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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913410/incensole-acetate-prevents-beta-amyloid-induced-neurotoxicity-in-human-olfactory-bulb-neural-stem-cells
#1
Mohammed A El-Magd, Sara F Khalifa, Faisal Abdulrahman A Alzahrani, Abdelnaser A Badawy, Eman S El-Shetry, Lamess M Dawood, Mohammed M Alruwaili, Hedib A Alrawaili, Engi F Risha, Fathy M El-Taweel, Hany E Marei
β-Amyloid peptide (Aβ) is a potent neurotoxic protein associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) which causes oxidative damage to neurons. Incensole acetate (IA) is a major constituent of Boswellia carterii resin, which has anti-inflammatory and protective properties against damage of a large verity of neural subtypes. However, this neuroprotective effect was not studied on human olfactory bulb neural stem cells (hOBNSCs). Herein, we evaluated this effect and studied the underlying mechanisms. Exposure to Aβ25-35 (5 and 10 μM for 24 h) inhibited proliferation (revealed by downregulation of Nestin and Sox2 gene expression), and induced differentiation (marked by increased expression of the immature neuronal marker Map2 and the astrocyte marker Gfap) of hOBNSCs...
June 15, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913215/mitochondrial-therapy-promotes-regeneration-of-injured-hippocampal-neurons
#2
Ling Chien, Min-Zong Liang, Chu-Yuan Chang, Chen Wang, Linyi Chen
Due to the inhibitory microenvironment and reduced intrinsic growth capacity of neurons, neuronal regeneration of central nervous system remains challenging. Neurons are highly energy demanding and require sufficient mitochondria to support cellular activities. In response to stimuli, mitochondria undergo fusion/fission cycles to adapt to environment. It is thus logical to hypothesize that the plasticity of mitochondrial dynamics is required for neuronal regeneration. In this study, we examined the role of mitochondrial dynamics during regeneration of rat hippocampal neurons...
June 15, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913079/long-term-management-of-parkinson-s-disease-using-levodopa-combinations
#3
Thomas Müller, Jan-Dominique Möhr
Parkinson's disease is a chronic, neurodegenerative disease. Its symptoms and course are heterogeneous. After several years of investigative drug studies, levodopa remains the most efficacious drug despite its long-term limitations. Consequently, research into new drug delivery modes is ongoing. Areas covered: This review summarizes past and current advances of levodopa therapy with a focus on long-term patient management. Current research aims to increase drug bioavailability and to deliver it to the brain continuously...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29913061/the-protein-biochemistry-of-the-postsynaptic-density-in-glutamatergic-synapses-mediates-learning-in-neural-networks
#4
Mary Kennedy
The strength of each excitatory synapse in the central nervous system is regulated by its prior activity in a process called synaptic plasticity. The initiation of synaptic plasticity occurs when calcium ions enter the postsynaptic compartment and encounter a subcellular structure called the postsynaptic density (PSD). The PSD is attached to the postsynaptic membrane just underneath the concentrated plague of neurotransmitter receptors. It is comprised of a core set of 30 to 60 proteins, approximately 20 of which are scaffold proteins...
June 18, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912891/-c2g4-n-repeat-expansion-sequences-from-the-c9orf72-gene-form-an-unusual-dna-higher-order-structure-in-the-ph-range-of-5-6
#5
Prince Kumar Lat, Dipankar Sen
Massive expansion of a DNA hexanucleotide sequence repeat (C2G4) within the human C9orf72 gene has been linked to a number of neurodegenerative diseases. In sodium or potassium salt solutions, single-stranded d(C2G4)n DNAs fold to form G-quadruplexes. We have found that in magnesium or lithium salt solutions, especially under slightly acidic conditions, d(C2G4)n oligonucleotides fold to form a distinctive higher order structure whose most striking feature is an "inverted" circular dichroism spectrum, which is distinguishable from the spectrum of the left handed DNA double-helix, Z-DNA...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912591/optical-coherence-tomography-oct-study-in-argentinean-huntington-s-disease-patients
#6
Emilia Gatto, Virginia Parisi, Gabriel Persi, Estela Fernandez Rey, Martin Cesarini, José Luis Etcheverry, Pablo Rivera, Ferdinando Squitieri
BACKGROUND: Huntington's disease (HD) is a genetic, rare and progressive neurodegenerative disorder that causes motor and cognitive impairment in midlife patients. Although retinal damage was observed in animal HD models and in patients with other neurodegenerative diseases, we still need confirmation of impairment in HD patients. Optical Coherence Tomography (OCT) is a non-invasive methodology that analyzes the retinal nerve fiber layers (RNFL) and could reflect processes of neurodegeneration...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912176/mk-0677-a-ghrelin-agonist-alleviates-amyloid-beta-related-pathology-in-5xfad-mice-an-animal-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Yu-On Jeong, Soo Jung Shin, Jun Yong Park, Bo Kyeong Ku, Ji Soo Song, Jwa-Jin Kim, Seong Gak Jeon, Sang Min Lee, Minho Moon
Alzheimer’s disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by cognitive deficits, neuroinflammation, and neuronal death. The primary pathogenic cause is believed to be the accumulation of pathogenic amyloid beta (Aβ) assemblies in the brain. Ghrelin, which is a peptide hormone predominantly secreted from the stomach, is an endogenous ligand for the growth hormone secretagogue-receptor type 1a (GHS-R1a). MK-0677 is a ghrelin agonist that potently stimulates the GHS-R1a ghrelin receptor...
June 18, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911915/targeting-glucose-dependent-insulinotropic-polypeptide-receptor-for-neurodegenerative-disorders
#8
Mahip K Verma, Rajan Goel, Nandakumar Krishnadas, Kumar V S Nemmani
Incretin hormones, glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon like peptide (GLP-1) exert pleiotropic effects on the endocrine pancreas and nervous system. Expression of GIP and GIP receptor (GIPR) in neurons, their roles in neurogenesis, synaptic plasticity, neurotransmission and neuromodulation, uniquely positions GIPR for therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative disorders. GIP analogues acting as GIPR agonists attenuate neurobehavioral and neuropathological sequelae of neurodegenerative disorders in preclinical models, e...
June 18, 2018: Expert Opinion on Therapeutic Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911470/endothelial-cells-are-critical-regulators-of-iron-transport-in-a-model-of-the-human-blood-brain-barrier
#9
Brian Chiou, Emma H Neal, Aaron B Bowman, Ethan S Lippmann, Ian A Simpson, James R Connor
Iron delivery to the brain is essential for multiple neurological processes such as myelination, neurotransmitter synthesis, and energy production. Loss of brain iron homeostasis is a significant factor in multiple neurological disorders. Understanding the mechanism by which the transport of iron across the blood-brain barrier (BBB) is regulated is crucial to address the impact of iron deficiency on brain development and excessive accumulation of iron in neurodegenerative diseases. Using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived brain endothelial cells (huECs) as a human BBB model, we demonstrate the ability of transferrin, hepcidin, and DMT1 to impact iron transport and release...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29911289/homing-and-tracking-of-iron-oxide-labelled-mesenchymal-stem-cells-after-infusion-in-traumatic-brain-injury-mice-a-longitudinal-in-vivo-mri-study
#10
Sushanta Kumar Mishra, Subash Khushu, Ajay K Singh, Gurudutta Gangenahalli
Stem cells transplantation has emerged as a promising alternative therapeutic due to its potency at injury site. The need to monitor and non-invasively track the infused stem cells is a significant challenge in the development of regenerative medicine. Thus, in vivo tracking to monitor infused stem cells is especially vital. In this manuscript, we have described an effective in vitro labelling method of MSCs, a serial in vivo tracking of implanted stem cells at traumatic brain injury (TBI) site through 7 T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
June 17, 2018: Stem Cell Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910763/zebrafish-as-an-animal-model-for-drug-discovery-in-parkinson-s-disease-and-other-movement-disorders-a-systematic-review
#11
Rita L Vaz, Tiago F Outeiro, Joaquim J Ferreira
Movement disorders can be primarily divided into hypokinetic and hyperkinetic. Most of the hypokinetic syndromes are associated with the neurodegenerative disorder Parkinson's disease (PD). By contrast, hyperkinetic syndromes encompass a broader array of diseases, including dystonia, essential tremor, or Huntington's disease. The discovery of effective therapies for these disorders has been challenging and has also involved the development and characterization of accurate animal models for the screening of new drugs...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29910724/cdk5-inhibitory-peptide-prevents-loss-of-dopaminergic-neurons-and-alleviates-behavioral-changes-in-an-mptp-induced-parkinson-s-disease-mouse-model
#12
Rongni He, Wei Huang, Yaowei Huang, Miaojing Xu, Pingping Song, Yinwei Huang, Huifang Xie, Yafang Hu
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most affected neurodegenerative diseases in the world. Deregulation of cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) is believed to play an important role in neurodegenerative diseases including PD. p25 is a cleavage peptide of p35, a physiologic activator of Cdk5. p25 combines to Cdk5 and leads to the hyperactivity of Cdk5, which in turn hyperphosphorylates downstream substrates and leads to neuroinflammation and apoptosis of neurons. Previously, we have demonstrated that adeno-associated virus serotype-9 (AAV9) mediated Cdk5 inhibitory peptide (CIP) inhibits the activity of Cdk5/p25 complex and alleviates pathologic and behavioral changes in Alzheimer's disease mouse model...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909971/phospholipase-pla2g6-a-parkinsonism-associated-gene-affects-vps26-and-vps35-retromer-function-and-ceramide-levels-similar-to-%C3%AE-synuclein-gain
#13
Guang Lin, Pei-Tseng Lee, Kuchuan Chen, Dongxue Mao, Kai Li Tan, Zhongyuan Zuo, Wen-Wen Lin, Liping Wang, Hugo J Bellen
Mutations in PLA2G6 (PARK14) cause neurodegenerative disorders in humans, including autosomal recessive neuroaxonal dystrophy and early-onset parkinsonism. We show that loss of iPLA2-VIA, the fly homolog of PLA2G6, reduces lifespan, impairs synaptic transmission, and causes neurodegeneration. Phospholipases typically hydrolyze glycerol phospholipids, but loss of iPLA2-VIA does not affect the phospholipid composition of brain tissue but rather causes an elevation in ceramides. Reducing ceramides with drugs, including myriocin or desipramine, alleviates lysosomal stress and suppresses neurodegeneration...
June 7, 2018: Cell Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909688/single-factor-sox2-mediates-direct-neural-reprogramming-of-human-mesenchymal-stem-cells-via-transfection-of-in-vitro-transcribed-mrna
#14
Bo-Eun Kim, Soon Won Choi, Ji-Hee Shin, Jae-Jun Kim, Insung Kang, Byung-Chul Lee, Jin Young Lee, Myoung Geun Kook, Kyung-Sun Kang
Neural stem cells (NSCs) are a prominent cell source for understanding neural pathogenesis and for developing therapeutic applications to treat neurodegenerative disease because of their regenerative capacity and multipotency. Recently, a variety of cellular reprogramming technologies have been developed to facilitate in vitro generation of NSCs, called induced NSCs (iNSCs). However, the genetic safety aspects of established virus-based reprogramming methods have been considered, and non-integrating reprogramming methods have been developed...
January 1, 2018: Cell Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909364/semiquantitative-analysis-using-standardized-uptake-value-in-123-i-fp-cit-spect-ct
#15
Akira Toriihara, Hiromitsu Daisaki, Akihiro Yamaguchi, Makoto Kobayashi, Shogo Furukawa, Katsuya Yoshida, Jun Isogai, Ukihide Tateishi
PURPOSE: To evaluate potential of a semiquantitative method using standardized uptake value (SUV) in 123 I-2β-carbomethoxy-3β-(4-iodophenyl)-N-(3-fluoropropyl) nortropane (123 I-FP-CIT) single photon emission computed tomography/computed tomography (SPECT/CT) compared with specific binding ratio (SBR). MATERIALS AND METHODS: First, we performed a phantom study to validate the accuracy of measuring SUV. 52 patients (25 male, 27 female; mean age of 75.1-year-old; 40 and 12 patients with neurodegenerative diseases with or without presynaptic dopaminergic deficits, respectively) were enrolled in a retrospective study...
June 14, 2018: Clinical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909180/parkinsonism-is-associated-with-altered-primary-motor-cortex-plasticity-in-frontotemporal-dementia-primary-progressive-aphasia-variant
#16
Flavio Di Stasio, Suppa Antonio, Fabbrini Andrea, Marsili Luca, Asci Francesco, Conte Antonella, Trebbastoni Alessandro, De Lena Carlo, Berardelli Alfredo
In frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the behavioral variant (bv-FTD) and nonfluent variant of primary progressive aphasia (nfv-PPA) reflect a prominent neurodegenerative involvement of the frontal lobe networks, which may include the premotor and motor areas and thus cause heterogeneous clinical symptoms including parkinsonism. With the technique of transcranial magnetic stimulation, we investigated long-term potentiation- and long-term depression-like plasticity in the primary motor cortex of bv-FTD and nfv-PPA patients, with and without parkinsonism, by using the theta-burst stimulation (TBS) protocol...
May 29, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908972/bidirectional-relationships-between-sleep-and-amyloid-beta-in-the-hippocampus
#17
Julien Dufort-Gervais, Valérie Mongrain, Jonathan Brouillette
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a debilitating neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive hippocampal-dependent explicit memory deficits that begin at the onset of the illness. An early hallmark of AD is the accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aß) proteins in brain structures involved in encoding and consolidation of memory, like the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Aß neurotoxicity is known to induce synaptic dysfunctions and neuronal death leading to cognitive decline. Another recurrent event observed in AD is sleep disturbances...
June 14, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908890/genetic-polymorphism-of-glutathione-s-transferases-relevance-to-neurological-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Sreenivasulu Dasari, Sailaja Gonuguntla, Muni Swamy Ganjayi, Suman Bukke, Basha Sreenivasulu, Balaji Meriga
Glutathione S-tranferases (GSTs) are phase II drug metabolizing enzymes, they play crucial role in detoxification of environmental pollutants, carcinogens, drugs, xenobiotics and oxidative stress products. Genetic differences in expression and activity of GSTs are due to the existence of polymorphic alleles which encode them. Because of genetic polymorphism the GST activity has altered that lead to the increased susceptibility for toxic chemical compounds. GST genetic polymorphism is the main reason for many neurological dysfunctions...
June 11, 2018: Pathophysiology: the Official Journal of the International Society for Pathophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908845/lead-exposure-induces-alzheimers-s-disease-ad-like-pathology-and-disturbes-cholesterol-metabolism-in-the-young-rat-brain
#19
Cancan Zhou, Zhenyan Gao, Ju Wang, Meiqin Wu, Shuang Hu, Fei Chen, Junxia Liu, Hui Pan, Chonghuai Yan
Lead exposure has been evidenced as a risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD), mainly affecting the ageing. However, the early manifestation and mechanisms of AD-like pathology induced by lead exposure remains to be elucidated. Considering the fact that impaired cholesterol metabolism is associated with many neurodegenerative disorders including AD, in this study we focused on the role of cholesterol metabolism in lead induced premature AD-like pathology. We treated weaning rats with lead at different concentrations for 4 weeks...
June 14, 2018: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29908254/the-neurotoxin-diethyl-dithiophosphate-impairs-glutamate-transport-in-cultured-bergmann-glia-cells
#20
Tatiana N Olivares-Bañuelos, Isabel Martínez-Hernández, Luisa C Hernández-Kelly, Donají Chi-Castañeda, Libia Vega, Arturo Ortega
Glutamate, the main excitatory neurotransmitter in the vertebrate Central Nervous System, is involved in almost every aspect of brain physiology, and its signaling properties are severely affected in most neurodegenerative diseases. This neurotransmitter has to be efficiently removed from the synaptic cleft in order to prevent an over-stimulation of glutamate receptors that leads to neuronal death. Specific sodium-dependent membrane transporters, highly enriched in glial cells, elicit the clearance of glutamate...
June 13, 2018: Neurochemistry International
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