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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665647/mir-362-3p-regulates-cell-proliferation-migration-and-invasion-of-trophoblastic-cells-under-hypoxia-through-targeting-pax3
#1
Nan Wang, Yaling Feng, Jianjuan Xu, Jinfang Zou, Minghua Chen, Yue He, Huan Liu, Min Xue, Yanfang Gu
Preeclampsia (PE), a common obstetrical disorder, is one of the leading causes of pregnancy associated death. PE is closely linked with impaired migration and invasion ability of trophoblastic cells. miR-362-3p recently received our particular attention due not only to its aberrant expression in the placentas of patients with PE, but also to its important roles in regulating migration and invasion of various cells. This study was thus conducted to investigate the roles of miR-362-3p in PE and the related mechanism...
March 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29630160/wardenburg-syndrome-type-2-in-a-woman-with-no-genomic-mutation-commonly-associated-with-the-syndrome
#2
Audrey Rutherford, Donald A Glass Ii, Nnenna G Agim
Waardenburg Syndrome (WS) is a condition characterized by pigmentary changes of the hair or skin, hearing loss, heterochromia iridis, and dystopia canthorum. There are four main types of WS, which can be commonly caused by mutations in the PAX3, MITF, EDNRB, EDN3, SNAI2, or SOX10 genes. Herein, we present a patient with Waardenburg Syndrome type 2 with no findings of mutations in the commonly associated genes.
February 15, 2018: Dermatology Online Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577917/msx2-supports-epidermal-competency-during-wound-induced-hair-follicle-neogenesis
#3
Michael W Hughes, Ting-Xin Jiang, Maksim V Plikus, Christian Fernando Guerrero-Juarez, Chein-Hong Lin, Christopher Schafer, Robert Maxson, Randall B Widelitz, Cheng-Ming Chuong
Cutaneous wounds in adult mammals typically heal by scarring. However, large full-thickness wounds undergo wound-induced hair follicle neogenesis (WIHN), a novel form of regeneration. Here, we demonstrate WIHN requires transient expression of epidermal Msx2 in two phases; the wound margin early and the wound center late. Msx2 expression is present in the migrating epithelium during early wound healing, and then presents in the epithelium and mesenchyme later in the wound center. WIHN is abrogated in germline and epithelial-specific Msx2 mutant mice...
March 22, 2018: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555813/recapitulating-early-development-of-mouse-musculoskeletal-precursors-of-the-paraxial-mesoderm-in-vitro
#4
Jérome Chal, Ziad Al Tanoury, Masayuki Oginuma, Philippe Moncuquet, Bénédicte Gobert, Ayako Miyanari, Olivier Tassy, Getzabel Guevara, Alexis Hubaud, Agata Bera, Olga Sumara, Jean-Marie Garnier, Leif Kennedy, Marie Knockaert, Barbara Gayraud-Morel, Shahragim Tajbakhsh, Olivier Pourquié
Body skeletal muscles derive from the paraxial mesoderm, which forms in the posterior region of the embryo. Using microarrays, we characterize novel mouse presomitic mesoderm (PSM) markers and show that, unlike the abrupt transcriptome reorganization of the PSM, neural tube differentiation is accompanied by progressive transcriptome changes. The early paraxial mesoderm differentiation stages can be efficiently recapitulated in vitro using mouse and human pluripotent stem cells. While Wnt activation alone can induce posterior PSM markers, acquisition of a committed PSM fate and efficient differentiation into anterior PSM Pax3+ identity further requires BMP inhibition to prevent progenitors from drifting to a lateral plate mesoderm fate...
March 19, 2018: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29545604/collagen-abundance-controls-melanoma-phenotypes-through-lineage-specific-microenvironment-sensing
#5
Zsofia Miskolczi, Michael P Smith, Emily J Rowling, Jennifer Ferguson, Jorge Barriuso, Claudia Wellbrock
Despite the general focus on an invasive and de-differentiated phenotype as main driver of cancer metastasis, in melanoma patients many metastatic lesions display a high degree of pigmentation, indicative for a differentiated phenotype. Indeed, studies in mice and fish show that melanoma cells switch to a differentiated phenotype at secondary sites, possibly because in melanoma differentiation is closely linked to proliferation through the lineage-specific transcriptional master regulator MITF. Importantly, while a lot of effort has gone into identifying factors that induce the de-differentiated/invasive phenotype, it is not well understood how the switch to the differentiated/proliferative phenotype is controlled...
March 16, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535946/application-of-chromosomal-microarray-for-evaluation-of-idiopathic-short-stature-in-asian-indian-children-a-pilot-study
#6
Hema Singh, Pradeep Tiwari, Vijay Bhavi, Praveen Singh Chaudhary, Prashanth Suravajhala, M Krishna Mohan, Sandeep Kumar Mathur
Background: Human height is a classic polygenic trait and currently available data explains only 10% of the phenotypic variation in height. Almost 60%-80% of the children coming to pediatric and endocrinology outpatient department for the evaluation of short stature are still labeled as idiopathic. Objectives: The aim of this study is to identify various chromosomal alterations causing idiopathic short stature (ISS) and short stature with dysmorphic features not pertaining to known genetic syndromes...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29522707/characterization-of-pax3-and-sox10-transgenic-xenopus-laevis-embryos-as-tools-to-study-neural-crest-development
#7
Mansour Alkobtawi, Heather Ray, Elias H Barriga, Mauricio Moreno, Ryan Kerney, Anne-Helene Monsoro-Burq, Jean-Pierre Saint-Jeannet, Roberto Mayor
The neural crest is a multipotent population of cells that originates a variety of cell types. Many animal models are used to study neural crest induction, migration and differentiation, with amphibians and birds being the most widely used systems. A major technological advance to study neural crest development in mouse, chick and zebrafish has been the generation of transgenic animals in which neural crest specific enhancers/promoters drive the expression of either fluorescent proteins for use as lineage tracers, or modified genes for use in functional studies...
March 6, 2018: Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29514840/the-transcriptional-co-activator-taz-is-a-potent-mediator-of-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma-tumorigenesis
#8
Michael D Deel, Katherine K Slemmons, Ashley R Hinson, Katia C Genadry, Breanne A Burgess, Lisa E S Crose, Nina Kuprasertkul, Kristianne M Oristian, Rex C Bentley, Corinne M Linardic
PURPOSE: Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (aRMS) is a childhood soft tissue sarcoma driven by the signature PAX3-FOXO1 (P3F) fusion gene. 5-year survival for aRMS is <50%, with no improvement in over four decades. Although the transcriptional co-activator TAZ is oncogenic in carcinomas, the role of TAZ in sarcomas is poorly understood. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of TAZ in P3F-aRMS tumorigenesis. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: After determining from public datasets that TAZ is upregulated in human aRMS transcriptomes, we evaluated whether TAZ is also upregulated in our myoblast-based model of P3F-initiated tumorigenesis, and performed IHC staining of 63 human aRMS samples from tissue microarrays...
March 7, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29500394/mir-27b-regulates-myogenic-proliferation-and-differentiation-by-targeting-pax3-in-goat
#9
Ying-Hui Ling, Meng-Hua Sui, Qi Zheng, Kang-Yan Wang, Hao Wu, Wen-Yong Li, Yong Liu, Ming-Xing Chu, Fu-Gui Fang, Li-Na Xu
This study found that miR-27 is expressed in muscle and regulates muscle proliferation and differentiation. We explored the function and regulatory mechanism of miR-27b in goat muscle proliferation and differentiation. Compared with the Boer goat, higher expression of miR-27b was observed in all of the collected muscle tissues of Anhuai goat, excluding the kidney, whereas the opposite expression pattern was observed for Pax3, which showed lower expression in Anhuai goat. Expression of miR-27b decreased gradually during the proliferation of skeletal muscle satellite cells in Anhuai goat and increased during differentiation; however, the expression pattern of Pax3 was opposite...
March 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29463853/spina-bifida-predisposing-heterozygous-mutations-in-planar-cell-polarity-genes-and-zic2-reduce-bone-mass-in-young-mice
#10
Isabel R Orriss, Stuart Lanham, Dawn Savery, Nicholas D E Greene, Philip Stanier, Richard Oreffo, Andrew J Copp, Gabriel L Galea
Fractures are a common comorbidity in children with the neural tube defect (NTD) spina bifida. Mutations in the Wnt/planar cell polarity (PCP) pathway contribute to NTDs in humans and mice, but whether this pathway independently determines bone mass is poorly understood. Here, we first confirmed that core Wnt/PCP components are expressed in osteoblasts and osteoclasts in vitro. In vivo, we performed detailed µCT comparisons of bone structure in tibiae from young male mice heterozygous for NTD-associated mutations versus WT littermates...
February 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29442331/role-of-zic-family-proteins-in-transcriptional-regulation-and-chromatin-remodeling
#11
Minoru Hatayama, Jun Aruga
Proper functions of Zic proteins are essential for animals in health and disease. Here, we summarize our current understanding of the molecular properties and functions of the Zic family across animal species and paralog subtypes. Zics are basic proteins with some posttranslational modifications and can move to the cell nucleus via importin- and CRM1-based nucleocytoplasmic shuttling mechanisms. Degradation is mediated by the ubiquitin proteasome system. Many Zic proteins are capable of binding to two types of target DNA sequences (CTGCTG-core-type and GC-stretch-type)...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419867/-analysis-of-sox10-gene-mutation-in-a-family-affected-with-waardenburg-syndrome-type-ii
#12
Lei Zheng, Yousheng Yan, Xue Chen, Chuan Zhang, Qinghua Zhang, Xuan Feng, Shen Hao
OBJECTIVE To detect potential mutation of SOX10 gene in a pedigree affected with Warrdenburg syndrome type II. METHODS Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the proband and his family members. Exons and flanking sequences of MITF, PAX3, SOX10, SNAI2, END3 and ENDRB genes were analyzed by chip capturing and high throughput sequencing. Suspected mutations were verified with Sanger sequencing. RESULTS A c.127C>T (p.R43X) mutation of the SOX10 gene was detected in the proband, for which both parents showed a wild-type genotype...
February 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29407415/waardenburg-syndrome-novel-mutations-in-a-large-brazilian-sample
#13
Magnolia Astrid Pretell Bocángel, Uirá Souto Melo, Leandro Ucela Alves, Eliete Pardono, Naila Cristina Vilaça Lourenço, Humberto Vicente Cezar Marcolino, Paulo Alberto Otto, Regina Célia Mingroni-Netto
This paper deals with the molecular investigation of Waardenburg syndrome (WS) in a sample of 49 clinically diagnosed probands (most from southeastern Brazil), 24 of them having the type 1 (WS1) variant (10 familial and 14 isolated cases) and 25 being affected by the type 2 (WS2) variant (five familial and 20 isolated cases). Sequential Sanger sequencing of all coding exons of PAX3, MITF, EDN3, EDNRB, SOX10 and SNAI2 genes, followed by CNV detection by MLPA of PAX3, MITF and SOX10 genes in selected cases revealed many novel pathogenic variants...
January 30, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396607/-sinonasal-tumors-news-from-the-who-with-special-reference-to-mesenchymal-entities
#14
REVIEW
A Agaimy, F Haller, A Hartmann
The last two decades have seen significant advances in the pathology of sinonasal tract neoplasms. This was the consequence of the availability of several innovative diagnostic tools, which resulted in a dynamic evolution of entities and splitting of newly defined or conceptualized entities and subtypes that have been included in the spectrum of old heterogeneous diseases. Most of these new tumor subtypes have distinctive demographic, clinicopathologic, and biological characteristics with prognostic and therapeutic implications for individual patients...
February 2, 2018: Der Pathologe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367756/pax3-foxo1-drives-mir-486-5p-and-represses-mir-221-contributing-to-pathogenesis-of-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma
#15
Jason A Hanna, Matthew R Garcia, Alicia Lardennois, Patrick J Leavey, Dino Maglic, Alexandre Fagnan, Jonathan C Go, Jordan Roach, Yong-Dong Wang, David Finkelstein, Mark E Hatley
Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common soft-tissue sarcoma in childhood and histologically resembles developing skeletal muscle. Alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) is an aggressive subtype with a higher rate of metastasis and poorer prognosis. The majority of ARMS tumors (80%) harbor a PAX3-FOXO1 or less commonly a PAX7-FOXO1 fusion gene. The presence of either the PAX3-FOXO1 or PAX7-FOXO1 fusion gene foretells a poorer prognosis resulting in clinical re-classification as either fusion-positive (FP-RMS) or fusion-negative RMS (FN-RMS)...
January 25, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29364872/the-axolotl-genome-and-the-evolution-of-key-tissue-formation-regulators
#16
Sergej Nowoshilow, Siegfried Schloissnig, Ji-Feng Fei, Andreas Dahl, Andy W C Pang, Martin Pippel, Sylke Winkler, Alex R Hastie, George Young, Juliana G Roscito, Francisco Falcon, Dunja Knapp, Sean Powell, Alfredo Cruz, Han Cao, Bianca Habermann, Michael Hiller, Elly M Tanaka, Eugene W Myers
Salamanders serve as important tetrapod models for developmental, regeneration and evolutionary studies. An extensive molecular toolkit makes the Mexican axolotl (Ambystoma mexicanum) a key representative salamander for molecular investigations. Here we report the sequencing and assembly of the 32-gigabase-pair axolotl genome using an approach that combined long-read sequencing, optical mapping and development of a new genome assembler (MARVEL). We observed a size expansion of introns and intergenic regions, largely attributable to multiplication of long terminal repeat retroelements...
February 1, 2018: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314416/transient-microrna-expression-enhances-myogenic-potential-of-mouse-embryonic-stem-cells
#17
Joanna Bem, Iwona Grabowska, Maciej Daniszewski, Dorota Zawada, Areta M Czerwinska, Lukasz Bugajski, Katarzyna Piwocka, Anna Fogtman, Maria A Ciemerych
MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are known regulators of various cellular processes, including pluripotency and differentiation of embryonic stem cells (ESCs). We analyzed differentiation of two ESC lines-D3 and B8, and observed significant differences in the expression of miRNAs and genes involved in pluripotency and differentiation. We also examined if transient miRNA overexpression could serve as a sufficient impulse modulating differentiation of mouse ESCs. ESCs were transfected with miRNA Mimics and differentiated in embryoid bodies and embryoid body outgrowths...
January 4, 2018: Stem Cells
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287889/a-novel-mutation-of-the-eya4-gene-associated-with-post-lingual-hearing-loss-in-a-proband-is-co-segregating-with-a-novel-pax3-mutation-in-two-congenitally-deaf-family-members
#18
Federica Cesca, Elisa Bettella, Roberta Polli, Elona Cama, Pietro Scimemi, Rosamaria Santarelli, Alessandra Murgia
OBJECTIVES: This work was aimed at establishing the molecular etiology of hearing loss in a 9-year old girl with post-lingual non-syndromic mild sensorineural hearing loss with a complex family history of clinically heterogeneous deafness. METHODS: The proband's DNA was subjected to NGS analysis of a 59-targeted gene panel, with the use of the Ion Torrent PGM platform. Conventional Sanger sequencing was used for segregation analysis in all the affected relatives...
January 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287868/germinal-mosaicism-of-pax3-mutation-caused-waardenburg-syndrome-type-i
#19
Kaitian Chen, Yuan Zhan, Xuan Wu, Ling Zong, Hongyan Jiang
OBJECTIVES: Waardenburg syndrome mutations are most often recurrent or de novo. The rate of familial recurrence is low and families with several affected children are extremely rare. In this study, we aimed to clarify the underlying hereditary cause of Waardenburg syndrome type I in two siblings in a Chinese family, with a mother affected by prelingual mild hearing loss and a father who was negative for clinical symptoms of Waardenburg syndrome and had a normal hearing threshold. METHODS: Complete characteristic features of the family members were recorded and genetic sequencing and parent-child relationship analyses were performed...
January 2018: International Journal of Pediatric Otorhinolaryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277758/sphingosine-induces-apoptosis-and-down-regulation-of-mycn-in-pax3-foxo1-positive-alveolar-rhabdomyosarcoma-cells-irrespective-of-tp53-mutation
#20
Eun Hyun Ahn, Michael B Lee, Dong Joo Seo, Juseong Lee, Yonghyun Kim, Kshitiz Gupta
BACKGROUND/AIM: Rhabdomyosarcoma is the most common type of pediatric soft-tissue sarcoma. Among the subsets of this disease, alveolar rhabdomyosarcoma (ARMS) expressing paired box 3 (PAX3) and forkhead box O1 (PAX3-FOXO1) fusion oncoprotein has the worst prognosis. The goal of this study was to investigate the chemotherapeutic effects of sphingosine on PAX3-FOXO1-positive ARMS cells [tumor protein p53 (TP53)-mutated RH30 and TP53 wild-type RH18 cells]. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The proliferation, cell death, apoptosis, cell cycle, and MYCN proto-oncogene (MYCN) expression of RH30 and RH18 cells were determined...
January 2018: Anticancer Research
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