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K Piszcz-Karaś, M Klein, J Hupka, J Łuczak
The development of technologies for unconventional hydrocarbon exploration requires designing procedures to manage drilling waste that are consistent with the waste management hierarchy. In view of this, the possibility to apply shale drill cuttings as a prospective additive (replacing bentonite) to fly ash used for the production of lightweight aggregates (LWAs) was investigated. Moreover, a facile, waste-free method of LWAs production with using shales was proposed. Cuttings were characterized in terms of their mineralogical and elemental composition (XRD and XRF) as well as thermophysical behavior (TG-DTA and fusibility test)...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Romina Sanci, Héctor Osvaldo Panarello
Subsoil CH4 and CO2 concentrations, δ13 C-CH4 and δ13 C-CO2 signatures, total organic carbon (TOC) and δ13 C-TOC, together with C/N ratio of organic matter, were evaluated throughout a soil profile up to the atmosphere to understand the dynamics of CH4 and CO2 in the waterlogged environment of an island of the Lower Delta of the Paraná River, Argentina. The analysis of the vertical profile showed that a significant fraction of CH4 exists as gas trapped within the sediment column, compared to CH4 dissolved in soil solution...
October 18, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Andrew N Thomas, Robert A Root, R Clark Lantz, A Eduardo Sáez, Jon Chorover
Environmental contamination from legacy mine-waste deposits is a persistent problem due to the long history of hard-rock mining. Sulfide ore deposits can contain elevated levels of toxic metal(loid)s that, when mobilized by weathering upon O2 and H2 O infusion, can result in groundwater contamination. Dry-climate and lack of vegetative cover result in near-surface pedogenic processes that produce fine-particulate secondary minerals that can be translocated as geo-dusts leading to ingestion or inhalation exposure in nearby communities...
April 2018: GeoHealth
Meiling Yin, Jing Sun, Yongheng Chen, Jin Wang, Jianying Shang, Nick Belshaw, ChuanChou Shen, Juan Liu, Huosheng Li, Wensheng Linghu, Tangfu Xiao, Xinjiao Dong, Gang Song, Enzong Xiao, Diyun Chen
To date, there is not sufficient knowledge to fully understand the occurrence, transport and fate of residual uranium (U) from uranium mill tailings (UMT). Herein this study investigated different U release behaviors from natural UMT (without grinding) under four simulated acid rain (pH = 2.0-5.0) compared with controlled scenario (pH = 6.0) for 25 weeks. The results showed that the most notable U release was observed from UMTpH2.0 , followed by UMTpH3.0 whereas a nonlinear relationship between pH and U release was observed from UMTpH4...
October 9, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Abigail C Allwood, Minik T Rosing, David T Flannery, Joel A Hurowitz, Christopher M Heirwegh
The Palaeoarchean supracrustal belts in Greenland contain Earth's oldest rocks and are a prime target in the search for the earliest evidence of life on Earth. However, metamorphism has largely obliterated original rock textures and compositions, posing a challenge to the preservation of biological signatures. A recent study of 3,700-million-year-old rocks of the Isua supracrustal belt in Greenland described a rare zone in which low deformation and a closed metamorphic system allowed preservation of primary sedimentary features, including putative conical and domical stromatolites1 (laminated accretionary structures formed by microbially mediated sedimentation)...
October 17, 2018: Nature
Stefania Milano, Gernot Nehrke
Mollusk shells represent important archives for paleoclimatic studies aiming to reconstruct environmental conditions at high temporal resolution. However, the shells, made of calcium carbonate in the form of aragonite and /or calcite, can be altered through time which may undermine the suitability for any reconstruction based on geochemical proxies (i.e., stable isotopes, radiocarbon). At present, the diagenetic processes involved in this chemical and physical deterioration are still poorly understood. The present study aims to shed light on the onset and development of diagenetic alteration in the aragonitic shell of Phorcus turbinatus...
2018: PloS One
G Bacchetta, M E Boi, G Cappai, G De Giudici, M Piredda, M Porceddu
Sardinia was known as an important mine pole in Europe during his history. Still after decades from mine closure, 75.000.000 m3 of mine waste, rich in heavy metals, were left abandoned causing a huge environmental legacy on the mine district area. Consequently, cost effective remediation is required. In this frame, phytoremediation is considered a feasible candidate. This research was focused on Helichrysum microphyllum subsp. tyrrhenicum, which is pioneer in xeric soils with low-functions, like mine tailings...
October 11, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
Yamei Li, Norio Kitadai, Ryuhei Nakamura
Prebiotic organic synthesis catalyzed by Earth-abundant metal sulfides is a key process for understanding the evolution of biochemistry from inorganic molecules, yet the catalytic functions of sulfides have remained poorly explored in the context of the origin of life. Past studies on prebiotic chemistry have mostly focused on a few types of metal sulfide catalysts, such as FeS or NiS, which form limited types of products with inferior activity and selectivity. To explore the potential of metal sulfides on catalyzing prebiotic chemical reactions, here, the chemical diversity (variations in chemical composition and phase structure) of 304 natural metal sulfide minerals in a mineralogy database was surveyed...
October 10, 2018: Life
Tom Lewis, Luke Verstraten, Bruce Hogg, Bernhard J Wehr, Scott Swift, Neil Tindale, Neal W Menzies, Ram C Dalal, Philippa Bryant, Ben Francis, Timothy E Smith
Tropical regions of the world experience high rates of land-use change and this has a major influence on terrestrial carbon (C) pools and the global C cycle. We assessed land-use change from agriculture to reforested plantings (with endemic species), up to 33 years of age, using 10 paired sites in the wet tropics, Australia. We determined the impacts on 0-50 cm below-ground C (soil organic C (SOC), charcoal C, humic organic C, particulate organic C, resistant organic C), C stored in roots (fine and coarse), C stored in living above-ground biomass and debris C pools...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Radhouan El Zrelli, Lotfi Rabaoui, Heithem Abda, Nabil Daghbouj, Rafael Pérez-López, Sylvie Castet, Thierry Aigouy, Nejla Bejaoui, Pierre Courjault-Radé
The Gabes Gulf had received huge quantities of phosphogypsum discharged from fertilizer plants. Dumping phosphogypsum in coastal waters leads to the formation of foam layers which can float on the surface and be passively transported to distant areas. This is the first attempt at geochemical and mineralogical characterization of these industrial foams in order to understand their role in the dynamic and behavior of contaminants in marine environment. Chemically, phosphogypsum foams (PGFs) are heavily loaded with radiochemical contaminants...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Satish Kumar, Jashanpreet Singh, S K Mohapatra
In this paper, the effect of particle size on the physico-chemical, mineralogical, and leaching behavior of Indian fly ash was studied. Experiments were carried out to study the leaching of different elements such as Mg, Cr, Zn, Pb, Mn, Fe, Cu, Co, Mo, and Ni from Indian fly ash. During the experiments, the liquid-to-solid (L/S) ratio of the fly ash was taken as 9/1, 8/2, 7/3, 3/2, 1/1, and 2/3. The effect of four different particle size ranges (below 53, 53-75, 75-106, and 106-150 μm) of fly ash was analyzed...
October 11, 2018: Waste Management & Research
Artem R Oganov
Long thought to be impossible, crystal structure prediction (CSP) is a thriving field today, with many important discoveries in fields as diverse as computational materials discovery, drug design, high-pressure chemistry and mineralogy of the Earth's and planetary interiors. However, major challenges remain, warranting more research. In these Concluding Remarks, I try to summarize my personal view of the enormous progress made in the field of CSP and the open questions and challenges that keep this field more exciting than ever...
October 11, 2018: Faraday Discussions
Orkun Furat, Thomas Leißner, Ralf Ditscherlein, Ondřej Šedivý, Matthias Weber, Kai Bachmann, Jens Gutzmer, Urs Peuker, Volker Schmidt
In this paper, three-dimensional (3D) image data of ore particle systems is investigated. By combining X-ray microtomography with scanning electron microscope (SEM)-based image analysis, additional information about the mineralogical composition from certain planar sections can be gained. For the analysis of tomographic images of particle systems the extraction of single particles is essential. This is performed with a marker-based watershed algorithm and a post-processing step utilizing a neural network to reduce oversegmentation...
October 2018: Microscopy and Microanalysis
Keyvan Amjadian, Mohammad Pirouei, Meisam Rastegari Mehr, Ata Shakeri, Shakhawan Khurshid Rasool, Dlband Ibrahim Haji
Street dusts contamination by heavy metals (HMs) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), their mineralogical and morphological properties were investigated in Erbil metropolis. A total of 43 soil and street dust samples were collected and analyzed, and SPSS, ImageJ, X-powder and positive matrix factorization (PMF) software were used for data analyzing. Results showed the role of geology in mineralogical status of dusts. Based on ImageJ software processing, dust particles with diameters below 10 μm and low circularity and roundness were dominant...
September 28, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jennifer H Strehlau, Matthew J Berens, William A Arnold
Hexahydro-1,3,5-trinitro-1,3,5-triazine (RDX) is known to undergo reduction mediated by ferrous iron in the presence of minerals, including magnetite. Idealized laboratory conditions may not provide representative reaction kinetics or pathways compared to field conditions. The effects of magnetite mineral morphology, the aquifer material matrix, the presence of aqueous Fe(II), and the buffer identity on RDX reduction kinetics and intermediate formation are investigated in this work. Reactions in bicarbonate buffer were substantially slower than those performed in 3-(N-morpholino)propanesulfonic acid (MOPS) buffer, and the presence of quartz and clays in magnetite-containing aquifer material resulted in slower reaction kinetics and production of additional iron oxide phases...
December 2018: Chemosphere
Mickey E Gunter
When considering elongate mineral particles (EMPs) in the natural environment it is important to first: 1) define what an elongate mineral is and 2) present what we as mineralogists and geologists know about their distribution. However, it is often very difficult to define the natural world, instead we physical scientists resort to describing it. For instance, we used 1,419 words spread over two pages of our mineralogy textbook (Dyar and Gunter, 2008) to describe a mineral. On the other hand, elongate has a rather simple non-quantitative definition as a particle longer than it is wide; however, to quantify it, we must select an aspect ratio...
October 4, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
Leyla Jahanban, Eisa Ebrahimi, Salahedin Moradi, Mahboobeh Fallah, Leyla Geiratie Arani, Reza Mohajer
Soil specific surface area (SSA) is an important property of soil. Depending on the measurement techniques, determination of the SSA is costly and time consuming. Hence, a limited number of studies have been conducted to predict the SSA from the soil variables. In this study, the soil samples were taken from the literature. Fractal parameters (FP) were calculated by the model of Bird et al. (European Journal of Soil Science 51, 55-63, 2000) used as the input variables to predict the SSA. Some studies have been carried out on the prediction capability of the different parameters using the artificial neural networks (ANNs)...
September 27, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Abhijit Mukherjee, Alan E Fryar, Emily M Eastridge, Rachel S Nally, Madhumita Chakraborty, Bridget R Scanlon
Understanding the controls on spatial variability of groundwater arsenic (As) is critical for mitigating As contamination. The objective of this study is to determine controls on previously unexplained differences in groundwater As concentrations, which are high along the east bank and low along the west bank of the River Bhagirathi-Hoogly (B-H), the primary Indian distributary of the River Ganges, on the western margin of the Bengal basin. A total of 54 wells were sampled after the monsoon season at four sites (two each east and west of the B-H) in Murshidabad district, West Bengal, for field parameters, major and minor solutes, and stable isotopes of water...
December 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
G Ratié, D Vantelon, E Lotfi Kalahroodi, I Bihannic, A C Pierson-Wickmann, M Davranche
Fe oxyhydroxides in riverbanks and their high binding capacity can be used to hypothesize that riverbanks may act as a "biogeochemical filter" between wetlands and rivers and may constitute a major mechanism in the trapping and flux regulation of chemical elements. Until now, the properties of Fe minerals have been very poorly described in riverbanks. The goals of the present work are to identify Fe speciation in riverbanks where ferric deposits are observed and to determine their impact on the metal behavior (As, Co, Cu, Ni, Pb, Zn, etc...
September 11, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Bradley G Erskine
This paper presents a geologic and mineralogical investigation of asbestiform amphibole from blueschist in the Diablo Range, northern California. The analysis of fibers in air samples shows that the dominant blueschist amphibole composition ranges from glaucophane to winchite. In outcrop, blueschist amphibole exhibits a velvety luster, and its occurrence ranges from crosscutting veins to highly deformed foliated and lineated tectonites. TEM and SEM photographs reveal a highly fibrous habit typically associated with asbestiform amphiboles...
September 18, 2018: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
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