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Oxygen reserve index

Danilo Cardim, Chiara Robba, Basil Matta, Graham Tytherleigh-Strong, Niel Kang, Bernhard Schmidt, Joseph Donnelly, Leanne Calviello, Peter Smielewski, Marek Czosnyka
Although the beach-chair position (BCP) is widely used during shoulder surgery, it has been reported to associate with a reduction in cerebral blood flow, oxygenation, and risk of brain ischaemia. We assessed cerebral haemodynamics using a multiparameter transcranial Doppler-derived approach in patients undergoing shoulder surgery. 23 anaesthetised patients (propofol (2 mg/kg)) without history of neurologic pathology undergoing elective shoulder surgery were included. Arterial blood pressure (ABP, monitored with a finger-cuff plethysmograph calibrated at the auditory meatus level) and cerebral blood flow velocity (FV, monitored in the middle cerebral artery) were recorded in supine and in BCP...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Clinical Monitoring and Computing
Shuhei Yamamoto, Kazuki Hotta, Erika Ota, Atsuhiko Matsunaga, Rintaro Mori
BACKGROUND: Heart failure is the end stage of heart disease, and the prevalence and incidence of the condition is rapidly increasing. Although heart transplantation is one type of surgical treatment for people with end-stage heart failure, donor availability is limited. Implantable ventricular assist devices (VADs) therefore offer an alternative treatment to heart transplantation. Although two studies reported the beneficial effects of exercise-based cardiac rehabilitation (CR) on functional capacity and quality of life (QOL) by performing systematic reviews and meta-analyses, both systematic reviews included studies with limited design (e...
September 30, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Moisés A Bernal, Jennifer M Donelson, Heather D Veilleux, Taewoo Ryu, Philip L Munday, Timothy Ravasi
Global warming will have far-reaching consequences for marine species over coming decades, yet the magnitude of these effects may depend on the rate of warming across generations. Recent experiments show coral reef fishes can compensate the metabolic challenges of elevated temperature when warm conditions are maintained across generations. However, the effects of a gradual temperature increase across generations remain unknown. In the present study, we analyzed metabolic and molecular traits in the damselfish Acanthochromis polyacanthus that were exposed to +1...
September 29, 2018: Molecular Ecology
T S Nascimento, I S M Silva, M C M A Alves, B B Gouveia, L M R Barbosa, T J S Macedo, J M S Santos, A P O Monte, M H T Matos, F F Padilha, I B Lima-Verde
This study aimed to characterize the hydroethanolic extract of red propolis (HERP) and nanoparticles containing HERP for using as an additive in the culture medium of isolated ovine preantral follicles. HERP was characterized by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and determination of flavonoid content; the nanoparticles by the mean particle diameter, polidispersity index (PI) and encapsulation efficiency (EE). The effect of HERP (10 and 20 ηg/mL - HERP10 and HERP20 groups) and nanoparticles (NP10 and NP20 groups) on isolated secondary follicles cultured in vitro for 12 days was observed by morphological evaluation, oxidative stress markers (reactive oxygen species -ROS and glutathione - GSH) and active mitochondria...
September 23, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Luca Ruggiero, Ryan L Hoiland, Alexander B Hansen, Philip N Ainslie, Chris J McNeil
KEY POINTS: The reduced oxygen tension of high altitude compromises performance in lowlanders. In this environment, Sherpa display superior performance, but little is known on this issue. Sherpa present unique genotypic and phenotypic characteristics at the muscular level, which may enhance resistance to peripheral fatigue at high altitude compared to lowlanders. We studied the impact of gradual ascent and exposure to high altitude (5050 m) on peripheral fatigue in age-matched lowlanders and Sherpa, using intermittent electrically-evoked contractions of the knee extensors...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Valérie Julian, David Thivel, Maud Miguet, Bruno Pereira, Frédéric Costes, Emmanuel Coudeyre, Martine Duclos, Ruddy Richard
The benefits of eccentric (ECC) training on fat mass (FM) remain underexplored. We hypothesized that in obese adolescents, ECC cycling training is more efficient for decreasing whole-body FM percentage compared to concentric (CON) performed at the same oxygen consumption (VO2 ). Twenty-four adolescents aged 13.4 ± 1.3 years (BMI > 90th percentile) were randomized to ECC or CON. They performed three cyclo-ergometer sessions per week (30 min per session) for 12 weeks: two habituation, 5 at 50% VO2peak , and 5 at 70% VO2peak ...
September 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Medicine & Science in Sports
Håkan Kalzén, Tova Hannegård Hamrin, Lars Lindberg, Ola Ingemanson, Peter Radell, Staffan Eksborg
AIM: To investigate if unnecessary harm could be avoided in children admitted to paediatric intensive care (PICU), we analysed the impact of arterial blood gas on the paediatric index of mortality score2 (PIM2) and the derived predicted death rate (PDR). METHODS: From 1 January 2008 to 31 December 2010, 1,793 consecutive admissions, newborn infants to 16 years of age (median 0.71 years) from a single, tertiary PICU in Gothenburg Sweden, were collected. Admission information on arterial oxygen tension (PaO2 ) and fraction of inspired oxygen (FiO2 ) was extracted from 990 admissions...
September 16, 2018: Acta Paediatrica
Zhongbo Liu, Maria E Solesio, Mitchell B Schaffler, Dorra Frikha-Benayed, Clifford J Rosen, Haim Werner, John J Kopchick, Evgeny V Pavlov, Andrey Y Abramov, Shoshana Yakar
Despite increased longevity and resistance to multiple stressors, growth hormone receptor null (GHRKO) mice exhibit severe skeletal impairment. The role of GHR in maintaining osteocyte mitochondrial function is unknown. We found that GHR ablation was detrimental to osteocyte mitochondrial function. In vivo multiphoton microscopy revealed significant reductions of >10% in mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) in GHRKO osteocytes and reduced mitochondrial volumetric density. Reductions in MMP were accompanied by reductions in glucose transporter-1 levels, steady state ATP, NADH redox index, oxygen consumption rate, and mitochondrial reserve capacity in GHRKO osteocytes...
September 14, 2018: Journal of Bone and Mineral Research: the Official Journal of the American Society for Bone and Mineral Research
Katrine Rolid, Arne K Andreassen, Marianne Yardley, Elisabeth Bjørkelund, Kristjan Karason, Julia P Wigh, Christian H Dall, Finn Gustafsson, Lars Gullestad, Kari Nytrøen
AIM: To study exercise capacity and determinants of early peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak ) in a cohort of de novo heart transplant (HTx) recipients. METHODS: To determine possible central (chronotropic responses, cardiopulmonary and hemodynamic function) and peripheral factors (muscular exercise capacity and body composition) predictive of VO2peak , a number of different measurements and tests were performed, as follows: Cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) was performed mean 11 wk after surgery in 81 HTx recipients > 18 years and was measured with breath by breath gas exchange on a treadmill or bicycle ergometer...
September 10, 2018: World Journal of Transplantation
Kei Ishii, Nan Liang, Ryota Asahara, Makoto Takahashi, Kanji Matsukawa
KEY POINTS: Some cortical areas are believed to transmit a descending signal in association with motor intention and/or effort that regulates the cardiovascular system during exercise (termed central command). However, there was no evidence for the specific cortical area responding prior to arbitrary motor execution and in proportion to the motor effort. Using a multichannel near-infrared spectroscopy system, we found that the oxygenation of the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortices on the right side increases in a feedforward- and motor effort-dependent manner during voluntary one-armed cranking with the right arm...
September 3, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Jaap Jan Vos, Cornelis H Willems, Kai van Amsterdam, Johannes P van den Berg, Rob Spanjersberg, Michel M R F Struys, Thomas W L Scheeren
BACKGROUND: Pulse oximetry-derived oxygen saturation is typically >97% in normoxia and hyperoxia, limiting its clinical use. The new Oxygen Reserve Index (ORi), a relative indicator of the partial pressure of oxygen dissolved in arterial blood (PaO2) in the range of 100-200 mm Hg, may allow additional monitoring of oxygen status. METHODS: In this prospective validation intervention study, 20 healthy volunteers were breathing standardized oxygen concentrations ranging from mild hypoxia (fraction of inspired oxygen = 0...
August 22, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Girgis Obaid, Wendong Jin, Shazia Bano, David Kessel, Tayyaba Hasan
With the rapidly emerging designs and applications of light-activated, photodynamic therapy (PDT)-based nanoconstructs, photonanomedicines (PNMs), an unmet need exists to establish whether conventional methods of photochemical and photophysical characterization of photosensitizers are relevant for evaluating new PNMs in order to intelligently guide their design. As a model system, we build on the clinical formulation of benzoporphyrin derivative (BPD), Visudyne® , by developing a panel of nanolipid formulations entrapping new lipidated chemical variants of BPD with differing chemical, photochemical and photophysical properties...
August 20, 2018: Photochemistry and Photobiology
Maria Inês Remígio, Fernando Santa Cruz, Álvaro Ferraz, Maria Cecília Remígio, Giordano Parente, Igor Nascimento, Daniella Brandão, Armele de Fatima Dornelas de Andrade, Fernando de Moraes Neto, Josemberg Campos
PURPOSE: To assess cardiopulmonary capacity, autonomic heart function, and oxygen recovery kinetics during exercise testing before and after bariatric surgery. METHODS: This is a prospective cohort study. Symptom-limited cardiopulmonary exercise testing was performed with 24 patients, 1 week before and 4 months after bariatric surgery. The main variables were maximum oxygen uptake (VO2 max), the time elapsed until the appearance of the first ventilatory threshold (TLV1), and VO2 oxygen kinetics during recovery with a 50% reduction in peak oxygen uptake in the recovery period after exercise (50%VO2 RP)...
August 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Shih-Hao Huang, Yu-Wei Lin
Monitoring dynamic changes in oxygen consumption rates (OCR) of a living organism in real time provide an indirect method of monitoring changes in mitochondrial function during development, aging, or malfunctioning processes. In this study, we developed a microfluidic device integrated with an optical detection system to measure the OCR of a single developing Caenorhabditis elegans ( C. elegans ) from postembryonic development to aging stages in real time via phase-based phosphorescence lifetime measurement...
July 28, 2018: Sensors
G Mendes, L M Baltazar, D G Souza, N P Sá, L H Rosa, C A Rosa, E M Souza-Fagundes, J P Ramos, J Alves-Silva, B B Cota, S Johann
AIMS: To determine the effects of cytochalasin E, isolated from the extremophile fungus Aspergillus felis, on the cells of Paracoccidioides brasiliensis Pb18. METHODS AND RESULTS: Cytochalasin E showed a minimal inhibitory concentration of 3·6 μmol l-1 and minimum fungicidal concentration of 7·2 μmol l-1 on P. brasiliensis by in vitro microdilution and IC50 >964·0 μmol l-1 on murine macrophages. Its selectivity index (>263) indicated that this compound has selectivity for fungal cells...
November 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Bernd Saugel, F Javier Belda
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: Minerva Anestesiologica
Masaru Obokata, Yogesh N V Reddy, Vojtech Melenovsky, Garvan C Kane, Thomas P Olson, Petr Jarolim, Barry A Borlaug
BACKGROUND: Cardiac reserve is depressed in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). The mechanisms causing this are poorly understood. OBJECTIVES: The authors hypothesized that myocardial injury might contribute to the hemodynamic derangements and cardiac reserve limitations that are present in HFpEF. Markers of cardiomyocyte injury, central hemodynamics, ventricular function, and determinants of cardiac oxygen supply-demand balance were measured...
July 3, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
E E Buschmann, P Hillmeister, A Bondke Persson, D S Liebeskind, L Schlich, R Kamenzky, A Busjahn, I R Buschmann, P Bramlage, A Hetzel, M Reinhard
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: External counterpulsation improves cerebral perfusion velocity in acute stroke and may stimulate collateral artery growth. However, whether (non-acute) at-risk patients with high-grade carotid artery disease may benefit from counterpulsation needs to be validated. METHODS: Twenty-eight patients (71 ± 6.5 years, five women) with asymptomatic unilateral chronic severe internal carotid artery stenosis (>70%) or occlusion were randomized to receive 20 min active counterpulsation followed by sham treatment or vice versa...
June 20, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
A Gunia-Krzyżak, K Słoczyńska, J Popiół, P Koczurkiewicz, H Marona, E Pękala
Cinnamic acid derivatives are widely used in cosmetics and possess various functions. This group of compounds includes both naturally occurring and synthetic substances. On the basis of the Cosmetic Ingredient Database (CosIng) and available literature, this review summarizes their functions in cosmetics, including their physicochemical and biological properties as well as reported adverse effects. A perfuming function is typical of many derivatives of cinnamaldehyde, cinnamyl alcohol, dihydrocinnamyl alcohol and cinnamic acid itself; these substances are commonly used in cosmetics all over the world...
August 2018: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
M J Mebius, S A B Clur, A S Vink, E Pajkrt, W S Kalteren, E M W Kooi, A F Bos, G J du Marchie Sarvaas, C M Bilardo
OBJECTIVES: Congenital heart disease (CHD) has been associated with a reduced fetal head circumference (HC). The underlying pathophysiological background remains undetermined. We aimed to define trends in fetal growth and cerebro-placental Doppler flow, and to investigate the association between head growth and cerebro-placental flow in fetuses with CHD. METHODS: Fetuses with CHD and serial measurements of HC, abdominal circumference (AC), middle cerebral artery pulsatility index (MCA-PI), umbilical artery pulsatility index (UA-PI), and cerebro-placental ratio (CPR) were included...
May 28, 2018: Ultrasound in Obstetrics & Gynecology
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