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Hoda Anwar, Christos Sachpekidis, Matthias Schwarzbach, Antonia Dimitrakopoulou-Strauss
We report on a 27 years old female patient who was referred to our department for whole-body as well as dynamic positron emission tomography/computed tomography (dPET/CT) scan of the upper and middle abdomen with fluorine-18-fluorodeoxy glucose ((18)F-FDG), for further evaluation of a mass in the left adrenal gland region. Positron emission tomography showed a suspicious, enlarged, hypermetabolic mass with an average standardized uptake value (SUV) of 4.5 and a maximum SUV of 5.9. The patient was referred for biopsy, which revealed an angiomyolipoma, a perivascular epithelioid cell tumor (PEComa) of the adrenal gland...
May 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Stephen H Hare, Amanda J Harvey
The mTOR pathway was discovered in the late 1970s after the compound and natural inhibitor of mTOR, rapamycin was isolated from the bacterium Streptomyces hygroscopicus. mTOR is serine/threonine kinase belonging to the phosphoinositide 3-kinase related kinase (PIKK) family. It forms two distinct complexes; mTORC1 and mTORC2. mTORC1 has a key role in regulating protein synthesis and autophagy whilst mTORC2 is involved in regulating kinases of the AGC family. mTOR signaling is often over active in multiple cancer types including breast cancer...
2017: American Journal of Cancer Research
Steve Malangone, Christopher J Campen
A 60-year-old man initially presented with pain in the right upper quadrant in October 2010. A computed tomography (CT) scan of the abdomen pelvis completed at that time showed a mass at the junction of the body and tail of the pancreas and multiple large liver lesions. A CT-guided liver biopsy revealed low-grade neuroendocrine carcinoma. The patient was initially started on systemic treatment with sunitinib (Sutent) and octreotide. He developed intolerable side effects, including nausea and migraine. Therapy was discontinued in October 2011, when a CT scan revealed evidence of disease progression...
November 2015: Journal of the Advanced Practitioner in Oncology
Asona Lui, Jacob New, Joshua Ogony, Sufi Thomas, Joan Lewis-Wambi
BACKGROUND: mTOR inhibition of aromatase inhibitor (AI)-resistant breast cancer is currently under evaluation in the clinic. Everolimus/RAD001 (Afinitor®) has had limited efficacy as a solo agent but is projected to become part of combination therapy for AI-resistant breast cancer. This study was conducted to investigate the anti-proliferative and resistance mechanisms of everolimus in AI-resistant breast cancer cells. METHODS: In this study we utilized two AI-resistant breast cancer cell lines, MCF-7:5C and MCF-7:2A, which were clonally derived from estrogen receptor positive (ER+) MCF-7 breast cancer cells following long-term estrogen deprivation...
2016: BMC Cancer
Stéphane Oudard, Florence Joly, Lionnel Geoffrois, Brigitte Laguerre, Nadine Houede, Philippe Barthelemy, Marine Gross-Goupil, Yann Vano, Oliver Lucidarme, Francois Bidault, Nadia Kelkouli, Khemaies Slimane, Bernard Escudier
BACKGROUND: Real-world data of everolimus after vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR)-tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) are limited. PATIENTS AND METHODS: The retrospective, noninterventional SECTOR (SECond line with afiniTOR) study (N = 165) assessed outcomes of second-line everolimus after initial VEGFR-TKI (TKI-everolimus, n = 144) and of third-line VEGFR-TKI after everolimus (TKI-everolimus-TKI, n = 59) in patients with mRCC...
May 2, 2016: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
L V Spirina, E A Usynin, I V Kondakova, Z A Yurmazov, E M Slonimskaya
We analyzed the dynamics of the expression of transcription factors, VEGF and its receptor VEGFR2, serine-threonine protein kinase mTOR and activity of proteasome and calpain in patients with metastatic renal cancer during therapy with tyrosine kinase inhibitor Votrient and mTOR blocker Afinitor. The expression of hypoxic nuclear factor HIF-1α in the tumor tissue decreased during therapy with the target preparations. The decrease of VEGF and its receptor VEGFR2 was observed only in patients treated with mTOR inhibitor...
April 2016: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
A Rose Brannon, Melissa Frizziero, David Chen, Jennifer Hummel, Jorge Gallo, Markus Riester, Parul Patel, Wing Cheung, Michael Morrissey, Carmine Carbone, Silvia Cottini, Giampaolo Tortora, Davide Melisi
The mTORC1 inhibitor everolimus (Afinitor/RAD001) has been approved for multiple cancer indications, including ER(+)/HER2(-) metastatic breast cancer. However, the combination of everolimus with the dual PI3K/mTOR inhibitor BEZ235 was shown to be more efficacious than either everolimus or BEZ235 alone in preclinical models. Herein, we describe a male breast cancer (MBC) patient who was diagnosed with hormone receptor-positive (HR(+))/HER2(-) stage IIIA invasive ductal carcinoma and sequentially treated with chemoradiotherapy and hormonal therapy...
March 2016: Cold Spring Harbor Molecular Case Studies
Bartosz Szymanowski, Renata Duchnowska, Marek Bilski, Grażyna Łapińska, Beata Hryciuk, Grzegorz Kamiński, Cezary Szczylik
We are reporting a case of a 55-year-old woman who was diagnosed as having a non-functioning pancreatic neuroendocrine neoplasm (NF-PNEN), the World Health Organization (WHO) low grade (G1) with liver metastases. In the staging process the positron emission tomography - computed tomography with Fluorine-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose (F-FDG PET-CT) and spiral CT then the gallium-DOTA-octreotate positron emission tomography - computer tomography (⁶⁸Ga-DOTATATE PET-CT) shown difference in burden of disease. In first line therapy, everolimus (Afinitor®, Novartis Pharma GmbH, Germany) at the oral dose of 10 mg once daily and octreotide long-acting release (Sandostatin LAR®) 30 mg i...
2016: Nuclear Medicine Review. Central & Eastern Europe
Mélanie Pouget, Catherine Abrial, Eloise Planchat, Isabelle Van Praagh, Marie Arbre, Fabrice Kwiatkowski, Pascale Dubray-Longeras, Hervé Devaud, Joyce Dohou, Pauline Herviou, Hakim Mahammedi, Xavier Durando, Philippe Chollet, Marie-Ange Mouret-Reynier
BACKGROUND: Everolimus (Afinitor®) plus exemestane are indicated for hormone receptor-positive, HER2/neu-negative metastatic breast cancer (MBC), in menopausal women without symptomatic visceral disease after recurrence or progression following aromatase inhibitors. But everolimus efficacy as late treatment has not been explored. METHODS: Sixty-three MBC patients progressing under hormonotherapy (HT; n = 30) or after chemotherapy (CT; n = 32) received everolimus plus HT (EHT) and were analyzed for safety, efficacy and overall survival (OS)...
2015: Oncology
Avital Nahmias, Simona Grozinsky-Glasberg, Asher Salmon, David J Gross
UNLABELLED: Approximately 35% of the pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) are functional, the most common of which is an insulinoma. Rarely can initially nonfunctioning tumor undergo biological transformation to a hormone-secreting tumor with subsequent changes in the clinical picture. We present here three unique patients with long-standing pNETs who developed life-threatening hyperinsulinemic hypoglycemia along with tumor progression. In two of the patients, everolimus (Afinitor) was administered in an attempt to control both tumor growth and hypoglycemia...
2015: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
G Jerusalem, A Rorive, J Collignon
Sequential endocrine treatments are recommended for estrogen receptor (ER) positive human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER 2) negative metastatic breast cancers except in the case of symptomatic visceral disease. However, patients who suffer from disease progression while receiving a non-steroidal aromatase inhibitor (NSAI) have a very poor prognosis with standard endocrine therapy alone. Recently, based onthe results of the BOLERO 2 trial, the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus, combined with exemestane, a steroidal aromatase inhibitor, has been approved in Europe and the US for patients suffering from ER positive HER2 negative advanced breast cancer previously treated by a NSAI...
September 2014: Revue Médicale de Liège
Sara A Hurvitz, Ondrej Kalous, Dylan Conklin, Amrita J Desai, Judy Dering, Lee Anderson, Neil A O'Brien, Teodora Kolarova, Richard S Finn, Ronald Linnartz, David Chen, Dennis J Slamon
Everolimus (RAD001, Afinitor(®)) is an oral, selective mTOR inhibitor recently approved by the US-FDA in combination with exemestane for treatment of hormone receptor positive advanced breast cancer. To date, no molecular predictors of response to everolimus in breast cancer have been identified. We hypothesized predictive markers could be identified using preclinical models. Using a molecularly characterized panel of human breast cancer and immortalized breast epithelial cell lines, we determined sensitivity to everolimus alone or in combination with ER- or HER2- targeted therapy...
February 2015: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Wael A Harb
Endocrine therapy is an important treatment option for women with hormone receptor-positive (HR+) advanced breast cancer (ABC), yet many tumors are either intrinsically resistant or develop resistance to these therapies. Treatment of patients with ABC presenting with visceral metastases, which is associated with a poor prognosis, is also problematic. There is an unmet need for effective treatments for this patient population. Although chemotherapy is commonly perceived to be more effective than endocrine therapy in managing visceral metastases, patients who are not in visceral crisis might benefit from endocrine therapy, avoiding chemotherapy-associated toxicities that might affect quality of life...
2015: Cancer Management and Research
Antoine Thiery-Vuillemin, Christine Theodore, Lutz Jacobasch, Jörg Schmitz, Christos Papandreou, Aline Guillot, Christos Emmanouilides, Khemaies Slimane, Nadia Kelkouli, Stefano Kim, Thierry Nguyen Tan Hon
BACKGROUND: Everolimus is a mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor. It gained approval based on the results of the RECORD-1 (Regulation of Coagulation in Orthopedic Surgery to Prevent Deep Venous Thrombosis and Pulmonary Embolism 1) trial, which included patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) whose disease progressed after receiving vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs). Bevacizumab is a monoclonal antibody targeting angiogenesis that is approved in patients with mRCC...
June 2015: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Eleni-Marina Kalogirou, Konstantinos I Tosios, Evangelia P Piperi, Alexandra Sklavounou
Mammalian targets of rapamycin inhibitors (mTOR inhibitors, mTORI) are indicated for the management of several cancer types, including hormone receptor--positive or HER2-negative breast cancer, advanced renal cell carcinoma, advanced neuroendocrine tumors of pancreatic origin, and tuberous sclerosis complex-related tumors. Among the most common adverse events of mTORI medication are discrete, large, solitary or multiple, superficial ulcers, almost exclusively situated on nonkeratinized oral mucosa, described as mTORI-associated stomatitis (mIAS)...
January 2015: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
Adeline Egron, Pascale Olivier-Abbal, Aurore Gouraud, Samy Babai, Sandrine Combret, Jean-Louis Montastruc, Emmanuelle Bondon-Guitton
Antineoplastic drugs are one of the pharmacological classes more frequently involved in occurrence of "serious" adverse drug reactions. However, few epidemiological data are available regarding the preventability of adverse drug reactions with ambulatory cancer chemotherapy. We assessed the rate and characteristics of "preventable" or "potentially preventable" "serious" adverse drug reactions induced by oral protein kinase inhibitors (PKIs). We performed a retrospective study with all "serious" adverse drug reactions (ADRs) recorded from 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2009 in the French Pharmacovigilance Database with the eight oral protein kinase inhibitors marketed in France: sorafenib, imatinib, erlotinib, sunitinib, dasatinib, lapatinib, nilotinib and everolimus (Afinitor®) using the French adverse drug reactions preventability scale...
June 2015: Targeted Oncology
Sun Woo Jang, Myung Joo Kang
The aim of this study was to improve the physicochemical properties and oral absorption of poorly water-soluble everolimus via preparation of a solid dispersion (SD) system using a solvent wetting (SW) technique. The physicochemical properties, drug release profile, and bioavailability of SD prepared by SW process were also compared to SD prepared by the conventional co-precipitation method. Solid state characterizations using scanning electron microscopy, particle size analysis and X-ray powder diffraction indicated that drug homogeneously dispersed and existed in an amorphous state within the intact polymeric carrier...
October 1, 2014: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Anand Rajpara, Ana Liolios, Garth Fraga, Joseph Blackmon
A 58-year-old man with a history of hyperlipidemia and hypertension presented to the dermatology clinic with a 3-month history of a sudden onset, progressively worsening pruritic eruption involving the torso and extremities. Prior treatment included azithromycin and oral and intramuscular steroids, without improvement. Laboratory results demonstrated a serum eosinophil count of 7x10(3)/uL (normal 0-4). A 4-mm punch biopsy of the plaque on the patient's left thigh revealed a diffuse dermatitis with innumerable eosinophils with formation of "flame figures...
June 2014: Dermatology Online Journal
Jens Hasskarl
Everolimus (RAD001, Afinitor®) is an oral protein kinase inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) serine/threonine kinase signal transduction pathway. The mTOR pathway regulates cell growth, proliferation, and survival and is frequently deregulated in cancer. Everolimus has been approved by the FDA and the EMA for the treatment of advanced renal cell carcinoma (RCC), subependymal giant cell astrocytoma (SEGA) associated with tuberous sclerosis (TSC), pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNET), in combination with exemestane in advanced hormone-receptor (HR)-positive, HER2-negative breast cancer...
2014: Recent Results in Cancer Research
Seng Chuan Tang, Rolf W Sparidans, Ka Lei Cheung, Tatsuki Fukami, Selvi Durmus, Els Wagenaar, Tsuyoshi Yokoi, Bart J M van Vlijmen, Jos H Beijnen, Alfred H Schinkel
PURPOSE: To clarify the role of ABCB1, ABCG2, and CYP3A in blood and brain exposure of everolimus using knockout mouse models. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We used wild-type, Abcb1a/1b(-/-), Abcg2(-/-), Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-), and Cyp3a(-/-) mice to study everolimus oral bioavailability and brain accumulation. RESULTS: Following everolimus administration, brain concentrations and brain-to-liver ratios were substantially increased in Abcb1a/1b(-/-)and Abcb1a/1b;Abcg2(-/-), but not Abcg2(-/-)mice...
June 15, 2014: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
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