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Hiraku Kameda, Masaaki Yamamoto, Yukiko Tone, Masahide Tone, Shlomo Melmed
As an acidic cellular microenvironment is engendered by inflammation and may determine cell differentiation, we elucidated the impact of acidic conditions on induction of POMC expression. Here, we demonstrate mechanisms for proton-sensitivity of corticotropin releasing hormone receptor 1 (CRHR1) signaling to POMC and adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) production. Low pH (6.8) resulted in doubling of POMC expression and ACTH production in the pituitary cell line AtT-20 and in primary mouse pituitary cells. Using CRISPR knockout, we show that CRHR1 is required for acid-induced POMC expression, and this induction is mediated by CRHR1 histidine residues and calmodulin dependent protein kinase II in both pituitary corticotroph cells and in non-pituitary cell lines expressing ectopic ACTH...
December 6, 2018: Endocrinology
Brendan A Wintle, Heini Kujala, Amy Whitehead, Alison Cameron, Sam Veloz, Aija Kukkala, Atte Moilanen, Ascelin Gordon, Pia E Lentini, Natasha C R Cadenhead, Sarah A Bekessy
Island biogeography theory posits that species richness increases with island size and decreases with isolation. This logic underpins much conservation policy and regulation, with preference given to conserving large, highly connected areas, and relative ambivalence shown toward protecting small, isolated habitat patches. We undertook a global synthesis of the relationship between the conservation value of habitat patches and their size and isolation, based on 31 systematic conservation planning studies across four continents...
December 10, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
C K Indumathi, Aruna Sethuraman, Saurav Jain, Savita Krishnamurthy
OBJECTIVES: To compare the incidence of anti tuberculosis drug-induced hepatotoxicity (ATDH) with those on old vs. revised WHO doses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) negative children. The secondary objective was to determine the overall incidence of hepatitis in children on Anti tubercular treatment (ATT) and isoniazid prophylactic therapy (IPT). METHODS: Children attending pediatric outpatient / admitted in wards, on ATT/ IPT between January 2007 and December 2017 (11 y) were included...
December 4, 2018: Indian Journal of Pediatrics
Shivani Butala, Leena Palomo
ARTICLE TITLE AND BIBLIOGRAPHIC INFORMATION: Bone density and clinical periodontal attachment in postmenopausal women. Penoni DC, Fidalgo TKS, Torres SR, Varela VM, Masterson D, Leão ATT, Maia LC. J Dent Res 2017; 96(3):261-9.s SOURCE OF FUNDING: Information not available. TYPE OF STUDY/DESIGN: Systematic review with meta-analysis.
December 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
Joy W Douglas, Lori W Turner, Linda L Knol, Amy C Ellis, Ann C Godfrey, Jeannine C Lawrence
Registered Dietitians (RDs) should participate in interdisciplinary feeding discussions for patients with advanced dementia, but research on how RDs make such feeding recommendations is scarce. This study developed and validated a theory-based questionnaire to assess the knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes of RDs regarding feeding tube use among older adults with advanced dementia. The instrument was drafted based on the Social Ecological Model, and face and content validity were established through an expert panel review...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Nutrition in Gerontology and Geriatrics
Takahisa Fujikawa, Kenji Ando
AIM: To elucidate the effect of antithrombotic therapy (ATT) on bleeding and thromboembolic complications during or after laparoscopic digestive surgery. METHODS: Published articles or internationally accepted abstracts between 2000 and 2017 were searched from PubMed, Cochrane Database, and Google Scholar, and studies involving laparoscopic digestive surgery and antiplatelet therapy (APT) and/or anticoagulation therapy (ACT) were included after careful review of each study...
November 26, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Meifeng Dai, Yue Zong, Jiaojiao He, Yu Sun, Chunyu Shen, Weiyi Su
It has been recently reported that trapping problem can characterize various dynamical processes taking place on complex networks. However, most works focused on the case of binary networks, and dynamical processes on weighted networks are poorly understood. In this paper, we study two kinds of biased walks including standard weight-dependent walk and mixed weight-dependent walk on the weighted scale-free treelike networks with a trap at the central node. Mixed weight-dependent walk including non-nearest neighbor jump appears in many real situations, but related studies are much less...
November 2018: Chaos
Amol S Dahale, Ajay Kumar, Siddharth Srivastava, Shivakumar Varakanahalli, Sanjeev Sachdeva, Amarender S Puri
Background and Aim: Esophageal involvement in tuberculosis (TB) is rare and is usually secondary. Data on esophageal TB are scarce. We aimed to analyze clinical and endoscopic features and outcomes of treatment in esophageal TB. Methods: We retrospectively identified patients with esophageal TB from January 2014 to December 2016 at GB Pant Hospital. Well-defined granuloma with or without caseation and/or acid-fast bacilli on staining either from esophageal biopsy or the adjacent mediastinal lymph node fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) specimen, along with clinical features and response to antitubercular therapy (ATT), were collectively considered to diagnose definite TB...
April 2018: JGH open: an open access journal of gastroenterology and hepatology
Malek Meskawi, Pierre-Alain Hueber, Roger Valdivieso, Pierre I Karakiewicz, Benjamin Pradere, Vincent Misrai, Bilal Chughtai, Kevin C Zorn
PURPOSE: To examine the complications and functional outcomes of high-risk patients on antithrombotic therapy (ATT) treated with photoselective vaporization of the prostate (PVP) using the Greenlight (GL) XPS-180 system. METHODS: A retrospective analysis of prospectively maintained institutional database was performed. Men with symptomatic LUTS related to BPH were treated with 523-nm GL PVP using the XPS-180 W system. They were stratified according to ATT status: group 1 (control group), group 2 (acetylsalicylic acid), group 3 (antiplatelet agents other than acetylsalicylic acid) and group 4 (anticoagulation agents)...
November 26, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Takuya Hashimoto, Yoshiyasu Minami, Ryota Kakizaki, Teruyoshi Nemoto, Kazuhiro Fujiyoshi, Kentaro Meguro, Takao Shimohama, Taiki Tojo, Junya Ako
BACKGROUND: Tendon xanthomas are accumulations of collagen and macrophages, which contain cholesterol esters and a marker of high risk for coronary artery disease (CAD). OBJECTIVE: The aim of the article was to clarify whether the presence of Achilles tendon thickening (ATT) was associated with disease severity and plaque vulnerability in patients with CAD. METHODS: A total of 241 consecutive patients who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention and ATT assessment were analyzed...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Clinical Lipidology
Iina Savolainen, Anu Sirola, Markus Kaakinen, Atte Oksanen
Gambling opportunities have increased rapidly during recent years. Previous research shows that gambling is a popular activity among youth, which may contribute to problem gambling. This study examined how social identification with online and offline peer groups associates with youth problem gambling behavior and if perceived social support buffers this relationship. Data were gathered with an online survey with 1212 American and 1200 Finnish participants between 15 and 25 years of age. Measures included the South Oaks Gambling Screen for problem gambling, and items for peer group identification and perceived social support...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Gambling Studies
Marika Heblinski, Christopher Bladen, Mark Connor
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Serotonin 5-HT1B receptors are widely expressed G protein-coupled receptors and a target of triptans, the most commonly prescribed anti-migraine drugs. There is very limited information about the acute, agonist-induced regulation of 5-HT1B receptor signalling and so we sought to characterize this in a neuron-like system. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH: Epitope-tagged human 5-HT1B receptors were expressed in mouse AtT20 cells. 5-HT1B receptor signalling was assessed using whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of endogenous G protein-gated inwardly rectified K channels (GIRK), and receptor localization measured using immunofluorescence...
November 16, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
Hasan Simsek, Hikmet Geckin, Nilay Padir Sensoz, Edward O List, Ahmet Arman
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects myelin fibers within the central nervous system resulting in neurological impairment. Although the etiology of MS is not fully understood, environmental and genetic factors are thought to play important roles. IL7R gene polymorphisms which are associated with several autoimmune diseases have also been implicated as a genetic factor for MS following genome-wide association studies. To further examine this association, we investigated the association between MS and IL7R gene - 449 (A/G), - 504 (T/C), and - 1085 (G/T) promoter polymorphisms in Turkish population...
November 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Houchun H Hu, Jerome A Rusin, Ruiyue Peng, Xingfeng Shao, Mark Smith, Ramkumar Krishnamurthy, Bhavani Selvaraj, Danny J J Wang
BACKGROUND: 3D pseudocontinuous arterial spin labeling (pCASL) with a single post-labeling delay time is commonly used to measure cerebral blood flow (CBF). Multi-phase pCASL has been developed to simultaneously estimate CBF and arterial transit time (ATT). PURPOSE: To evaluate the clinical feasibility of multi-phase 3D pCASL in pediatric patients, and to compare the estimation of ATT and CBF via linear weighted-delay and traditional non-linear iterative curve-fitting routines...
November 6, 2018: Clinical Imaging
Jing Tan, Jun-Jie Guo, Ming-Yu Yin, Huan Wang, Wen-Pan Dong, Jie Zeng, Shi-Liang Zhou
Betula alnoides is a fast-growing valuable indigenous tree species with multiple uses in the tropical and warm subtropical regions in South-East Asia and southern China. It has been proved to be tetraploid in most parts of its distribution in China. In the present study, next generation sequencing (NGS) technology was applied to develop numerous SSR markers for B. alnoides , and 64,376 contig sequences of 106,452 clean reads containing 164,357 candidate SSR loci were obtained. Among the derived SSR repeats, mono-nucleotide was the main type (77...
November 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Nathella Pavan Kumar, Kadar Moideen, Yukthi Bhootra, Arul Nancy, Vijay Viswanathan, Basavaradhya S Shruthi, Shanmugam Sivakumar, Mohan Natarajan, Hardy Kornfeld, Subash Babu
Alteration in the frequency of monocyte subsets is a hallmark of tuberculosis-diabetes comorbidity (TB-DM). To study this association, we examined the plasma levels of sCD14, sCD163, C-reactive protein (CRP) and soluble tissue factor (sTF) in individuals with either TB-DM, TB, diabetes mellitus (DM) or healthy controls (HC). Circulating levels of sCD14, sCD163 and sTF were significantly increased in TB-DM and DM compared to TB and HC, however CRP was significantly increased in TB-DM and TB compared to DM and HC...
November 14, 2018: Immunology
Chang Wang, Jinhe Zhang, Jingjing Cao, Huan Hu, Peng Yu
Previous research on the environmentally responsible behaviour (ERB) of tourists has primarily focused on the personal psychological factors of tourists. However, the studies overlook the effect of contextual factors of a tourist site. According to the broken window theory, a disorderly, unkempt environment might lead more people to be involved in environmental destruction, which would form a vicious cycle. Therefore, it can be deduced that the environmental background (EB) of a tourist site is an important contextual factor...
November 9, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
I Suárez-Lorenzo, F Rodríguez de Castro, D Cruz-Niesvaara, E Herrera-Ramos, C Rodríguez-Gallego, T Carrillo-Diaz
Background and objective: Severe alpha1 antitrypsin deficiency has been clearly associated with pulmonary emphysema, but its relationship with bronchial asthma remains controversial. Some deficient alpha 1 antitrypsin (AAT) genotypes seem to be associated with asthma development. The objective of this study was to analyze the distribution of AAT genotypes in asthmatic patients allergic to house dust mites (HDM), and to asses a possible association between these genotypes and severe asthma...
2018: Clinical and Translational Allergy
Ravi Gupta, Anil Kapoor, Naveen Mittal, Ashwani Soni, Sourabh Khatri, Gladson David Masih
BACKGROUND: The role of an intact meniscus in providing mechanical stability to the knee of anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) deficient and ACL reconstructed patients has not been well studied. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study. A total of 205 patients undergoing ACL reconstruction were enrolled, of which 61 had normal menisci, 49 had a tear in the posterior horn of the medial meniscus (PHMM) (tear <40% of width = 19; >40% of width = 30), 35 had a tear in the lateral meniscus (<40% of width = 15; >40% = 20), 13 had a tear in the body and/or anterior horn of the medial meniscus (<40% of width = 6; >40% = 7) and 47 patients had a tear in both menisci...
November 5, 2018: Knee
Fatima Mukhtar, Zahid A Butt
PURPOSE: The escalating burden of diabetes in countries tackling high burden of tuberculosis (TB) has adverse implications for co-infected individuals and National TB control efforts. We aimed to study whether there was a difference in treatment outcome among diabetic and non-diabetic pulmonary TB patients and identify the determinants of treatment outcome among the two groups. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This prospective cohort study recruited new patients of pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB) aged 15 years and above who were diagnosed at and registered with Gulab Devi Chest Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan for anti-tuberculosis treatment (ATT)...
2018: PloS One
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