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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228398/organophosphorus-compounds-at-80-some-old-and-new-issues
#1
Lucio G Costa
One of the major classes of pesticides is that of the organophosphates (OPs). Initial developments date back almost two centuries but it was only in the mid-1940s that OPs reached a prominent status as insecticides, a status that, albeit declining, is still ongoing. OPs are highly toxic to non-target species including humans, the primary effects being an acute cholinergic toxicity (responsible for thousands of poisoning each year) and a delayed polyneuropathy. Several issues of current debate and investigation on the toxicology of OPs are discussed in this brief review...
December 7, 2017: Toxicological Sciences: An Official Journal of the Society of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228214/oestrogen-receptor-%C3%AE-ligand-acts-on-cd11c-cells-to-mediate-protection-in-experimental-autoimmune-encephalomyelitis
#2
Roy Y Kim, Darian Mangu, Alexandria S Hoffman, Rojan Kovash, Eunice Jung, Noriko Itoh, Rhonda Voskuhl
Oestrogen treatments are neuroprotective in a variety of neurodegenerative disease models. Selective oestrogen receptor modifiers are needed to optimize beneficial effects while minimizing adverse effects to achieve neuroprotection in chronic diseases. Oestrogen receptor beta (ERβ) ligands are potential candidates. In the multiple sclerosis model chronic experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, ERβ-ligand treatment is neuroprotective, but mechanisms underlying this neuroprotection remain unclear. Specifically, whether there are direct effects of ERβ-ligand on CD11c+ microglia, myeloid dendritic cells or macrophages in vivo during disease is unknown...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228015/development-of-an-iron-selective-antioxidant-probe-with-protective-effects-on-neuronal-function
#3
Olimpo García-Beltrán, Natalia P Mena, Pabla Aguirre, Germán Barriga-González, Antonio Galdámez, Edgar Nagles, Tatiana Adasme, Cecilia Hidalgo, Marco T Núñez
Iron accumulation, oxidative stress and calcium signaling dysregulation are common pathognomonic signs of several neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson´s and Alzheimer's diseases, Friedreich ataxia and Huntington's disease. Given their therapeutic potential, the identification of multifunctional compounds that suppress these damaging features is highly desirable. Here, we report the synthesis and characterization of N-(1,3-dihydroxy-2-(hydroxymethyl)propan-2-yl)-2-(7-hydroxy-2-oxo-2H-chromen-4-yl)acetamide, named CT51, which exhibited potent free radical neutralizing activity both in vitro and in cells...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227743/the-impact-of-latino-values-and-cultural-beliefs-on-brain-donation-results-of-a-pilot-study-to-develop-culturally-appropriate-materials-and-methods-to-increase-rates-of-brain-donation-in-this-under-studied-patient-group
#4
Ann Choryan Bilbrey, Marika B Humber, Edward D Plowey, Iliana Garcia, Lakshmi Chennapragada, Kanchi Desai, Allyson Rosen, Nusha Askari, Dolores Gallagher-Thompson
OBJECTIVES: Increasing the number of Latino persons with dementia who consent to brain donation (BD) upon death is an important public health goal that has not yet been realized. This study identified the need for culturally sensitive materials to answer questions and support the decision-making process for the family. METHODS: Information about existing rates of BD was obtained from the Alzheimer's Disease Centers. Several methods of data collection (query NACC database, contacting Centers, focus groups, online survey, assessing current protocol and materials) were used to give the needed background to create culturally appropriate BD materials...
September 15, 2017: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227343/golgi-fragmentation-induced-by-overactivated-cyclin-dependent-kinase-5-is-associated-with-isoflurane-induced-neurotoxicity
#5
Fang-Fang Miao, Cui-Cui Kong, Yan Wu, Long Fan, Tian-Long Wang
Overactivated cyclin-dependent kinase 5 (Cdk5) induces Golgi fragmentation, which interrupts the processing and trafficking of secretory cargo and subsequently synaptic plasticity and synaptogenesis, and even leads to neuronal cell death. Cdk5 overactivation and subsequent Golgi fragmentation are involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity is relevant to aberrant Cdk5 activation and subsequent Golgi fragmentation remains unknown. In the present study, we explored the underlying molecular mechanisms of isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in primary cultured hippocampal neurons...
December 8, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227284/cografting-astrocytes-improves-cell-therapeutic-outcomes-in-a-parkinson-s-disease-model
#6
Jae-Jin Song, Sang-Min Oh, Oh-Chan Kwon, Noviana Wulnansari, Hyun-Seob Lee, Mi-Yoon Chang, Eunsoo Lee, Woong Sun, Sang-Eun Lee, Sunghoe Chang, Heeyoung An, C Justin Lee, Sang-Hun Lee
Transplantation of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) is a potential therapy for treating neurodegenerative disorders, but this approach has faced many challenges and limited success, primarily because of inhospitable host brain environments that interfere with enriched neuron engraftment and function. Astrocytes play neurotrophic roles in the developing and adult brain, making them potential candidates for helping with modification of hostile brain environments. In this study, we examined whether astrocytic function could be utilized to overcome the current limitations of cell-based therapies in a murine model of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is characterized by dopamine (DA) neuron degeneration in the midbrain...
December 11, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227178/neuronal-pathophysiology-featuring-prpc-and-its-control-over-ca2-metabolism
#7
Alessandro Bertoli, M Catia Sorgato
Calcium (Ca2+) is an intracellular second messenger that ubiquitously masters remarkably diverse biological processes, including cell death. Growing evidence substantiates an involvement of the prion protein (PrPC) in regulating neuronal Ca2+ homeostasis, which could rationalize most of the wide range of functions ascribed to the protein. We have recently demonstrated that PrPC controls extracellular Ca2+ fluxes, and mitochondrial Ca2+ uptake, in neurons stimulated with glutamate (De Mario et al., J Cell Sci 2017; 130:2736-46), suggesting that PrPC protects neurons from threatening Ca2+ overloads and excitotoxicity...
December 11, 2017: Prion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226876/serum-c-peptide-visfatin-resistin-and-ghrelin-are-altered-in-sporadic-and-grn-associated-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration
#8
Roberta Zanardini, Luisa Benussi, Silvia Fostinelli, Claudia Saraceno, Miriam Ciani, Barbara Borroni, Alessandro Padovani, Giuliano Binetti, Roberta Ghidoni
Frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD) is a group of complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive deterioration of the frontal and anterior temporal lobes of the brain resulting in different heterogeneous conditions, mainly characterized by personality changes, behavioral disturbances, such as binge eating, and deficits in language and executive functions. Null mutations in progranulin gene (GRN) are one of the most frequent genetic determinants in familial frontotemporal dementia. Recently, progranulin was recognized as an adipokine involved in diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance revealing its metabolic function...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226874/alterations-in-acrolein-metabolism-contribute-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Han-Hsing Tsou, Wen-Chin Hsu, Jong-Ling Fuh, Shih-Pin Chen, Tsung-Yun Liu, Hsiang-Tsui Wang
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a detrimental neurodegenerative disease, and early diagnosis appears to be the key to successful treatment. Acrolein, a byproduct of lipid peroxidation, has been shown to contribute to the pathological process of AD. This study recruited 118 elderly subjects consisting of 58 non-demented control subjects and 62 AD patients. We analyzed the acrolein-related metabolites in the plasma, cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), and urine of all subjects. We found that the levels of acrolein-conjugated protein (Acr-PC) in the plasma (p = 0...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226873/modeling-prion-like-processing-of%C3%A2-tau%C3%A2-protein-in-alzheimer-s-disease-for%C3%A2-pharmaceutical-development
#10
Claude M Wischik, Björn O Schelter, Damon J Wischik, John M D Storey, Charles R Harrington
 Following our discovery of a fragment from the repeat domain of tau protein as a structural constituent of the PHF-core in Alzheimer's disease (AD), we developed an assay that captured several key features of the aggregation process. Tau-tau binding through the core tau fragment could be blocked by the same diaminophenothiazines found to dissolve proteolytically stable PHFs isolated from AD brain. We found that the PHF-core tau fragment is inherently capable of auto-catalytic self-propagation in vitro, or "prion-like processing", that has now been demonstrated for several neurodegenerative disorders...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226866/11c-cft-pet-in-presymptomatic-ftdp-17-a-potential-biomarker-predicting-onset
#11
Liyong Wu, Jia Liu, Xueyan Feng, Jing Dong, Wei Qin, Yang Liu, Jingjuan Wang, Jie Lu, Kewei Chen, Yuping Wang, Jianping Jia
Frontotemporal dementia with parkinsonism-linked to chromosome 17 (FTDP-17) is a rare autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder. Most patients with FTDP-17 carry the mutation in the microtubule-associated protein tau (MAPT) gene. Striatum is predominantly and early affected in FTDP-17. Five family members (two symptomatic patients and three presymptomatic mutation carriers) from a Chinese pedigree of FTDP-17 with N279K mutation in MAPT were enrolled. Parkinsonism was the initial symptom for symptomatic patients...
December 6, 2017: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226728/the-efficacy-and-safety-of-riluzole-for-neurodegenerative-movement-disorders-a-systematic-review-with-meta-analysis
#12
Jia Liu, Lu-Ning Wang
Neurodegenerative movement disorders mainly include Parkinson's disease, atypical parkinsonisms, Huntington disease, and hereditary ataxia. Riluzole is the only drug approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The neuroprotective effects of riluzole have been observed in experimental models of neurodegenerative movement disorders. In this paper, we aimed to systematically analyze the efficacy and safety of riluzole for patients with neurodegenerative movement disorder...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226533/the-anthelmintic-drug-niclosamide-and-its-analogues-activate-the-parkinson-s-disease-associated-protein-kinase-pink1
#13
Erica Barini, Ageo Miccoli, Federico Tinarelli, Katie Mulholand, Hachemi Kadri, Farhat Khanim, Laste Stojanovski, Kevin D Read, Kerry Burness, Julian J Blow, Youcef Mehellou, Miratul Muqit
Mutations in PINK1, which impair its catalytic kinase activity, are causal for autosomal recessive early onset Parkinson's disease (PD). Various studies have indicated that the activation of PINK1 could be a useful strategy in treating neurodegenerative diseases such as PD. Herein, we show that the anthelmintic drug niclosamide and its analogues are capable of activating PINK1 in cells via reversible impairment of the mitochondrial membrane potential. Using these compounds, we demonstrate for the first time that the PINK1 pathway is active and detectable in primary neurons...
December 10, 2017: Chembiochem: a European Journal of Chemical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226424/activation-of-ep2-receptor-suppresses-poly-i-c-and-lps-mediated-inflammation-in-primary-microglia-and-organotypic-hippocampal-slice-cultures-contributing-role-for-mapks
#14
Nizar M Yousif, Antonio Carlos Pinheiro de Oliveira, Simone Brioschi, Michael Huell, Knut Biber, Bernd L Fiebich
Brain inflammation is a critical factor involved in neurodegeneration. Recently, the prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) downstream members were suggested to modulate neuroinflammatory responses accompanying neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the protective effects of prostaglandin E2 receptor 2 (EP2 ) during TLR3 and TLR4-driven inflammatory response using in vitro primary microglia and ex vivo organotypic hippocampal slice cultures (OHSCs). Depletion of microglia from OHSCs differentially affected TLR3 and TLR4 receptor expression...
December 11, 2017: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226294/kinase-loaded-magnetic-beads-for-sequential-in-vitro-phosphorylation-of-peptides-and-proteins
#15
Lenka Hromadkova, Rudolf Kupcik, Marie Vajrychova, Petr Prikryl, Andrea Charvatova, Barbora Jankovicova, Daniela Ripova, Zuzana Bilkova, Marcela Slovakova
Post-translational modifications, including phosphorylation, greatly impact the physiological function of proteins, especially those that are natively unfolded and implicated in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, structural and functional studies of such proteins require fully defined phosphorylation, including those that are not physiological. Thus, the kinases ERK2 and GSK-3β were immobilized to various superparamagnetic beads with carboxylic, aldehyde, Ni2+, or Co3+ functional groups, with a view to efficiently phosphorylate peptides and proteins in vitro...
December 11, 2017: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29226175/longitudinal-transcranial-measurement-of-functional-activation-in-the-rat-brain-by-diffuse-correlation-spectroscopy
#16
Igor Blanco, Peyman Zirak, Tanja Dragojević, Clara Castellvi, Turgut Durduran, Carles Justicia
Neural activity is an important biomarker for the presence of neurodegenerative diseases, cerebrovascular alterations, and brain trauma; furthermore, it is a surrogate marker for treatment effects. These pathologies may occur and evolve in a long time-period, thus, noninvasive, transcutaneous techniques are necessary to allow a longitudinal follow-up. In the present work, we have customized noninvasive, transcutaneous, diffuse correlation spectroscopy (DCS) to localize changes in cerebral blood flow (CBF) induced by neural activity...
October 2017: Neurophotonics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225795/multiple-system-atrophy-genetic-risks-and-alpha-synuclein-mutations
#17
REVIEW
Heather T Whittaker, Yichen Qui, Conceição Bettencourt, Henry Houlden
Multiple system atrophy (MSA) is one of the few neurodegenerative disorders where we have a significant understanding of the clinical and pathological manifestations but where the aetiology remains almost completely unknown. Research to overcome this hurdle is gaining momentum through international research collaboration and a series of genetic and molecular discoveries in the last few years, which have advanced our knowledge of this rare synucleinopathy. In MSA, the discovery of α-synuclein pathology and glial cytoplasmic inclusions remain the most significant findings...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225556/an-optimal-transportation-based-univariate-neuroimaging-index
#18
Liang Mi, Wen Zhang, Junwei Zhang, Yonghui Fan, Dhruman Goradia, Kewei Chen, Eric M Reiman, Xianfeng Gu, Yalin Wang
The alterations of brain structures and functions have been considered closely correlated to the change of cognitive performance due to neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease. In this paper, we introduce a variational framework to compute the optimal transformation (OT) in 3D space and propose a univariate neuroimaging index based on OT to measure such alterations. We compute the OT from each image to a template and measure the Wasserstein distance between them. By comparing the distances from all the images to the common template, we obtain a concise and informative index for each image...
2017: Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225293/-involvement-of-g-quadruplexes-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#19
Norifumi Shioda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2017: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29225190/scopolamine-induced-passive-avoidance-memory-retrieval-deficit-is-accompanied-with-hippocampal-mmp2-mmp-9-and-mapks-alteration
#20
Maryam Moosavi, Roksana SoukhakLari, Leila Moezi, Fatema Pirsalami
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive loss of memory and cognitive deficit. The observed amnesia in the early stages of AD is suggested to be a retrieval problem, rather than encoding and consolidation deficit. According to the cholinergic hypothesis of AD, scopolamine is used to induce an animal model of amnesia. Howbeit the effect of scopolamine on memory retrieval is contradictory. This study aimed to assess the effect of scopolamine on passive avoidance memory retrieval...
December 7, 2017: European Journal of Pharmacology
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