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Muhammed A P Manzoor, Balwant Singh, Ashish K Agrawal, Ananthapadmanabha Bhagwath Arun, M Mujeeburahiman, Punchappady-Devasya Rekha
Pathological biomineralization in the urinary system leads to urolithiasis. Formation of kidney stones involves a series of events during which they undergo morphological and mineralogical changes. We investigated the mineralization of biogenic struvite (in vitro) and examined the transformation of distinct interior and exterior structure of struvite. In vitro crystallization of struvite was performed in the presence of two bacteria that were originally isolated from the kidney stone patients. Morphological evaluation was carried out using SR-μCT as well as FESEM, XRD and FT-IR...
2018: PloS One
Pablo Sobron, Alian Wang, David P Mayer, Jennifer Bentz, Fanjing Kong, Mianping Zheng
We report the first multiscale, systematic field-based testing of correlations between orbital scale advanced spaceborne thermal emission and reflection radiometer visible near-infrared (VNIR)/shortwave infrared (SWIR) reflectance and thermal infrared relative emissivity and outcrop scale Raman spectroscopy, VNIR reflectance, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) mineralogy and chemistry in a saline dry lakebed. This article is one of three reports describing the evolution of salt deposits, meteorological record, and surface and subsurface salt mineralogy in Dalangtan, Qaidam Basin, a hyperarid region of the Tibet Plateau, China, as potential environmental, mineralogical, and biogeochemical analogues to Mars...
August 10, 2018: Astrobiology
Brent DeVetter, Tanya L Myers, Bret D Cannon, Nicole K Scharko, Molly Rose K Kelly-Gorham, Jordan F Corbey, Alan L Schemer-Kohrn, Charles Tom Resch, Dallas D Reilly, Timothy J Johnson
Uranium dioxide (UO2) is a material with historical and emerging applications in numerous areas such as photonics, nuclear energy, and aerospace electronics. While often grown synthetically as single-crystal UO2, the mineralogical form of UO2 called uraninite is of interest as a precursor to various chemical processes involving uranium-bearing chemicals. Here, we investigate the optical and chemical properties of a series of three UO2 specimens: synthetic single-crystal UO2, uraninite ore of relatively high purity, and massive uraninite mineral containing numerous impurities...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Pham Nhu Sang, Zhifei Liu, Yulong Zhao, Xixi Zhao, Phan Dong Pha, Hoang Van Long
Clay mineralogy and major-element geochemistry of Miocene sedimentary rock and modern river sediment samples collected from the Ba River basin in central Vietnam are used to evaluate the chemical weathering processes during the Miocene and the present time. The results show that Miocene andesitic sedimentary rocks consist of high smectite (average 72%) with moderate kaolinite (24%), while Miocene felsic sedimentary rocks display abundant kaolinite (65%) with moderate smectite (25%). In comparison, modern river sediments are characterized by moderate smectite (43%) and kaolinite (37%)...
July 2018: Heliyon
Kasparas Spokas, Catherine A Peters, Laura Pyrak-Nolte
Fractures present environmental risks for subsurface engineering activities, such as geologic storage of greenhouse gases, because of the possibility of unwanted upward fluid migration. The risks of fluid leakage may be exacerbated if fractures are subjected to physical and chemical perturbations that alter their geometry. This study investigated this by constructing a 2D fracture model to numerically simulate fluid flow, acid-driven reactions, and mechanical deformation. Three rock mineralogies were simulated: a limestone with 100% calcite, a limestone with 68% calcite, and a banded shale with 34% calcite...
August 9, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Hannah G Mikkonen, Robert van de Graaff, Antti T Mikkonen, Bradley O Clarke, Raghava Dasika, Christian J Wallis, Suzie M Reichman
Excess exposure to fluoride causes substantive health burden in humans and livestock globally. However, few studies have assessed the distribution and controls of variability of ambient background concentrations of fluoride in soil. Ambient background concentrations of fluoride in soil were collated for Greater Melbourne, Greater Geelong, Ballarat and Mitchell in Victoria, Australia (n = 1005). Correlation analysis and machine learning techniques were used to identify environmental and anthropogenic influences of fluoride variability in soil...
July 25, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Jeffry Tahtouh, Rabi Mohtar, Amjad Assi, Paul Schwab, Anish Jantrania, Youjun Deng, Clyde Munster
The long-term effect of using treated wastewater is not clearly defined: some researchers argue that it is better than freshwater for the soil health; others disapprove, claiming that irrigation with unconventional water resources causes soil degradation. This study assesses the impact of irrigation with non-traditional water on the chemical and mineralogical properties of a calcareous clayey soil from West Texas. The exponential rise in population and the realities of climate change contribute to the global increase in freshwater scarcity: non-conventional water sources, such as treated wastewater (TWW) and brackish groundwater (BGW), offer potentially attractive alternative water resources for irrigated agriculture...
July 20, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Biao Fu, Guijian Liu, Mei Sun, James C Hower, Md Manik Mian, Dun Wu, Ruwei Wang, Guangqing Hu
Emission of hazardous trace elements (HTEs) from energy production is receiving much attention due to concerns about the toxicity to the ecosystem and human health. This study presented new field measurement data on the HTEs partitioning behavior and size-segregated elemental compositions of gaseous particular matter (PM) generated from a commercial circulating fluidized bed (CFB) power plant. Mineralogical and morphological characteristics of combustion ash and PM2.5 (particle diameter less than 2.5 μm) were determined by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM/EDS)...
July 20, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Dimitrios Papoulis, Olga Tzortzakaki, Pavlos Avramidis, Panagiotis Mentis, Paraskevi Lampropoulou, George Iliopoulos
Many hirundine species construct their nests by carrying mud particles from adjacent areas. This study aimed to investigate for the first time the materials that mud-nesting hirundines choose for nest construction from a mineralogical and sedimentological perspective. For this purpose, we sampled nests of three sympatric species, namely the Barn Swallow (Hirundo rustica), the Red-rumped Swallow (Cecropis daurica) and the House Martin (Delichon urbicum), from southeastern Europe. Our results showed that all species tend to use clay minerals as a cement and especially smectite and illite and if these minerals are not present in the adjacent area, they use halloysite, kaolinite or chlorite...
July 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ikechukwu A Ike, Mikel Duke
Due to the widespread application of persulphate (PS) for in-situ chemical oxidation (ISCO), the PS activating role of naturally occurring minerals, such as iron oxides, has been the subject of a number of studies. However, major discrepancies remain as to the effectiveness, mode, and factors that influence iron oxides activation of PS. In this study, an attempt has been made to bridge this important knowledge gaps by a systematic study of PS activation, measured by orange G degradation, using commercial and self-synthesised magnetite, maghemite, and haematite particles...
August 2018: Journal of Contaminant Hydrology
David R Thompson, Alberto Candela, David S Wettergreen, Eldar Noe Dobrea, Gregg A Swayze, Roger N Clark, Rebecca Greenberger
Ancient hydrothermal systems are a high-priority target for a future Mars sample return mission because they contain energy sources for microbes and can preserve organic materials (Farmer, 2000 ; MEPAG Next Decade Science Analysis Group, 2008 ; McLennan et al., 2012 ; Michalski et al., 2017 ). Characterizing these large, heterogeneous systems with a remote explorer is difficult due to communications bandwidth and latency; such a mission will require significant advances in spacecraft autonomy. Science autonomy uses intelligent sensor platforms that analyze data in real-time, setting measurement and downlink priorities to provide the best information toward investigation goals...
July 2018: Astrobiology
Laura Parisi, Ana M G Ferreira, Jeroen Ritsema
Observations of shear wave anisotropy are key for understanding the mineralogical structure and flow in the mantle. Several researchers have reported the presence of seismic anisotropy in the lowermost 150-250 km of the mantle (i.e., D <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msup> <mml:mrow/> <mml:mrow> <mml:mi>''</mml:mi> </mml:mrow> </mml:msup> </mml:math> layer), based on differences in the arrival times of vertically ( S V ) and horizontally ( S H ) polarized shear waves...
May 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Solid Earth
S McMahon, T Bosak, J P Grotzinger, R E Milliken, R E Summons, M Daye, S A Newman, A Fraeman, K H Williford, D E G Briggs
The Martian surface is cold, dry, exposed to biologically harmful radiation and apparently barren today. Nevertheless, there is clear geological evidence for warmer, wetter intervals in the past that could have supported life at or near the surface. This evidence has motivated National Aeronautics and Space Administration and European Space Agency to prioritize the search for any remains or traces of organisms from early Mars in forthcoming missions. Informed by (1) stratigraphic, mineralogical and geochemical data collected by previous and current missions, (2) Earth's fossil record, and (3) experimental studies of organic decay and preservation, we here consider whether, how, and where fossils and isotopic biosignatures could have been preserved in the depositional environments and mineralizing media thought to have been present in habitable settings on early Mars...
May 2018: Journal of Geophysical Research. Planets
Sophie J McCoy, Nicholas A Kamenos
In macroalgal-dominated systems, herbivory is a major driver in controlling ecosystem structure. However, the role of altered plant-herbivore interactions and effects of changes to trophic control under global change are poorly understood. This is because both macroalgae and grazers themselves may be affected by global change, making changes in plant-herbivore interactions hard to predict. Coralline algae lay down a calcium carbonate skeleton, which serves as protection from grazing and is preserved in archival samples...
July 20, 2018: Global Change Biology
Kirrilly S Pfitzner, Andrew J Harford, Timothy G Whiteside, Renee E Bartolo
Managing saline water discharges from mining operations is a global environmental challenge. Measuring the location and extent of surface efflorescence can indicate solute movement before changes in electrical conductivity (EC) are detected in waterways. We hypothesised through the use of a case study that ground-based reflectance spectrometry and airborne hyperspectral (450-2500 nm) analysis of surface efflorescence could be a rapid method for monitoring large regions of the surrounding environment, including downstream of remote mines...
November 1, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Yuxue Liu, Linson Lonappan, Satinder Kaur Brar, Shengmao Yang
Extensive and inefficient use of pesticides over the last several decades resulted in serious soil and water contamination by imposing severe toxic effects on living organisms. Soil remediation using environment-friendly amendments to counteract the presence of pesticides in soil seems to be one suitable approach to solve this problem. Biochar has emerged as a promising material for adsorbing and thus decreasing the bioavailability of pesticides in polluted soils, due to its high porosity, surface area, pH, abundant functional groups, and highly aromatic structure, mainly depending on the feedstock and pyrolysis temperature...
July 13, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Raffaello Cossu, Livia Emanuela Zuffianò, Pier Paolo Limoni, Giorgio De Giorgio, Paola Pizzardini, Teodoro Miano, Donato Mondelli, Roberto Garavaglia, Carmine Carella, Maurizio Polemio
Where the unique natural water resource is groundwater, the attention and the susceptibility of local communities and authorities to groundwater quality degradation risks can be so high to determine relevant problems to waste management, especially for landfills in operation or to be realised. A multi-methodological approach was suggested with the purpose to clarify the role of landfill leakage on groundwater quality degradation. The selected study area (SSA) hosts some landfills in a narrow portion of a wide and deep coastal karstic aquifer, for these characteristics to be considered a case of high hydrogeological complexity and vulnerability...
July 2018: Waste Management
Isela Roque-Álvarez, Fabiola S Sosa-Rodríguez, Jorge Vazquez-Arenas, Miguel A Escobedo-Bretado, Israel Labastida, José Javier Corral-Rivas, Antonio Aragón-Piña, Ma Aurora Armienta, Patricia Ponce-Peña, René H Lara
A geochemical-environmental mapping was carried for a low polluted forest in North-western Mexico (Santiago Papasquiaro mining area), as part of the North American forests accounting for environmental behavior of arsenic (As), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn) and copper (Cu) in soil and tree components (stem wood and aciculums). Spectroscopic and microscopic techniques along with standard protocols were used to determine the mineralogical phases containing these elements, and their corresponding spatial distributions in soil and forests and mobility...
July 2, 2018: Chemosphere
Anna V Ivanina, Ballav M Borah, Angela Vogts, Ifra Malik, Jingyao Wu, Adam R Chin, Alejandro J Almarza, Prashant Kumta, Helen Piontkivska, Elia Beniash, Inna M Sokolova
Species of Ostreidae family are key ecosystem engineers and many of them (including Crassostrea gigas and C. virginica ) are commercially important aquaculture species. Despite similarities in their morphology and ecology, these two species differ in their ability to defend against pathogens potentially reflecting species-specific differential specialization of hemocytes on immune defense vs. biomineralization. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the expression levels of immune and biomineralization-related genes as well as mineralogical and mechanical properties of the shells and the calcium sequestration ability of the hemocytes of C...
July 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Jennifer Ronholm, Jacqueline Goordial, Haley M Sapers, Matthew R M Izawa, Daniel M Applin, Alexandra Pontefract, Christopher R Omelon, Guillaume Lamarche-Gagnon, Edward A Cloutis, Lyle G Whyte
The microbial ecology and activity of serpentine deposits and associated hydrated minerals are largely unknown. Previous research has largely focused on microbial communities in active serpentinizing systems, whereas relatively little research has demonstrated the ability of serpentine deposits to host microbial communities after the cessation of serpentinization. Given the potential role of serpentinization reactions fueling primitive microbial metabolisms on early Earth and the identification of serpentine deposits on Mars, knowledge of these geobiological relationships and potential for serpentine to host extant microbial communities and preserve biosignatures is increasingly important for planetary exploration seeking signs of life...
July 10, 2018: Astrobiology
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