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Sara K Blaine, Nisheet Nautiyal, Rachel Hart, J B Guarnaccia, Rajita Sinha
Alcohol use disorders are associated with high craving and disruption of stress biology, but their role in behavioral alcohol motivation is less clear. We examined the effects of craving and cortisol responses on behavioral alcohol motivation to stress, alcohol cue and neutral-relaxing context cues, in addition to discrete alcohol cues, in demographically matched binge/heavy (BH) and moderate (MD) social drinkers. Subjects participated in a 3-day laboratory experiment of provocation by three personalized guided imagery contexts and discrete alcohol cues followed by the 'alcohol taste test' (ATT) to assess behavioral motivation, as measured by ATT intake...
August 9, 2018: Addiction Biology
Jianyun Zhang, Feng Liu, Shanshan Chen, Changduk Yang, Xiaozhang Zhu, Daoben Zhu
Side chains of photovoltaic materials play an important role in determining charge transport property, film morphology, and the corresponding device performance. In this work, two new acceptor materials, ATT-6 and ATT-7 with different side chains, m-hexylphenyl and m-hexyloxyphenyl on the indacenodithiophene, are designed and synthesized for applications in non-fullerene polymer solar cells. ATT-7 shows a higher absorption coefficient, increased crystallinity, and improved electron mobility in comparison with ATT-6...
August 8, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
Ratinder Jhaj, Shweta Sharma, Mohammed Sabir, Arun Kokane
Introduction: Altered pharmacokinetics of antituberculosis (anti-TB) drugs due to interaction with non-TB medications or concomitant diseases may lead to suboptimal plasma levels of the affected drugs and hence contribute to the emergence of drug resistance in mycobacteria. Yet, few studies have investigated the prevalence of concomitant drug intake or concurrent diseases in patients on anti-TB therapy (ATT). The objective of this study is to study the prevalence of concomitant diseases and intake of non-TB drugs in patients on ATT...
March 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Ahmed Ali, Walid H Kilany, Mohamed A Zain El-Abideen, Magdy El Sayed, Magdy Elkady
Vaccination programs against infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) in Egypt depend on both classical and/or imported variant IBV strain vaccines. However, many IBV outbreaks associated with respiratory distress, nephropathy, and high mortalities were attributed to the circulation of both classical and new nephropathogenic IBV variant 2 strains. In the present study, we report the development of attenuated IBV candidate vaccines using the classic IBV strains (IBM41 and IB2) and a nephropathogenic strain (IBvar2)...
August 6, 2018: Poultry Science
Kyung Rae Ko, Won-Young Lee, Hyobeom Lee, Hee Seol Park, Ki-Sun Sung
PURPOSE: To compare the surgical outcomes of the two different ankle stabilization techniques. METHODS: This randomized controlled trial aimed to compare the outcomes of the modified Broström procedure with [calcaneofibular ligament (CFL) group] or without CFL repair [anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) only group]. Of the 50 patients randomly assigned to two groups, 43 were followed up prospectively for ≥ 2 years (CFL group: 22 patients, 36.6 ± 13.1 months; ATFL Only group: 21 patients, 35...
August 6, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Kazuo Miyazawa, Yan-Guang Li, Wafa A Rashed, Wael Al Mahmeed, Abdullah Shehab, Mohammad Zubaid, Gregory Y H Lip
BACKGROUND: Anticoagulation therapy in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) is well established as effective thromboprophylaxis. However, AF patients with prior stroke are often treated with suboptimal antithrombotic treatment (ATT). In the present study, we investigated clinical characteristics and outcomes in AF patients with versus without prior stoke, in relation to guideline adherence in ATT. METHODS: We used data from the Gulf SAFE registry, which included patients with AF who presented to hospitals in Gulf countries of the Middle East...
July 24, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Tuuli Turja, Lina Van Aerschot, Tuomo Särkikoski, Atte Oksanen
Aim: To answer the question: 'How prepared healthcare professionals are to take robots as their assistants in terms of experience and acceptance?' Background: The ageing population, increasing care needs and shortage of healthcare professionals pose major challenges in Western societies. Special service robots designed for care tasks have been introduced as one solution to these problems. Design: A correlative design. Methods: Eurobarometer data ( N  =   969) and survey data of nurses and other healthcare professionals ( N  = 3800) were used to assess the relationship between robot acceptance and experiences with robots while controlling for the respondents' age, gender, occupational status and managerial experience...
July 2018: Nursing Open
Chad D Foradori, Jessica E Healy, Arthur D Zimmerman, Robert J Kemppainen, Melaney A Jones, Casey C Read, B Douglas White, Kun Don Yi, Laura R Hinds, Anthony F Lacagnina, Alicia M Quihuis, Charles B Breckenridge, Robert J Handa
Atrazine (ATR) is a commonly used pre-emergence/early post-emergence herbicide. Rats gavaged with ATR and its chlorometabolites of desethylatrazine (DEA), or deisopropylatrazine (DIA) respond with a rapid and dose-dependent rise in plasma corticosterone, while the major chlorometabolite, diaminochlorotriazine (DACT), has little to no effect on corticosterone levels. In this study, we investigated the possible site(s) of ATR activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. ATR treatment had no effect on adrenal weights, but altered adrenal morphology...
July 27, 2018: Endocrinology
Laura Fanning, Taliesin E Ryan-Atwood, J Simon Bell, Atte Meretoja, Kevin P McNamara, Pēteris Dārziņš, Ian C K Wong, Jenni Ilomäki
BACKGROUND: Differences in management and outcomes of oral anticoagulant (OAC) use may exist for people with and without dementia or cognitive impairment (CI). OBJECTIVE: To systematically review the prevalence and safety and effectiveness outcomes of OAC use in people with and without dementia or CI. METHODS: MEDLINE, EMBASE, and CINAHL were searched for studies reporting prevalence or safety and effectiveness outcomes of OAC use for people with and without dementia, published between 2000 to September 2017...
July 20, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Fawzia Alyafei, Ashraf Soliman, Fawziya Alkhalaf, Aml Sabt, Vincenzo De Sanctis, Nagwa Elsayed, Reem Waseef
INTRODUCTION: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) is an autoimmune disease with the development of abnormal immune responses to specific β-cell autoantigens in addition to other organ-specific autoimmunity. The most frequent associated disorders are thyroid dysfunctions and celiac disease. There are limited studies in the current literature on the prevalence of associated autoimmunity, especially multiple, in children and adolescents with T1DM and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to determine the prevalence of autoantibodies and thyroid dysfunctions in a cohort of children and adolescents (aged 0...
May 23, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Fawzia Alyafei, Ashraf Soliman, Fawziya Alkhalaf, Aml Sabt, Vincenzo De Sanctis, Nagwa Elsayed, Reem Waseef
INTRODUCTION: Familial type 1 diabetes mellitus (FT1DM) comprises parent-offspring and sib-pair subgroups. The clinical and genetic characteristics of FT1DM cases with and without affected family members have been previously studied with varying results. Some investigators found similarity of presenting features whereas others reported significant differences between the two groups. OBJECTIVE: To describe the clinical and biochemical characteristics of children with FT1DM in comparison with those with non-familial type 1 diabetes mellitus (NFT1DM)...
May 23, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Nathella P Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Vijay Viswanathan, Basavaradhya S Shruthi, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Pradeep A Menon, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu
BACKGROUND: Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are considered to be key mediators of tuberculosis (TB) pathology but their role in tuberculosis - diabetes comorbidity (TB-DM) is not well understood. METHODS: To study the association of MMP levels with severity and extent of disease as well as bacterial burden in TB-DM, we examined the systemic levels of MMP-1, - 2, - 3, - 7, - 8, - 9, - 10, - 12 and - 13 in individuals with TB-DM and compared them to those with TB alone (TB) or healthy controls (HC)...
July 25, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
Abhay M Nene, Sanganagouda Patil, Ambadas P Kathare, Premik Nagad, Amita Nene, Farhad Kapadia
STUDY DESIGN: A single centre pilot study, open labeled, prospective randomized clinical trial OBJECTIVE.: To compare six versus twelve months of anti TB therapy in patients with biopsy proven spinal TB. SUMMARY OF THE BACKGROUND DATA: There is no clear consensus or evidence based guidelines for the duration of treatment of spinal tuberculosis. We studied if 6 and 12 months of anti tubercular therapy (ATT) had equivalent outcomes at 24 months from completion of therapy...
July 24, 2018: Spine
Markus Poukka, Tiina Lund-Aho, Päivi Raittinen, Atte Nikkilä, Katri Kivinen, Tuija Lundán, Kimmo Porkka, Olli Lohi
We describe a patient with Down syndrome whose precursor B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia cells expressed INPP5D-ABL1 fusion gene that resulted in a reciprocal chromosome translocation t(2;9)(q27;q34). The fusion gene was present as a small subclone in the primary disease but was first identified at relapse when the subclone had expanded into a major clone. At relapse, the patient responded poorly to conventional induction chemotherapy but a transient morphologic remission was achieved after administration of imatinib monotherapy...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Hematology/oncology
Harjeet Singh, Gautham Krishnamurthy, Jayapal Rajendran, Vishal Sharma, Harshal Mandavdhare, Hemanth Kumar, Thakur Deen Yadav, Rakesh Kumar Vasishta, Rajinder Singh
BACKGROUND: The role of surgery in abdominal tuberculosis is being redefined, as many patients will be candidates for endoscopic dilatation rather than open surgery. METHODS: A retrospective analysis was done of the surgical procedures performed in patients with abdominal tuberculosis in a large tertiary-care center in North India. Details such as clinical presentations, previous history of tuberculosis, any anti-tubercular therapy (ATT), Mantoux skin test results, and the surgical procedures and findings were recorded...
July 25, 2018: Surgical Infections
Anil Pande, P Senthur Nambi, Senguttuvan Pandian, Sreevidya Subramanian, Siddhartha Ghosh
Whitmore's disease or melioidosis is an infectious disease caused by Burkholderia pseudomallei. The reported cases are but the tip of the iceberg. This pathogenic saprophyte is commonly found in wet soil and water. An accidental or occupational exposure (in field workers, farmers, gardeners or villagers) to B. pseudomallei contaminated soil or pooled water is the primary source of infection. Neurosurgeons need to consider this as a possible rare cause of back pain and possible neurological deterioration. A diabetic type 2 rice farmer with severe lumbago and fever, misdiagnosed as vertebral tuberculous osteitis based on his radiological findings, was confirmed to harbour Burkholderia Pseudomallei, which was diagnosed using laboratory cultures...
July 2018: Neurology India
M Sharifi, A Shirazi-Adl, H Marouane
Rupture of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) undermines normal activity and function of the knee joint and places it at higher risk of re-injury and degeneration. ACL reconstruction surgery neither necessarily ensures return to pre-injury activities nor alleviates risk of long-term degeneration. Here in this computational investigation of a lower-extremity hybrid model at heel strike (HS) of gait, we search for factors that influence the stability of the joint and hence the distinct performances between post-ACL injury copers and non-copers...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Runa M Grimholt, Anne Vestli, Petter Urdal, Anne Grete Bechensteen, Bente Fjeld, Bjørn Dalhus, Olav Klingenberg
Unstable hemoglobin (Hb) variants are the result of sequence variants in the globin genes causing precipitation of Hb molecules in red blood cells (RBCs). Intracellular inclusions derived from the unstable Hb reduce the life-span of the red cells and may cause hemolytic anemia. Here we describe a patient with a history of hemolytic anemia and low oxygen saturation. She was found to be carrier of a novel unstable Hb variant, Hb Oslo [β42(CD1)Phe→Ile (TTT>ATT), HBB: c.127T>A] located in the heme pocket of the β-globin chain...
July 23, 2018: Hemoglobin
Jenisha Patel, Suhas Kulkarni, Dolar Doshi, Bandari Srikanth Reddy, Madupu Padma Reddy, Yvonne A B Buunk-Werkhoven
OBJECTIVES: Health interventions based on cognitive theories effectively bring about behaviour change. Therefore, the present study aimed to assess the determinants of oral hygiene behaviour (OHB) based on the theory of planned behaviour (TPB) among patients with moderate and severe periodontitis. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted using a 47-item self-report questionnaire to evaluate oral health knowledge (OHK), expected social outcomes (ESO) and OHB based on the variables of TPB [attitude (ATT), social norms (SN) and perceived behavioural control (PBC)] of patients with moderate and severe periodontitis...
July 20, 2018: International Dental Journal
Minjeong Nam, Sue Shin, Kyoung Un Park, Inho Kim, Sung Soo Yoon, Tack Kyun Kwon, Eun Young Song
BACKGROUND: Forkhead box P3 (FOXP3) is an important marker of regulatory T cells. FOXP3 polymorphisms are associated with autoimmune diseases, cancers, and allograft outcomes. We examined whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at the FOXP3 locus are associated with clinical outcomes after allogenic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). METHODS: Five FOXP3 SNPs (rs5902434, rs3761549, rs3761548, rs2232365, and rs2280883) were analyzed by PCR-sequencing of 172 DNA samples from allogenic HSCT patients...
November 2018: Annals of Laboratory Medicine
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