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Alauddin, Swati Chaturvedi, Mohd Yaseen Malik, Lubna Azmi, Ila Shukla, Zaiba Naseem, ChandanaVenkateswara Rao, Naresh Kumar Agarwal
AIMS: Ritonavir (RIT) is a human immune deficiency virus (HIV) protease inhibitor (PI) active against HIV-1 and HIV-2. Among various adverse effects of PIs, hepatotoxicity is a very common adverse reaction of RIT which is concentration dependent. Red clover isoflavones are found to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidant and anti-apoptosis activity. Furthermore, recent studies have demonstrated that these isoflavones can be used to alleviate the side-effects of drugs. Hence, the present study was inquested to ascertain the effect of Formononetin (FMN) and Biochanin A (BCA) on RIT induced hepatotoxicity...
October 13, 2018: Life Sciences
Marcio Augusto Averbeck, Nelson Gianni de Lima, Gabriela Almeida Motta, Lauro Beltrão, Nury Jafar Abboud, Clarice Pereira Rigotti, William Nascimento Dos Santos, Steven Kitzberger Jaeger Dos Santos, Luis Fernando Batista da Silva, Ernani Luis Rhoden
PURPOSE: This study aims to evaluate the link between preoperative parameters and oxidative stress (OS) markers in the bladder wall of men undergoing open prostatectomy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From July 2014 to August 2016, men aged ≥ 50 years and presenting with LUTS were prospectively enrolled. Preoperative assessment included validated questionnaires (IPSS and OAB - V8), lower urinary tract ultrasound and urodynamics. Bladder biopsies were taken during open prostatectomy for determination of OS markers...
September 20, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
H A Olanrewaju, S D Collier, J L Purswell, S L Branton
We evaluated the influence of light sources and photoperiod on blood physiological variables in four trials. In each trial, 720 1-d-old Ross × Ross 708 chicks were randomly distributed into 12 environmentally controlled rooms (30 males/30 females/room). The experimental design was a 4 × 3 factorial treatments consisting of four light sources [incandescent (ICD, standard), compact fluorescent, neutral light emitting diode, and cool poultry-specific-filtered LED] and three photoperiods [long/continuous (23L:1D), regular/intermittent (2L:2D), and short/non-intermittent (8L:16D)] from d8-d56 at 50% relative humidity...
October 15, 2018: Poultry Science
Shima Liu, Shuting Cao, Jingyang Guo, Liqiang Luo, Yi Zhou, Chenglie Lin, Jiye Shi, Chunhai Fan, Min Lv, Lihua Wang
Biofilms with positive and negative actions ubiquitously affect medical infections, environmental remediation and industrial processes. However, it remains challenging to control the growth of harmful biofilms as well as to exploit the use of beneficial biofilms. Here we investigated the effect of an antibacterial graphene oxide-silver nanoparticles (GO-AgNPs) composite on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation. We found that GO-AgNPs prevented biofilm formation in a dose-dependent manner, with a threshold of 15 μg mL-1...
October 16, 2018: Nanoscale
Hamed Jalilian, Masoud Neghab, Mohsen Tatar, Shekoufeh Taheri
BACKGROUND: Recently concern has been raised regarding possible health effects resulting from exposure of a group of pesticide retailers to chemicals they handle. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the prevalence of respiratory and dermal symptoms, as well as biomarkers of oxidative stress, among pesticide retailers and to compare them with those of an unexposed comparison group. METHODS: 70 male pesticide retailers and 64 male construction workers (served as the comparison group) were investigated...
October 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Joshua M Lensmire, Zachary L Pratt, Amy C L Wong, Charles W Kaspar
Salmonella enterica is a human pathogen that can produce filamentous cells in response to environmental stress. The molecular mediators and biosynthetic pathways that contribute to the formation of filamentous cells (>10 µm in length) during osmotic stress are mostly unknown. The comparison of filamentous and non-filamentous cells in this study was aided by the use of a filtration step to separate cell types. Osmotic stress caused an efflux of phosphate from cells, and the addition of phosphate and a carbohydrate to Luria broth with 7 % NaCl (LB-7NaCl) significantly increased the proportion of filamentous cells in the population (58 %)...
October 16, 2018: Microbiology
Dong Li She, Limu Bulaiti A, Qian Chen, Xiao Han
The vegetative filter strips can effectively intercept erosion of water and sediment on the slope, with huge potential to prevent and control soil erosion and agricultural non-point source pollution. A series of muddy water scouring experiments under different inflow conditions in the indoor soil trays were conducted to investigate the effects of vegetative filter strip (VFS) on intercepting nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) under different inflow conditions and its internal hydrological responses. The results showed that the VFS could effectively intercept N and P in the runoff...
October 2018: Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao, the Journal of Applied Ecology
Xiao-Jun Chen, Wen-Jun Wu, Qi Zhou, Jin-Ping Jie, Xiong Chen, Fang Wang, Xiao-Hua Gong
Despite the administration of exogenous insulin and other medications used to control many aspects of diabetes mellitus (DM), increased oxidative stress has been increasingly acknowledged in DM development and complications. Therefore, this study aims to investigate the role of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in oxidative stress (OS) of thyroid cells in patients with DM. Patients with DM with or without thyroid dysfunction (TD) were enrolled. Thyroid toxic damage was induced by adding AGE-modified bovine serum albumin (AGE-BSA) to normal human thyroid follicular epithelial cells...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Chun-Yang Wu, Zhao-Feng Zhou, Bin Wang, Zun-Ping Ke, Zhong-Chun Ge, Xian-Jin Zhang
Atherosclerosis has been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease, which can harden the vessel wall and narrow the arteries. MicroRNAs exhibit crucial roles in various diseases including atherosclerosis. However, so far, the role of miR-328 in atherosclerosis remains barely explored. Therefore, our study concentrated on the potential role of miR-328 in vascular endothelial cell injury during atherosclerosis. In our current study, we observed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis and inhibited cell viability dose-dependently and time-dependently...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Umakanta Sarker, Shinya Oba
BACKGROUND: Amaranthus tricolor is a unique source of betalain (β-cyanin and β-xanthin) and a source of natural antioxidants, such as leaf pigments, vitamins, polyphenols, and flavonoids in leafy vegetables. It has substantial importance for food industry, since these compounds detoxify ROS in humans and are involved in defense against several diseases. In addition, previous research has shown that salt stress elevates these compounds in many leafy vegetables. Therefore, we evaluated the effect of salinity stress on these compounds...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
Terry G Coursey, Ronald A Wassel, Alexander B Quiambao, Rafal A Farjo
Purpose: To determine if a Microemulsion Drug Ocular Penetration System (MiDROPS) formulation of cyclosporine A (CsA) delivers more drug and is more efficacious for treatment of dry eye disease (DED) than the current clinical formulation. Methods: Tissue distribution of CsA was quantified by liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). To assess tolerability, CsA-MiDROPS (0.1%) was applied to the eyes of rabbits twice per day for 14 days and assessed using ophthalmoscopic examinations...
September 2018: Translational Vision Science & Technology
Boshuai Liu, Wenjing Wang, Xiaoyan Zhu, Xiao Sun, Junnan Xiao, Defeng Li, Yalei Cui, Chengzhang Wang, Yinghua Shi
Dietary fiber (DF) is increasingly thought to regulate diversity of piglet gut microbiota to alleviate weaning stress in piglets. This study was conducted to investigate the effects of DF on growth performance of piglets and composition of their gut microbiota, as well as the interaction between gut microbiota and short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) in piglets. A total of 840 piglets were allocated to three dietary treatments consisting of a control group (CG), an alfalfa meal group (AG), and a commodity concentrated fiber group (OG) in a 30-day feeding trial...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Shibo Duan, Ming Li, Zhifeng Wang, Longlong Wang, Yongjie Liu
Background: Recent findings around long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) have opened novel areas of research around their prospective use in overcoming chemoresistance. Herein, we aimed to investigate the role of lncRNA H19 in temozolomide (TMZ) resistance of human glioma cells and the possible mechanisms. Methods: Short-/long-term oxidative stress was induced, and TMZ-resistant glioma cells (U251TMZ and LN229TMZ ) were established. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) and overexpression plasmids were used to modulate the expression of H19 and/or luciferase the reporters...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Agnieszka Radzimińska, Magdalena Weber-Rajek, Agnieszka Strączyńska, Marta Podhorecka, Mariusz Kozakiewicz, Kornelia Kędziora-Kornatowska, Aleksander Goch
Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the myostatin concentration and an improvement in the severity of urinary incontinence (UI) after pelvic floor muscle training (PFMT) in a group of elderly women with stress UI. Methods: A total of 74 participants were included in the analysis: 40 participants in the experimental group (EG) and 34 participants in the control group (CG). The EG underwent PFMT, whereas no therapeutic intervention was applied to the CG...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Frederick Stull, Hannah Hipp, Randy B Stockbridge, James C A Bardwell
To successfully colonize the intestine, bacteria must survive passage through the stomach. The permeability of the outer membrane renders the periplasm of Gram-negative bacteria vulnerable to stomach acid, which inactivates proteins. Here we report that the semipermeable nature of the outer membrane allows the development of a strong Donnan equilibrium across this barrier at low pH. As a result, when bacteria are exposed to conditions that mimic gastric juice, periplasmic chloride concentrations rise to levels that exceed 0...
November 2018: Nature Chemical Biology
Iru Paudel, Sean M Hernandez, Gilda M Portalatin, Tara P Chambers, Jeremy W Chambers
The occurrence of chemotherapy-resistant tumors makes ovarian cancer (OC) the most lethal gynecological malignancy. While many factors may contribute to chemoresistance, the mechanisms responsible for regulating tumor vulnerability are under investigation. Our analysis of gene expression data revealed that Sab, a mitochondrial outer membrane (MOM) scaffold protein, was down-regulated in OC patients. Sab-mediated signaling induces cell death suggesting that this apoptotic pathway is diminished in OC.  We examined Sab expression in a panel of OC cell lines and found that the magnitude of Sab expression correlated to chemo-responsiveness; wherein, OC cells with low Sab levels were chemoresistant...
October 15, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Matthias Nemeth, Eva Millesi, Karl-Heinz Wagner, Bernard Wallner
PUFA modulate hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity and cortisol concentrations and therefore affect physiological stress responses and the regulation of energy balance in the short- and long-term. Especially dietary intake of n-3 PUFA and a lowered n-6:n-3 ratio are highly encouraged due to beneficial and diminishing effects on basal cortisol secretions. However, the time of such effects to occur and how plasma PUFA patterns affect cortisol concentrations in the short-term was rarely investigated...
October 16, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
Xianqiang Fan, Zhipeng Guo, Xiaofeng Wang, Jie Yang, Jinwen Zou
A pre-hot-deformation process was applied for a polycrystalline nickel-base superalloy to active deformation twins and dislocations, and subsequent slow cooling treatment was used to achieve grain refinement and microstructure homogenization. The microstructural evolution of the alloy was investigated, and the corresponding underlying mechanism was discussed. It was found that twinning mainly occurred in large grains during pre-hot-deformation owing to the stress concentration surrounding the large grains. High density dislocations were found in large grains, and the dislocation density increased approaching the grain boundary...
October 14, 2018: Materials
Natalia N Luchinskaia, Vladimir G Cherdantsev, Alexander S Ermakov, Nadezhda S Glagoleva, Lev V Beloussov
Reactions of embryonic tissues to a distributed and concentrated stretching are described and compared with the mechanics of the normal gastrulation movements. A role of mechanically stressed dynamic cell structures in the gastrulation, demarcation of notochord borders and in providing proportionality of the axial rudiments is demonstrated. A morphomechanical scheme of amphibian gastrulation is presented.
October 12, 2018: Bio Systems
Yu-Lin Pan, Rui Xin, Sheng-Yuan Wang, Yue Wang, Lin Zhang, Cui-Ping Yu, Yong-Hui Wu
Nickel (Ni) is widely present in the occupational environment and causes various adverse effects on the human body. Apoptosis induced by Ni2+ may be a key mechanism underlying its toxic effect. In the present study, we investigated the effect of Ni-smelting fumes on cell viability, mitochondrial damage, and apoptosis-related proteins in NIH/3T3 cells. The effects of Ni-smelting fumes at concentrations of 0, 25, 50, and 100 μg/mL were tested. Treatment with Ni-smelting fumes for 24 h and 48 h significantly decreased cell viability and lactate dehydrogenase activity in a dose- and time-dependent manner compared with the blank control group...
October 12, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
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