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Stress concentration

Timo Domisch, Françoise Martz, Tapani Repo, Pasi Rautio
Air temperatures and precipitation are predicted to increase in the future, especially at high latitudes and particularly so during winter. In contrast to air temperatures, changes in soil temperatures are more difficult to predict, as the fate of the insulating snow cover is crucial in this respect. Soil conditions can also be affected by rain-on-snow events and warm spells during winter, resulting in freeze-thaw cycles, compacted snow, ice encasement and local flooding. These adverse conditions during winter could counteract the otherwise positive effects of climate change on forest growth and productivity...
December 4, 2018: Tree Physiology
Gioia Lenzoni, Marc R Knight
Plants need to sense increases in temperature to be able to adapt their physiology and development to survive; however, the mechanisms of heat perception are currently relatively poorly understood. Here we demonstrate that in response to elevated temperature the free calcium concentration of the stroma of chloroplasts increases. This response is specific to the chloroplast, as no corresponding increase in calcium is seen in the cytosol. The chloroplast calcium response is dose-dependent above a threshold. The magnitude of this calcium response is dependent upon absolute temperature, not rate of heating...
December 4, 2018: Plant & Cell Physiology
Dante Condori-Merma, Oscar Moreno-Loaiza, Azael Paz-Aliaga, José Barrionuevo-Rodríguez
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of the administration of oxytocin during labor management on the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), and S100B protein in newborns. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We selected 80 term pregnant women without obstetric and fetal pathology, forming two groups: pregnant women with normal delivery and pregnant women conducted with oxytocin. Blood was collected immediately after delivery from the umbilical cord vein to measure MDA, ON and from the artery for protein S100B...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
João Paulo Mendes Tribst, Amanda Maria de Oliveira Dal Piva, Marcela Moreira Penteado, Alexandre Luiz Souto Borges, Marco Antonio Bottino
The aim of this study was to evaluate stress distribution in an occlusal veneer according to the restorative material, restoration thickness, and cement layer thickness. A tridimensional model of a human maxillary first molar with an occlusal veneer preparation was constructed using a modeling software of finite element analysis. The model was replicated 9 times to evaluate the factors: restoration thickness (0.6, 1.2, and 1.8 mm) and cement layer thickness (100, 200, and 300 μm). Then, each model received different restorative materials (High Translucency Zirconia - [YZHT], Lithium Disilicate - [LD], Zirconia Reinforced Lithium Silicate - [ZLS], Feldspathic - [F], and Hybrid Ceramic - [HC]), totaling forty-five groups...
November 29, 2018: Brazilian Oral Research
N Atanelov, N Arutinashvili, G Burjanadze, G Kuprava, N Koshoridze
A method for isolation of polyphenol extract with significant amounts of flavonoid compounds (GOF) from precocious Georgian Citrus sinensis peels (Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck ,,Seike Navel", form N26) was established by multistage process based on producing water-associated fraction (WAF). Recent study describes the impact of GOF on altered cellular metabolism patterns of cardiac muscle cells and changes in blood induced by psycho-emotional stress. Markedly, GOF-treated animals show positive changes in certain antioxidant enzymes (SOD, catalase) activity and normalization of lipid peroxidation, whereas the concentration of Ca2+ and nitric oxide are approximated to the control value...
October 2018: Georgian Medical News
Wenqi Gao, Wei Wang, Gang Liu, Jing Zhang, Jian Yang, Zhifang Deng
Allicin, one of the main biologically active compounds derived from garlic, was previously reported to possess multiple pharmacological activities. Whether allicin protected against chronic social defeat stress (CSDS) induced depressive-like behaviors remained unknown. Thus, our present study for the first time investigated the potential antidepressant effects and the mechanisms of allicin on the CSDS mice model. Thirty minutes before social defeat stress, allicin (2, 10, 50 mg/kg) was treated by intraperitoneal injection...
December 4, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Guo-Hua Ding, Dan-Di Guo, Yang Guan, Chun-Yu Chi, Bao-Dong Liu
To investigate the molecular response of ancient plants to heavy metal stress and to explore the feature of DNA methylation in endangered plants after exposure to heavy metals, the Isoetes sinensis, an endangered plant, was stressed with three different concentrations of two heavy metals lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd), respectively. Then the degrees and the patterns of DNA methylation in the leaves were measured on the 14th day using Methylation Sensitive Amplified Polymorphism (MSAP) technique. The results showed that the DNA methylated profile of I...
December 4, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Regianne Maciel Dos Santos Correa, Tatiane Cristina Mota, Adriana Costa Guimarães, Laís Teixeira Bonfim, Rommel Rodriguez Burbano, Marcelo de Oliveira Bahia
Fluconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole antifungal that is well-established as the first-line treatment for Candida albicans infections. Despite its extensive use, reports on its genotoxic/mutagenic effects are controversial; therefore, further studies are needed to better clarify such effects. African green monkey kidney (Vero) cells were exposed in vitro to different concentrations of fluconazole and were then evaluated for different parameters, such as cytotoxicity (MTT/cell death by fluorescent dyes), genotoxicity/mutagenicity (comet assay/micronucleus test), and induction of oxidative stress (DCFH-DA assay)...
2018: BioMed Research International
Niloofar Rajabli, Lauren Williamson, Pierre S Nimmer, Marie Kelly-Worden, Jill S Bange, Yenling Ho, John L McKillip
Bacillus cereus can cause endophthalmitis through secretion of virulence factors, including hemolysin BL (Hbl) and nonhemolytic entertoxin (Nhe). Carvacrol is an extract from oregano oil, with potential for curtailing B. cereus endophthalmitis, due to antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory qualities. However, sublethal levels of carvacrol increases B. cereus virulence. The goal of this study was to investigate the increase in B. cereus virulence potential in response stress induced by a subinhibitory concentration (SIC) of carvacrol...
2018: International Journal of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Ebtesam S Al-Sheddi, Nida N Farshori, Mai M Al-Oqail, Shaza M Al-Massarani, Quaiser Saquib, Rizwan Wahab, Javed Musarrat, Abdulaziz A Al-Khedhairy, Maqsood A Siddiqui
In this study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized using aqueous extract of Nepeta deflersiana plant. The prepared AgNPs (ND-AgNPs) were examined by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX). The results obtained from various characterizations revealed that average size of synthesized AgNPs was 33 nm and in face-centered-cubic structure...
2018: Bioinorganic Chemistry and Applications
Mohamed M Refaey, Dapeng Li
Transport procedures usually cause fish stress. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of transport stress on blood biochemical profiles, oxidative stress biomarkers, and hepatic heat shock proteins (HSPs) of channel catfish ( Ictalurus punctatus ). Fish (body weight 55.57 ± 5.13 g) were randomly distributed to two groups, the control, and the treatment. The control group was kept under the normal culture conditions. The treatment group was exposed to the process of transport (3.5 h). Fish samples were collected before transport, after packing and at 0, 1, 6, 24, 72, and 168 h after transport, respectively...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Xuechao Han, Jingman Xu, Sen Xu, Yahan Sun, Mali He, Xiaodong Li, Xinyu Li, Jiayi Pi, Rui Yu, Wei Tian
OBJECTIVE: To explore the role of mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) in mediating the protective effect of gastrodin against oxidative stress damage in H9c2 cardiac myocytes. METHODS: H9c2 cardiac myocytes were treated with H2 O2 , gastrodin, gastrodin+H2 O2 , cyclosporin A (CsA), or CsA+gas+H2 O2 group. MTT assay was used to detect the survival ratio of H9c2 cells, and flow cytometry with Annexin V-FITC/PI double staining was used to analyze the early apoptosis rate after the treatments...
November 30, 2018: Nan Fang Yi Ke da Xue Xue Bao, Journal of Southern Medical University
Lucia Natali, Alberto Vangelisti, Lucia Guidi, Damiano Remorini, Lorenzo Cotrozzi, Giacomo Lorenzini, Cristina Nali, Elisa Pellegrini, Alice Trivellini, Paolo Vernieri, Marco Landi, Andrea Cavallini, Tommaso Giordani
BACKGROUND: Similar to other urban trees, holm oaks (Quercus ilex L.) provide a physiological, ecological and social service in the urban environment, since they remove atmospheric pollution. However, the urban environment has several abiotic factors that negatively influence plant life, which are further exacerbated due to climate change, especially in the Mediterranean area. Among these abiotic factors, increased uptake of Na + and Cl - usually occurs in trees in the urban ecosystem; moreover, an excess of the tropospheric ozone concentration in Mediterranean cities further affects plant growth and survival...
December 4, 2018: BMC Genomics
Wang Lin, Honghui Guo, Lingkai Wang, Dandan Zhang, Xueyang Wu, Li Li, Dapeng Li, Rong Tang
Hazardous contaminants, such as nitrite and microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR), are released into water bodies during cyanobacterial blooms and may adversely influence the normal physiological function of hydrobiontes. The combined effects of nitrite and MC-LR on the antioxidant defense and innate immunity were evaluated through an orthogonal experimental design (nitrite: 0, 29, 290 μM; MC-LR: 0, 3, 30 nM). Remarkable increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels have suggested that nitrite and/or MC-LR exposures induce oxidative stress in fish spleen, which were indirectly confirmed by significant downregulations of total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), glutathione (GSH) contents, as well as transcriptional levels of antioxidant enzyme genes cat1, sod1 and gpx1a...
December 3, 2018: Toxins
Sreeja Sarasamma, Gilbert Audira, Stevhen Juniardi, Bonifasius Putera Sampurna, Yu-Heng Lai, Erwei Hao, Jung-Ren Chen, Chung-Der Hsiao
There is a growing concern for the potential toxicity of engineered nanomaterials that have made their way into virtually all novel applications in the electronics, healthcare, cosmetics, technology, and engineering industries, and in particular, biomedical products. However, the potential toxicity of carbon 60 (C60 ) at the behavioral level has not been properly evaluated. In this study, we used idTracker, a multitracking algorithm to quantitatively assess behavioral toxicity induced by C60 nanoparticles (C60 NPs) in adult zebrafish...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Magdalena Chełchowska, Jadwiga Ambroszkiewicz, Joanna Gajewska, Joanna Mazur, Leszek Lewandowski, Marzanna Reśko-Zachara, Tomasz M Maciejewski
Smoking tobacco can impair proper vascular endothelial functioning. This is exhibited through reduced nitric oxide synthesis as well as activity due to accompanying oxidative stress. We examined the relationship between nitric oxide and markers of oxidative stress/antioxidant defense in serum of smoking and non-smoking pregnant women. Subjects included 99 healthy pregnant women, who were tested for nitric oxide (NO), endothelial (eNOS) and inducible (iNOS) nitric oxide synthase, total oxidant capacity (TOC), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC)...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Mariano Rodriguez, Escolastico Aguilera-Tejero
The aim of this paper is to review current knowledge about the interactions of energy-dense diets and mineral metabolism in the context of chronic kidney disease⁻metabolic bone disease (CKD-MBD). Energy dense-diets promote obesity and type II diabetes, two well-known causes of CKD. Conversely, these diets may help to prevent weight loss, which is associated with increased mortality in advanced CKD patients. Recent evidence indicates that, in addition to its nephrotoxic potential, energy-dense food promotes changes in mineral metabolism that are clearly detrimental in the context of CKD-MBD, such as phosphorus (P) retention, increased concentrations of fibroblast growth factor 23, decreased levels of renal klotho, and reduction in circulating concentrations of calcitriol...
December 1, 2018: Nutrients
Abdulwahab Alamri, Abdulhadi S Burzangi, Paul Coats, David G Watson
Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a multi-factorial disease characterized by the hyperproliferation of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs). Excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation resulted in alterations of the structure and function of pulmonary arterial walls, leading to right ventricular failure and death. Diabetes mellitus has not yet been implicated in pulmonary hypertension. However, recently, variable studies have shown that diabetes is correlated with pulmonary hypertension pathobiology, which could participate in the modification of pulmonary artery muscles...
November 30, 2018: Metabolites
Yifan Jiang, Bonnie H Ownley, Feng Chen
Ricefield flatsedge ( Cyperus iria L.), a troublesome weed in rice production, actively adapts to ecological niches. In this study, terpenoids were identified as the dominant compounds from organic extracts of C. iria leaves. To understand the role of terpenoid production in plant development and resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, the dynamics of terpenoid production at different developmental stages, and the regulation of these compounds by stresses were determined. Terpenoid production exhibited temporal and spatial specificity...
November 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Yuji Kaneko, Julian P Tuazon, Xunming Ji, Cesario V Borlongan
BACKGROUND/AIMS: The endogenous neurotrophic peptides pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptides (PACAP-27/38) protect against stroke, but the molecular mechanism remains unknown. METHODS: Primary rat neural cells were exposed to PACAP-27 or PACAP-38 before induction of experimental acute ischemic stroke via oxygen-glucose deprivation-reperfusion (OGD/R) injury. To reveal PACAP's role in neuroprotection, we employed fluorescent live/dead cell viability and caspase 3 assays, optical densitometry of mitochondrial dehydrogenase and cell growth, glutathione disulfide luciferase activity, ELISA for high mobility group box1 extracellular concentration, ATP bioluminescence, Western blot analysis of PACAP, NMDA subunits, apoptosis regulator Bcl-2, social interaction hormone oxytocin, and trophic factor BDNF, and immunocytochemical analysis of PACAP...
December 4, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
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