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Oxygen reserve index

Masato Furuhashi, Megumi Matsumoto, Takayo Murase, Takashi Nakamura, Yukimura Higashiura, Masayuki Koyama, Marenao Tanaka, Norihito Moniwa, Hirofumi Ohnishi, Shigeyuki Saitoh, Kazuaki Shimamoto, Tetsuji Miura
AIMS/INTRODUCTION: Xanthine oxidoreductase (XOR), a rate-limiting and catalyzing enzyme of uric acid formation in the purine metabolism, is involved in an increase in reactive oxygen species. Plasma XOR activity has been shown to be associated with obesity, smoking, liver dysfunction, hyperuricemia, dyslipidemia and insulin resistance. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The association between plasma XOR activity measured by using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry and levels of adipokines, including adiponectin, fatty acid-binding protein 4 (FABP4) and fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21), were investigated in 282 subjects (male/female: 126/156) with no medication of the Tanno-Sobetsu Study...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Laetitia Desplanque, Florent Hamaide-Defrocourt, Ilham Berkia, Tiffany Tourneur, Souha Albinni, Mirela Bojan
PURPOSE: Measurement of lactate concentrations during cardiac surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) is a reliable monitoring tool for the assessment of the adequacy of perfusion, and a predictor of poor outcome. However, increased lactate production, which is multifactorial (anaerobic metabolism, hyperglycemia), increased lactate load by packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusions, and decreased lactate clearance may all result in hyperlactatemia. The aim of this study was to estimate the clearance of lactate in infants undergoing surgery with CPB, using the lactate load from the PRBCs transfusions received during CPB...
December 4, 2018: Artificial Organs
João D Mattos, Monique O Campos, Marcos P Rocha, Daniel E Mansur, Helena N M Rocha, Vinicius P Garcia, Gabriel Batista, Thiago S Alvares, Gustavo V Oliveira, Mônica V Souza, Rogério L R Videira, Natalia G Rocha, Niels H Secher, Antonio C L Nóbrega, Igor A Fernandes
KEY POINTS: It is unknown whether excessive reactive oxygen species (ROS) production drives the isocapnic hyperoxia (IH)-induced decline in human cerebral blood flow (CBF) via reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and leads to disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) or neural-parenchymal damage. We then simultaneously quantified CBF, metabolic rate for oxygen (CMRO2 ) and transcerebral exchanges of NO-end products, oxidant, antioxidant, and neural-parenchymal damage markers under IH with intravenous saline and vitamin C infusion...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Lisa M Walter, Knarik Tamanyan, Aidan J Weichard, Margot J Davey, Gillian M Nixon, Rosemary Sc Horne
KEY POINT SUMMARY: Sleep disordered breathing (SDB) affects 4 - 11% of children and is associated with adverse neurocognitive, behavioural and cardiovascular outcomes, including reduced autonomic control. The relationship between heart rate variability (HRV; a measure of autonomic control), and age found in non-snoring control children was absent during sleep in children with SDB. Age significantly predicted increasing cerebral oxygenation during wake in non-snoring control children, whereas during sleep, HRV significantly predicted decreasing cerebral oxygenation...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Julien Fessler, Mathieu Godement, Romain Pirracchio, Jean-Yves Marandon, Jacques Thes, Edouard Sage, Antoine Roux, François Parquin, Charles Cerf, Marc Fischler, Morgan Le Guen
OBJECTIVE: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is usually used during lung transplantation despite controversial postoperative benefits. Our group chose to administer iNO systematically during the procedure and stop at end of surgery. This study aims to describe the features of patients who cannot be weaned from iNO, the reasons for this and its impact on postoperative outcomes. METHODS: This is a monocentric cohort study comprised all consecutive patients who underwent double-lung transplantation (DLT) between January 1st, 2012 and January 1, 2016...
November 17, 2018: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Zdenek Provaznik, Christoph Unterbuchner, Alois Philipp, Maik Foltan, Marcus Creutzenberg, Simon Schopka, Daniele Camboni, Christof Schmid, Bernhard Floerchinger
The use of minimized cardiopulmonary bypass support to reduce the side effects of extracorporeal circulation is still contradictorily discussed. This study compares perfusion operated by conventional (CCPB) and minimized (MCPB) cardiopulmonary bypass support during coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG). METHODS: This study includes the data of 5164 patients treated at our department between 2004 and 2014. Tissue perfusion during cardiopulmonary bypass support and cardiac arrest was assessed by means of body mass index, hemodilution, blood pressure with corresponding pump flow and venous oxygen saturation, serum lactate, and serum pH...
November 9, 2018: Artificial Organs
Jacqueline Huvanandana, Cindy Thamrin, Murray Hinder, Alistair McEwan, Mark Tracy
AIM: To evaluate cerebral autoregulation changes in preterm infants receiving a loading dose of caffeine base. METHODS: In a cohort of 30 preterm infants, we extracted measures of cerebral autoregulation using time and frequency domain techniques to determine the correlation between mean arterial pressure (MAP) and tissue oxygenation index (TOI) signals. These measures included the cerebral oximetry index (COx), cross-correlation and coherence measures, and were extracted prior to caffeine loading and in the 2 hours following administration of 10 mg/kg caffeine base...
November 7, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Frederik Helsen, Piet Claus, Alexander Van De Bruaene, Guido Claessen, André La Gerche, Pieter De Meester, Mathias Claeys, Charlien Gabriels, Thibault Petit, Béatrice Santens, Els Troost, Jens-Uwe Voigt, Jan Bogaert, Werner Budts
Background Reduced ventricular function and decreased exercise capacity are widespread in adults with complete transposition of the great arteries after atrial switch ( TGA -Mustard/Senning) and congenitally corrected TGA (cc TGA ). Advanced imaging techniques may help to better phenotype these patients and evaluate exercise cardiac response. Methods and Results Thirty-three adults with a systemic right ventricle (70% TGA -Mustard/Senning, 37±9 years of age, 24% female, 94% New York Heart Association class I- II ) underwent echocardiogram, cardiopulmonary exercise testing, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance imaging at rest and during a 4-stage free-breathing bicycle test...
October 16, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Hee-Tae Roh, Wi-Young So
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of obesity and aerobic exercise training on oxidant-antioxidant balance, neurotrophic factor levels, and blood-brain barrier (BBB) function. Methods: Ten non-obese healthy men (body mass index < 25 kg/m2 ) and 10 obese men (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m2 ) were included in the study. Both groups performed treadmill exercise for 40 min 3 times weekly for 8 weeks at 70% heart rate reserve...
December 2017: Journal of Sport and Health Science
Danilo Cardim, Chiara Robba, Basil Matta, Graham Tytherleigh-Strong, Niel Kang, Bernhard Schmidt, Joseph Donnelly, Leanne Calviello, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka
Although the beach-chair position (BCP) is widely used during shoulder surgery, it has been reported to associate with a reduction in cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and risk of brain ischaemia. We assessed cerebral haemodynamics using a multiparameter transcranial Doppler-derived approach in patients undergoing shoulder surgery. 23 anaesthetised patients (propofol (2 mg/kg)) without history of neurologic pathology undergoing elective shoulder surgery were included. Arterial blood pressure (ABP, monitored with a finger-cuff plethysmograph calibrated at the auditory meatus level) and cerebral blood flow velocity (FV, monitored in the middle cerebral artery) were recorded in supine and in BCP...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Shuhei Yamamoto, Kazuki Hotta, Erika Ota, Atsuhiko Matsunaga, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is the end stage of heart disease, and the prevalence and incidence of the condition is rapidly increasing. Although heart transplantation is one type of surgical treatment for people with end-stage heart failure, donor availability is limited. Implantable ventricular assist devices (VADs) therefore offer an alternative treatment to heart transplantation. Although two studies reported the beneficial effects of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on functional capacity and quality of life (QOL) by performing systematic reviews and meta-analyses, both systematic reviews included studies with limited design (e...
September 30, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Moisés A Bernal, Jennifer M Donelson, Heather D Veilleux, Taewoo Ryu, Philip L Munday, Timothy Ravasi
Global warming will have far-reaching consequences for marine species over coming decades, yet the magnitude of these effects may depend on the rate of warming across generations. Recent experiments show coral reef fishes can compensate the metabolic challenges of elevated temperature when warm conditions are maintained across generations. However, the effects of a gradual temperature increase across generations remain unknown. In the present study, we analysed metabolic and molecular traits in the damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus that were exposed to +1...
September 29, 2018: Molecular Ecology
Tiago S Nascimento, Isabelle S M Silva, Maria Cecília M A Alves, Bruna B Gouveia, Lara Mariane R Barbosa, Taís J S Macedo, Jamile M S Santos, Alane P O Monte, Maria Helena T Matos, Francine F Padilha, Isabel B Lima-Verde
This study aimed to characterize the hydroethanolic extract of red propolis (HERP) and nanoparticles containing HERP for using as an additive in the culture medium of isolated ovine preantral follicles. HERP was characterized by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determination of flavonoid content, and the nanoparticles by the mean particle diameter, polydispersity index (PI) and encapsulation efficiency (EE). The effect of HERP (10 and 20 ηg/ml-HERP10 and HERP20 groups) and nanoparticles (NP10 and NP20 groups) on isolated secondary follicles cultured in vitro for 12 days was observed by morphological evaluation, oxidative stress markers (reactive oxygen species-ROS and glutathione-GSH) and active mitochondria...
September 23, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Luca Ruggiero, Ryan L Hoiland, Alexander B Hansen, Philip N Ainslie, Chris J McNeil
KEY POINTS: The reduced oxygen tension of high altitude compromises performance in lowlanders. In this environment, Sherpa display superior performance, but little is known on this issue. Sherpa present unique genotypic and phenotypic characteristics at the muscular level, which may enhance resistance to peripheral fatigue at high altitude compared to lowlanders. We studied the impact of gradual ascent and exposure to high altitude (5050 m) on peripheral fatigue in age-matched lowlanders and Sherpa, using intermittent electrically-evoked contractions of the knee extensors...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology
Valérie Julian, David Thivel, Maud Miguet, Bruno Pereira, Frédéric Costes, Emmanuel Coudeyre, Martine Duclos, Ruddy Richard
The benefits of eccentric (ECC) training on fat mass (FM) remain underexplored. We hypothesized that in obese adolescents, ECC cycling training is more efficient for decreasing whole-body FM percentage compared to concentric (CON) performed at the same oxygen consumption (VO2 ). Twenty-four adolescents aged 13.4 ± 1.3 years (BMI > 90th percentile) were randomized to ECC or CON. They performed three cyclo-ergometer sessions per week (30 min per session) for 12 weeks: two habituation, 5 at 50% VO2peak , and 5 at 70% VO2peak ...
September 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Håkan Kalzén, Tova Hannegård Hamrin, Lars Lindberg, Ola Ingemanson, Peter J Radell, Staffan Eksborg
AIM: To investigate whether unnecessary harm could be avoided in children admitted to paediatric intensive care (PICU), we analysed the impact of arterial blood gas on the paediatric index of mortality score2 (PIM2) and the derived predicted death rate (PDR). METHODS: From January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2010, 1793 consecutive admissions, newborn infants to 16 years of age (median 0.71 years) from a single, tertiary PICU in Gothenburg Sweden, were collected. Admission information on arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 ) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) was extracted from 990 admissions...
September 16, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Zhongbo Liu, Maria E Solesio, Mitchell B Schaffler, Dorra Frikha-Benayed, Clifford J Rosen, Haim Werner, John J Kopchick, Evgeny V Pavlov, Andrey Y Abramov, Shoshana Yakar
Despite increased longevity and resistance to multiple stressors, growth hormone receptor null (GHRKO) mice exhibit severe skeletal impairment. The role of GHR in maintaining osteocyte mitochondrial function is unknown. We found that GHR ablation was detrimental to osteocyte mitochondrial function. In vivo multiphoton microscopy revealed significant reductions of >10% in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in GHRKO osteocytes and reduced mitochondrial volumetric density. Reductions in MMP were accompanied by reductions in glucose transporter-1 levels, steady state ATP, NADH redox index, oxygen consumption rate, and mitochondrial reserve capacity in GHRKO osteocytes...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Katrine Rolid, Arne K Andreassen, Marianne Yardley, Elisabeth Bjørkelund, Kristjan Karason, Julia P Wigh, Christian H Dall, Finn Gustafsson, Lars Gullestad, Kari Nytrøen
AIM: To study exercise capacity and determinants of early peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak ) in a cohort of de novo heart transplant (HTx) recipients. METHODS: To determine possible central (chronotropic responses, cardiopulmonary and hemodynamic function) and peripheral factors (muscular exercise capacity and body composition) predictive of VO2peak , a number of different measurements and tests were performed, as follows: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was performed mean 11 wk after surgery in 81 HTx recipients > 18 years and was measured with breath by breath gas exchange on a treadmill or bicycle ergometer...
September 10, 2018: World Journal of Transplantation
Kei Ishii, Nan Liang, Ryota Asahara, Makoto Takahashi, Kanji Matsukawa
KEY POINTS: Some cortical areas are believed to transmit a descending signal in association with motor intention and/or effort that regulates the cardiovascular system during exercise (termed central command). However, there was no evidence for the specific cortical area responding prior to arbitrary motor execution and in proportion to the motor effort. Using a multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy system, we found that the oxygenation of the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices on the right side increases in a feedforward- and motor effort-dependent manner during voluntary one-armed cranking with the right arm...
November 2018: Journal of Physiology
Jaap Jan Vos, Cornelis H Willems, Kai van Amsterdam, Johannes P van den Berg, Rob Spanjersberg, Michel M R F Struys, Thomas W L Scheeren
BACKGROUND: Pulse oximetry-derived oxygen saturation is typically >97% in normoxia and hyperoxia, limiting its clinical use. The new Oxygen Reserve Index (ORi), a relative indicator of the partial pressure of oxygen dissolved in arterial blood (PaO2) in the range of 100-200 mm Hg, may allow additional monitoring of oxygen status. METHODS: In this prospective validation intervention study, 20 healthy volunteers were breathing standardized oxygen concentrations ranging from mild hypoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen = 0...
August 22, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
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