine-in-children-and-adolescents-with-adhd-the-action-randomized-controlled-trial
#11
Kristi R Griffiths, John E Leikauf, Tracey W Tsang, Simon Clarke, Daniel F Hermens, Daryl Efron, Leanne M Williams, Michael R Kohn
Although the non-stimulant medication atomoxetine is effective for attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adolescents, there are still significant gaps in our knowledge about whether atomoxetine improves anxiety symptoms or cognition in children. Furthermore, while cognition has been proposed as an intermediate phenotype for ADHD dysfunction, the relationships between clinical and cognitive outcomes are not yet understood. We addressed these knowledge gaps in a controlled trial using objective assessments of both general and emotional cognitive functions implicated in ADHD and in anxiety, which commonly co-occurs with ADHD...
July 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664059/excessive-daytime-sleepiness-in-parkinson-s-disease-clinical-implications-and-management
#12
REVIEW
Yun Shen, Jun-Ying Huang, Jie Li, Chun-Feng Liu
Objective: Excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) is one of the most common sleep abnormalities in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD), yet its multifactorial etiology complicates its treatment. This review summarized recent studies on the epidemiology, etiology, clinical implications, associated features, and evaluation of EDS in PD. The efficacy of pharmacologic and non-pharmacologic treatments for EDS in PD was also reviewed. Data Sources: English language articles indexed in PubMed and Cochrane databases and Chinese-language papers indexed in Wanfang and National Knowledge Infrastructure databases that were published between January 1987 and November 2017 were located using the following search terms: "sleepiness", "sleep and Parkinson's disease", and "Parkinson's disease and treatment"...
April 20, 2018: Chinese Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625537/evaluation-of-dystonia-in-children-and-adolescents-treated-with-atomoxetine-within-the-truven-marketscan-database-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#13
Kristin J Meyers, Himanshu P Upadhyaya, Robert Goodloe, Ludmila A Kryzhanovskaya, Marie A Liles-Burden, Nicole A Kellier-Steele, Michele Mancini
OBJECTIVE: Atomoxetine is a non-stimulant drug indicated for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children aged ≥6 years, adolescents, and adults. In this retrospective cohort study, the incidence and risk of dystonia in children and adolescents treated with atomoxetine was compared to a propensity score-matched cohort of stimulant users. METHODS: Data between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2014 from patients aged 6-17 years in the Truven Health Analytics MarketScan database were used to generate two cohorts of patients: (1) atomoxetine users and (2) stimulant (methylphenidates or amphetamines) users...
May 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608930/atomoxetine-a-selective-norepinephrine-reuptake-inhibitor-improves-short-term-histological-outcomes-after-hypoxic-ischemic-brain-injury-in-the-neonatal-male-rat
#14
Masatake Toshimitsu, Yoshimasa Kamei, Mari Ichinose, Takahiro Seyama, Shinya Imada, Takayuki Iriyama, Tomoyuki Fujii
BACKGROUND: Despite the recent progress of perinatal medicine, perinatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) insult remains an important cause of brain injury in neonates, and is pathologically characterized by neuronal loss and the presence of microglia. Neurotransmitters, such as norepinephrine (NE) and glutamate, are involved in the pathogenesis of hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy via the interaction between neurons and microglia. Although it is well known that the monoamine neurotransmitter NE acts as an anti-inflammatory agent in the brain under pathological conditions, its effects on perinatal HI insult remains elusive...
March 30, 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29581452/semi-automated-biomarker-discovery-from-pharmacodynamic-effects-on-eeg-in-adhd-rodent-models
#15
Tatsuya Yokota, Zbigniew R Struzik, Peter Jurica, Masahito Horiuchi, Shuichi Hiroyama, Junhua Li, Yuji Takahara, Koichi Ogawa, Kohei Nishitomi, Minoru Hasegawa, Andrzej Cichocki
We propose a novel semi-automatic approach to design biomarkers for capturing pharmacodynamic effects induced by pharmacological agents on the spectral power of electroencephalography (EEG) recordings. We apply this methodology to investigate the pharmacodynamic effects of methylphenidate (MPH) and atomoxetine (ATX) on attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), using rodent models. We inject the two agents into the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) model of ADHD, the Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY), and the Wistar rat (WIS), and record their EEG patterns...
March 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573648/atomoxetine-for-amphetamine-type-stimulant-dependence-during-buprenorphine-treatment-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#16
Richard S Schottenfeld, Marek C Chawarski, Mehmet Sofuoglu, Weng-Tink Chooi, Norzarina M Zaharim, M Azhar M Yasin, Imran Ahmad, Sharifah Zubaidiah Syed Jaapar, B Kasinather Vicknasingam
BACKGROUND: Amphetamine type stimulants (ATS) use is highly prevalent and frequently co-occurs with opioid dependence in Malaysia and Asian countries. No medications have established efficacy for treating ATS use disorder. This study evaluated the safety, tolerability, and potential efficacy of atomoxetine for treating ATS use disorder. METHODS: Participants with opioid and ATS dependence (N = 69) were enrolled in a pilot, double-blind, placebo-controlled randomized clinical trial; all received buprenorphine/naloxone and behavioral counseling and were randomized to atomoxetine 80 mg daily (n = 33) or placebo (n = 33)...
May 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29510390/international-consensus-statement-on-screening-diagnosis-and-treatment-of-substance-use-disorder-patients-with-comorbid-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder
#17
Cleo L Crunelle, Wim van den Brink, Franz Moggi, Maija Konstenius, Johan Franck, Frances R Levin, Geurt van de Glind, Zsolt Demetrovics, Corné Coetzee, Mathias Luderer, Arnt Schellekens, Frieda Matthys
Adult attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) often co-occurs with substance use disorders (SUD) and is associated with early onset and more severe development of SUD and with reduced treatment effectiveness. Screening tools allow for a good recognition of possible ADHD in adults with SUD and should be used routinely, followed by an ADHD diagnostic process initiated as soon as possible. Simultaneous and integrated treatment of ADHD and SUD, using a combination of pharmaco- and psychotherapy, is recommended...
2018: European Addiction Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29505179/adverse-gestational-outcomes-associated-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-medication-exposure-during-pregnancy
#18
Chittaranjan Andrade
The use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medications during pregnancy has increased in recent years. An earlier article in this column examined whether psychostimulant medications, used to treated ADHD and related disorders, increase the risk of major congenital malformations in pregnancies with first trimester exposure to these drugs. This article examines whether amphetamines, methylphenidate, and atomoxetine exposure during early and late pregnancy are associated with other adverse gestational outcomes...
January 2018: Journal of Clinical Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29503545/treatment-patterns-health-care-resource-utilization-and-costs-in-japanese-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-treated-with-atomoxetine
#19
Hideyuki Imagawa, Saurabh P Nagar, William Montgomery, Tomomi Nakamura, Masayo Sato, Keith L Davis
Objective: To describe the characteristics and medication treatment patterns of adult patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) prescribed atomoxetine in Japan. Materials and methods: A retrospective analysis of insurance claims data was conducted using the Japan Medical Data Center database. Adults (≥18 years) with ADHD who had ≥1 atomoxetine claim from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2014, and ≥180 to ≤900 days of follow-up were included...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29501070/risk-of-suicide-attempts-in-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-a-nationwide-longitudinal-study
#20
Kai-Lin Huang, Han-Ting Wei, Ju-Wei Hsu, Ya-Mei Bai, Tung-Ping Su, Cheng-Ta Li, Wei-Chen Lin, Shih-Jen Tsai, Wen-Han Chang, Tzeng-Ji Chen, Mu-Hong Chen
BACKGROUND: Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) increases the risk of suicidal behaviours through psychiatric comorbidities; however, a significant direct association has not been observed between ADHD and suicide attempts. Aims To evaluate the risk of suicide attempt in adolescents and young adults with ADHD. METHOD: Using a nationwide, population-based insurance claims database, this longitudinal cohort study enrolled 20 574 adolescents and young adults with ADHD and 61 722 age- and gender-matched controls between 2001 and 2009...
April 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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