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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098514/edible-and-medicinal-mushrooms-emerging-brain-food-for-the-mitigation-of-neurodegenerative-diseases
#1
Chia-Wei Phan, Pamela David, Vikineswary Sabaratnam
There is an exponential increase in dementia in old age at a global level because of increasing life expectancy. The prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases such as dementia and Alzheimer's disease (AD) will continue to rise steadily, and is expected to reach 42 million cases worldwide in 2020. Despite the advancement of medication, the management of these diseases remains largely ineffective. Therefore, it is vital to explore novel nature-based nutraceuticals to mitigate AD and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders...
January 2017: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098243/vanillic-acid-attenuates-a%C3%AE-1-42-induced-oxidative-stress-and-cognitive-impairment-in-mice
#2
Faiz Ul Amin, Shahid Ali Shah, Myeong Ok Kim
Increasing evidence demonstrates that β-amyloid (Aβ) elicits oxidative stress, which contributes to the pathogenesis and disease progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The aims of the present study were to determine and explore the antioxidant nature and potential mechanism of vanillic acid (VA) in Aβ1-42-induced oxidative stress and neuroinflammation mediated cognitive impairment in mice. An intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of Aβ1-42 into the mouse brain triggered increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, neuroinflammation, synaptic deficits, memory impairment, and neurodegeneration...
January 18, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097893/probing-the-cholinergic-system-to-understand-neurodegenerative-diseases
#3
Pierre-Yves Renard, Ludovic Jean
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 18, 2017: Future Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097204/genomics-implicates-adaptive-and-innate-immunity-in-alzheimer-s-and-parkinson-s-diseases
#4
Sarah A Gagliano, Jennie G Pouget, John Hardy, Jo Knight, Michael R Barnes, Mina Ryten, Michael E Weale
OBJECTIVES: We assessed the current genetic evidence for the involvement of various cell types and tissue types in the etiology of neurodegenerative diseases, especially in relation to the neuroinflammatory hypothesis of neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We obtained large-scale genome-wide association study (GWAS) summary statistics from Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We used multiple sclerosis (MS), an autoimmune disease of the central nervous system, as a positive control...
December 2016: Annals of Clinical and Translational Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096470/dampened-amphetamine-stimulated-behavior-and-altered-dopamine-transporter-function-in-the-absence-of-brain-gdnf
#5
Jaakko Kopra, Anne Panhelainen, Sara Af Bjerkén, Lauriina Porokuokka, Kärt Varendi, Soophie Olfat, Heidi Montonen, T Petteri Piepponen, Mart Saarma, Jaan-Olle Andressoo
: Midbrain dopamine neuron dysfunction contributes to various psychiatric and neurological diseases including drug addiction and Parkinson's disease. Because of its well-established dopaminotrophic effects, the therapeutic potential of glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) has been extensively studied in various disorders with disturbed dopamine homeostasis. The outcomes from pre-clinical and clinical studies vary, however, highlighting a need for a better understanding of the physiological role of GDNF on striatal dopaminergic function...
January 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096265/prion-properties-of-sod1-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-potential-therapy
#6
Caroline Sibilla, Anne Bertolotti
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating and rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease caused by the deterioration of motor neurons. The first symptoms of ALS always begin at a focal but variable site and consistently spread to neighboring regions, suggesting that neurodegeneration in ALS is an orderly and propagating process. Like other neurodegenerative diseases, misfolding of a specific protein is central to ALS. SOD1, the major constituent of the protein deposits in some familial and sporadic forms of ALS, propagates its misfolded conformation like prions, providing a plausible molecular basis for the focality and spreading of muscle weakness in ALS...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096245/prion-like-characteristics-of-polyglutamine-containing-proteins
#7
Margaret M P Pearce, Ron R Kopito
Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies are infectious neurodegenerative diseases caused by the conversion of prion protein (PrP) into a self-replicating conformation that spreads via templated conversion of natively folded PrP molecules within or between cells. Recent studies provide compelling evidence that prion-like behavior is a general property of most protein aggregates associated with neurodegenerative diseases. Many of these disorders are associated with spontaneous protein aggregation, but genetic mutations can increase the aggregation propensity of specific proteins, including expansion of polyglutamine (polyQ) tracts, which is causative of nine inherited neurodegenerative diseases...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096243/fused-in-sarcoma-neuropathology-in-neurodegenerative-disease
#8
Ian R A Mackenzie, Manuela Neumann
Abnormal intracellular accumulation of the fused in sarcoma (FUS) protein is the characteristic pathological feature of cases of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) caused by FUS mutations (ALS-FUS) and several uncommon disorders that may present with sporadic frontotemporal dementia (FTLD-FUS). Although these findings provide further support for the concept that ALS and FTD are closely related clinical syndromes with an overlapping molecular basis, important differences in the pathological features and results from experimental models indicate that ALS-FUS and FTLD-FUS have distinct pathogenic mechanisms...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096242/developing-therapeutics-for-prp-prion-diseases
#9
Kurt Giles, Steven H Olson, Stanley B Prusiner
The prototypical PrP prion diseases are invariably fatal, and the search for agents to treat them spans more than 30 years, with limited success. However, in the last few years, the application of high-throughput screening, medicinal chemistry, and pharmacokinetic optimization has led to important advances. The PrP prion inoculation paradigm provides a robust assay for testing therapeutic efficacy, and a dozen compounds have been reported that lead to meaningful extension in survival of prion-infected mice...
January 17, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095923/nadph-oxidase-in-brain-injury-and-neurodegenerative-disorders
#10
REVIEW
Merry W Ma, Jing Wang, Quanguang Zhang, Ruimin Wang, Krishnan M Dhandapani, Ratna K Vadlamudi, Darrell W Brann
Oxidative stress is a common denominator in the pathology of neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis, as well as in ischemic and traumatic brain injury. The brain is highly vulnerable to oxidative damage due to its high metabolic demand. However, therapies attempting to scavenge free radicals have shown little success. By shifting the focus to inhibit the generation of damaging free radicals, recent studies have identified NADPH oxidase as a major contributor to disease pathology...
January 17, 2017: Molecular Neurodegeneration
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095729/impact-of-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-on-helicobacter-pylori-related-extragastric-diseases-a-hypothesis
#11
Jannis Kountouras, Marina Boziki, Stergios A Polyzos, Panagiotis Katsinelos, Emmanouel Gavalas, Christos Zeglinas, Dimitri Tzivras, Iordanis Romiopoulos, Nikolaos Giorgakis, Kyriaki Anastasiadou, Elizabeth Vardaka, Constantinos Kountouras, Evangelos Kazakos, Georgia Xiromerisiou, Efthimios Dardiotis, Georgia Deretzi
Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) induces reactive oxygen species (ROS) production that contribute to pathogenesis of a variety of H. pylori-related gastric diseases, as shown in animal and human studies. Helicobacter pylori infection is also associated with variety of systemic extragastric diseases in which H. pylori-related ROS production might also be involved in the pathogenesis of these systemic conditions. We proposed that Hp-related ROS may play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of Hp-related systemic diseases including Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, glaucoma and other relative neurodegenerative diseases, thereby suggesting introduction of relative ROS scavengers as therapeutic strategies against these diseases which are among the leading causes of disability and are associated with a large public health global burden...
January 17, 2017: Free Radical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095679/non-naturally-occurring-small-molecule-microtubule-stabilizing-agents-a-potential-tactic-for-cns-directed-therapies
#12
Carlo Ballatore, Kurt R Brunden, John Q Trojanowski, Virginia M-Y Lee, Amos B Smith
Several independent studies indicate that microtubule (MT)-stabilizing agents hold considerable promise as candidate therapeutics for a wide spectrum of conditions of the central nervous system (CNS), from brain tumors to spinal cord injury, as well as a number of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease, frontotemporal lobar degeneration, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Although the identification and development of candidate compounds for CNS-directed MT-stabilizing therapies has been a challenge in drug discovery for many years, a growing number of molecules have now been identified that exhibit both MT-stabilizing activity and brain penetration...
January 18, 2017: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095463/brain-parenchymal-fraction-in-healthy-adults-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature
#13
Mattias Vågberg, Gabriel Granåsen, Anders Svenningsson
Brain atrophy is an important feature of many neurodegenerative disorders. It can be described in terms of change in the brain parenchymal fraction (BPF). In order to interpret the BPF in disease, knowledge on the BPF in healthy individuals is required. The aim of this study was to establish a normal range of values for the BPF of healthy individuals via a systematic review of the literature. The databases PubMed and Scopus were searched and 95 articles, including a total of 9269 individuals, were identified including the required data...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095425/relationship-between-clinical-parameters-and-brain-structure-in-sporadic-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-according-to-onset-type-a-voxel-based-morphometric-study
#14
Hee-Jin Kim, Mony de Leon, Xiuyuan Wang, Hyun Young Kim, Young-Jun Lee, Yeon-Ha Kim, Seung Hyun Kim
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressing, phenotypically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disease affecting mainly the motor neuron system. The present voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study investigated whether patterns of brain atrophy differ among sporadic ALS subtypes. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sporadic ALS patients (n = 62) with normal cognition and age-matched healthy controls (n = 57) were included in the study. ALS patients were divided into limb- and bulbar-onset groups according to clinical manifestations at symptom onset (n = 48 and 14, respectively)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095315/cytoplasmic-stress-granules-dynamic-modulators-of-cell-signaling-and-disease
#15
REVIEW
Hicham Mahboubi, Ursula Stochaj
Stress granule (SG) assembly is a conserved cellular strategy to minimize stress-related damage and promote cell survival. Beyond their fundamental role in the stress response, SGs have emerged as key players for human health. As such, SG assembly is associated with cancer, neurodegenerative disorders, ischemia, and virus infections. SGs and granule-related signaling circuits are therefore promising targets to improve therapeutic intervention for several diseases. This is clinically relevant, because pharmacological drugs can affect treatment outcome by modulating SG formation...
January 14, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094444/the-current-state-of-nad-dependent-histone-deacetylases-sirtuins-as-novel-therapeutic-targets
#16
REVIEW
Matthias Schiedel, Dina Robaa, Tobias Rumpf, Wolfgang Sippl, Manfred Jung
Sirtuins are NAD(+) -dependent protein deacylases that cleave off acetyl, as well as other acyl groups, from the ε-amino group of lysines in histones and other substrate proteins. Seven sirtuin isotypes (Sirt1-7) have been identified in mammalian cells. As sirtuins are involved in the regulation of various physiological processes such as cell survival, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, DNA repair, cell metabolism, and caloric restriction, a dysregulation of their enzymatic activity has been associated with the pathogenesis of neoplastic, metabolic, infectious, and neurodegenerative diseases...
January 17, 2017: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094295/loss-of-pafr-prevents-neuroinflammation-and-brain-dysfunction-after-traumatic-brain-injury
#17
Xiang-Jie Yin, Zhen-Yan Chen, Xiao-Na Zhu, Jin-Jia Hu
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a principal cause of death and disability worldwide, which is a major public health problem. Death caused by TBI accounts for a third of all damage related illnesses, which 75% TBI occurred in low and middle income countries. With the increasing use of motor vehicles, the incidence of TBI has been at a high level. The abnormal brain functions of TBI patients often show the acute and long-term neurological dysfunction, which mainly associated with the pathological process of malignant brain edema and neuroinflammation in the brain...
January 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094206/hepatocyte-growth-factor-in-physiology-and-infectious-diseases
#18
REVIEW
Ryu Imamura, Kunio Matsumoto
Hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) is a pleiotropic cytokine composed of an α-chain and a β-chain, and these chains contain four kringle domains and a serine protease-like structure, respectively. The receptor for HGF was identified as the c-met proto-oncogene product of transmembrane receptor tyrosine kinase. HGF-induced signaling through the receptor Met provokes dynamic biological responses that support morphogenesis, regeneration, and the survival of various cells and tissues, which includes hepatocytes, renal tubular cells, and neurons...
January 13, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094059/alteration-of-methylation-status-in-the-atxn3-gene-promoter-region-is-linked-to-the-sca3-mjd
#19
Chunrong Wang, Huirong Peng, Jiada Li, Dongxue Ding, Zhao Chen, Zhe Long, Yun Peng, Xin Zhou, Wei Ye, Kai Li, Qian Xu, Sanxi Ai, Chengyuan Song, Ling Weng, Rong Qiu, Kun Xia, Beisha Tang, Hong Jiang
DNA methylation has been acknowledged as one of the key epigenetic mechanisms involved in the regulation of gene expression and genomic functions. Alteration of the DNA methylation level has been linked to modification of the disease progression and instability regulation of certain disease-causing repeats in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, blood samples collected from spinocerebellar ataxia type 3/Machado-Joseph disease (SCA3/MJD) patients versus control were used to explore the potential link of DNA methylation levels at ATXN3 gene promoter to the pathogenesis of SCA3/MJD...
December 24, 2016: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094017/predictive-markers-guide-differentiation-to-improve-graft-outcome-in-clinical-translation-of-hesc-based-therapy-for-parkinson-s-disease
#20
Agnete Kirkeby, Sara Nolbrant, Katarina Tiklova, Andreas Heuer, Nigel Kee, Tiago Cardoso, Daniella Rylander Ottosson, Mariah J Lelos, Pedro Rifes, Stephen B Dunnett, Shane Grealish, Thomas Perlmann, Malin Parmar
Stem cell treatments for neurodegenerative diseases are expected to reach clinical trials soon. Most of the approaches currently under development involve transplantation of immature progenitors that subsequently undergo phenotypic and functional maturation in vivo, and predicting the long-term graft outcome already at the progenitor stage remains a challenge. Here, we took an unbiased approach to identify predictive markers expressed in dopamine neuron progenitors that correlate with graft outcome in an animal model of Parkinson's disease through gene expression analysis of >30 batches of grafted human embryonic stem cell (hESC)-derived progenitors...
January 5, 2017: Cell Stem Cell
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