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b Glucan

Rogatien Charlet, Clovis Bortolus, Melissandre Barbet, Boualem Sendid, Samir Jawhara
Background: The intestinal microbiota plays a crucial role in the maintenance of gut homeostasis. Changes in crosstalk between the intestinal epithelial cells, immune cells and the microbiota are critically involved in the development of inflammatory bowel disease. In the experimental mouse model, the development of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) promotes overgrowth of the opportunistic yeast pathogen Candida glabrata . Conversely, fungal colonization aggravates inflammatory parameters...
2018: Gut Pathogens
Rattanaporn Intuy, Takafumi Itoh, Wasana Suyotha, Junji Hayashi, Shigekazu Yano, Koki Makabe, Mamoru Wakayama, Takao Hibi
α-1,3-Glucanase hydrolyzes α-1,3-glucan, an insoluble linear α-1,3-linked homopolymer of glucose that is found in the extracellular polysaccharides produced by oral streptococci in dental plaque and in fungal cell walls. This enzyme could be of application in dental care and the development of fungal cell-wall lytic enzymes, but its three-dimensional structure has not been available to date. In this study, the recombinant catalytic domain of α-1,3-glucanase FH1 from Paenibacillus glycanilyticus FH11, which is classified into glycoside hydrolase family 87, was prepared using a Brevibacillus choshinensis expression system and purified in a soluble form...
December 1, 2018: Acta Crystallographica. Section F, Structural Biology Communications
Juliana A Interaminense, Joana L Vogeley, Carol K Gouveia, Rogério S Portela, José P Oliveira, Suzianny M B C Silva, Maria Raquel M Coimbra, Sílvio M Peixoto, Roberta B Soares, Diego S Buarque, Ranilson S Bezerra
B. subtilis and S. algae effects in growth, survival and innate immunity were assessed on L. vannamei juveniles. During 60 days, shrimp were reared in three treatments: Bs, fed with 106  CFU of B. subtilis per gram of commercial feed, Sa, fed with 106  CFU of S. algae per gram of commercial feed and Control (without bacterial addition). Then, the animals were subjected to a V. parahaemolyticus challenge. For this purpose, four treatments were established: Control (shrimp not submitted to probiotic treatments), Vibrio (Vibrio challenged shrimp), Vibrio + Bs (Bs challenged shrimp) and Vibrio + Sa (Sa challenged shrimp)...
November 20, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Vanda Sargautiene, Ilva Nakurte, Vizma Nikolajeva
Prebiotics inducing the growth or activity of beneficial intestinal bacteria - probiotics producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) have lately received wide recognition for their beneficial influence on host intestinal microbiota and metabolic health. Some non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) are defined as prebiotics and oats being one of richest sources of NSP in grains are considered as potentially having prebiotic effect. However, information on fermentation of specific NSP of oats is limited. Moreover, bacterial cross-feeding interactions in which fermentation of prebiotics is involved is poorly characterized...
2018: Polish Journal of Microbiology
Edna Soares, Rosemeyre Cordeiro, Henrique Faneca, Olga Borges
Antigen-specific immune responses following DNA vaccination are hard to achieve, owing to the difficulty to mediate efficient gene delivery. This study proposed the use of PDMAEMA:PβAE/DNA polyplexes (Pol) as the vehicle of a pDNA vaccine encoding the hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg), with these Pol designed in combination with a soluble (Glu) or a particulate (GPs) form of β‑glucan. β‑Glucans are recognized adjuvants that activate immune cells, a good strategy to improve transfection efficiency and vaccine efficacy...
November 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Julieta Barchiesi, Maria Belen Velazquez, Nicolas Palopoli, Alberto A Iglesias, Diego F Gomez-Casati, Miguel Angel Ballicora, Maria Victoria Busi
Starch is the major energy storage carbohydrate in photosynthetic eukaryotes. Several enzymes are involved in building highly organized semi-crystalline starch granules, including starch-synthase III (SSIII), which is widely conserved in photosynthetic organisms. This enzyme catalyzes the extension of the α-1,4 glucan chain and plays a regulatory role in the synthesis of starch. Interestingly, unlike most plants, the unicellular green alga Ostreococcus tauri has three SSIII isoforms. In the present study, we describe the structure and function of OsttaSSIII-B, which has a similar modular organization to SSIII in higher plants, comprising three putative starch-binding domains (SBDs) at the N-terminal region and a C-terminal catalytic domain (CD)...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Man Zhang, Xin Jin, Yin-Feng Yang
The ruminal mucosal epithelium can secrete defensins, which play a key role in innate and adaptive immunity and are considered potential replacements for antibiotics. Of these, sheep β-defensin-1 (SBD-1) is one of the most potent molecules produced by ovine ruminal epithelial cells (ORECs). β-glucan, safe and effective immune activators, can stimulate innate and adaptive immune responses. Here we examined whether β-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae can induce SBD-1 expression in ORECs, as well as the underlying mechanism...
October 26, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Zhi-Qiang Du, Yue Wang, Hong-Yu Ma, Xiu-Li Shen, Kai Wang, Jie Du, Xiao-Dong Yu, Wen-Hong Fang, Xin-Cang Li
Crustins play important roles in defending against bacteria in the innate immunity system of crustaceans. In present study, we identified a crustin gene in Scylla paramamosain, which was named as SpCrus6. The ORF of SpCrus6 possessed a signal peptide sequence (SPS) at the N-terminus and a WAP domain at the C-terminus. And there were 5 Proline residues, 5 Glycine and 4 Cysteine residues between SPS and WAP domain in SpCrus6. These features indicated that SpCrus6 was a new member of crustin family. The SpCrus6 mRNA transcripts were up-regulated obviously after bacteria or virus challenge...
October 28, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Celia F Rodrigues, Diana Vilas Boas, Ken Haynes, Mariana Henriques
Candida glabrata biofilms are recognized to have high resistance to antifungals. In order to understand the effect of mannans in the resistance profile of C. glabrata mature biofilms, C. glabrata Δ mnn2 was evaluated. Biofilm cell walls were analysed by confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and their susceptibility was assessed for fluconazole, amphotericin B, caspofungin, and micafungin. Crystal violet and Alcian Blue methods were performed to quantify the biomass and the mannans concentration in the biofilm cells and matrices, respectively...
October 30, 2018: Biomolecules
Ryoiti Kiyama, Yoshiyuki Furutani, Kayoko Kawaguchi, Toshio Nakanishi
Sparassis crispa (Hanabiratake) is a widely used medicinal mushroom in traditional Chinese medicine because it contains materials with pharmacological activity. Here, we report its 39.0-Mb genome, encoding 13,157 predicted genes, obtained using next-generation sequencing along with RNA-seq mapping data. A phylogenetic analysis by comparison with 25 other fungal genomes revealed that S. crispa diverged from Postia placenta, a brown-rot fungus, 94 million years ago. Several features specific to the genome were found, including the A-mating type locus with the predicted genes for HD1 and HD2 heterodomain transcription factors, the mitochondrial intermediate peptidase (MIP), and the B-mating type locus with seven potential pheromone receptor genes and three potential pheromone precursor genes...
October 30, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manuel I Osorio, Matías A Zúñiga, Fernanda Mendoza, Gonzalo A Jaña, Verónica A Jiménez
Glucansucrase GTF-SI from Streptococcus mutans is an extracellular enzyme that catalyzes the synthesis of glucan polymers on teeth. GTF-SI has five domains: A, B, C, IV and V, with domain A containing the catalytic site, flanked by domains B and C. Domain V locates 100 Å away from the catalytic site and is required for an optimal enzymatic activity. Nevertheless, the crystal structure of GTF-SI containing domain V is not available, and the structural mechanism through which domain V participates in glucan synthesis still remains elusive...
October 27, 2018: Proteins
Thibaut M B Mouthier, Bake de Rink, Gijs van Erven, Peter de Gijsel, Henk A Schols, Mirjam A Kabel
Ammonia treatment of lignocellulose improves carbohydrate degradability, however, low ammonia dose treatment effects and mechanisms are hardly considered. This study describes low dose ammonia treatment of wheat straw in a statistical design of experiments (Taguchi design) to evaluate the effects of ammonia concentration, treatment time and the Solid:Liquid ratio on structure, composition and enzymatic degradability of the residual fractions. The results showed that low ammonia concentration (≤2 w/w % NH3 ) resulted in a high carbohydrate recovery (>80%) coupled enzymatic hydrolysis of 50% of xylan and 40% of glucan of the treated material using a (hemi-) cellulase enzyme cocktail...
October 11, 2018: Bioresource Technology
A M Anishchenko, O I Aliev, A V Sidekhmenova, A Yu Shamanaev, A V Kuchin, I Yu Chukicheva, M A Torlopov, M B Plotnikov
We studied the effect of O-((((4-hydroxy-3,5-di(1,7,7-trimethylbicyclo[2.2.1]hept-exo-2-yl) benzyl)oxy)ethyl)-O-(2-hydroxyethyl)-(1→4)-α-D-glucan (D-HES, 80 mg/kg, intravenously) and reference preparation ethylmethylhydroxypyridine succinate (EMHP-S, 50 mg/kg, intravenously) on rat survival and neurological deficit in 24 h after transient global cerebral ischemia in Wistar rats. Intravenous administration of D-HES and EMHP-S significantly increased the number of survivors by 68 and 78%, respectively, in comparison with the control group...
October 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
Ravi Verma, Changhon Lee, Eun-Ji Jeun, Jaeu Yi, Kwang Soon Kim, Ambarnil Ghosh, Seohyun Byun, Choong-Gu Lee, Hye-Ji Kang, Gi-Cheon Kim, Chang-Duk Jun, Gwenaël Jan, Chang-Hee Suh, Ju-Yang Jung, Jonathan Sprent, Dipayan Rudra, Cristina De Castro, Antonio Molinaro, Charles D Surh, Sin-Hyeog Im
Dysregulation of intestinal microflora is linked to inflammatory disorders associated with compromised immunosuppressive functions of Foxp3+ T regulatory (Treg ) cells. Although mucosa-associated commensal microbiota has been implicated in Treg generation, molecular identities of the "effector" components controlling this process remain largely unknown. Here, we have defined Bifidobacterium bifidum as a potent inducer of Foxp3+ Treg cells with diverse T cell receptor specificity to dietary antigens, commensal bacteria, and B...
October 19, 2018: Science Immunology
Zeinab Hamza, Maher El-Hashash, Soher Aly, Amal Hathout, Ernesto Soto, Bassem Sabry, Gary Ostroff
This study aimed to assess the effect of encapsulating humic acid inside yeast cell walls (YCW) to detoxify AFB1 in in vitro gastrointestinal models. Glucan Mannan Lipid Particles (GMLPs) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls showed the highest AFB1 adsorption in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) after 10 min, and in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) after 1 h. GMLPs are hollow 3-4 micron porous microspheres that provide an efficient system for the synthesis and encapsulation of AFB1 -absorbing nanoparticles (NPs)...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Shuai Zhou, Qingjiu Tang, Chuanhong Tang, Yanfang Liu, Fuying Ma, Xiaoyu Zhang, Jing-Song Zhang
We analyzed the changes in triterpenes and soluble polysaccharides in Ganoderma lucidum strain G0119 during 4 growth phases in 3 regions of the fruiting bodies using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and we also analyzed the soluble polysaccharides using high-performance size-exclusion chroma-tography-multiple-angle laser-light scattering refractive index analysis. The strong polar triterpenes decreased while weak polar triterpenes increased during the growth cycle of G. lucidum. The highest contents of ganoderic acid B, ganoderic acid A, and ganoderenic acid B were detected in the stipe during phase II, and ganoderic acid S, ganoderic acid T, and ganoderiol B peaked in the base during phase IV...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Boris Novakovic, Yang Li, Brendon P Scicluna, Mark S Gresnigt, Rob J W Arts, Marije Oosting, Simone J C F M Moorlag, Laszlo A Groh, Jelle Zwaag, Rebecca M Koch, Rob Ter Horst, Leo A B Joosten, Cisca Wijmenga, Alessandro Michelucci, Tom van der Poll, Matthijs Kox, Peter Pickkers, Vinod Kumar, Henk Stunnenberg, Mihai G Netea
Sepsis involves simultaneous hyperactivation of the immune system and immune paralysis, leading to both organ dysfunction and increased susceptibility to secondary infections. Acute activation of myeloid cells induced itaconate synthesis, which subsequently mediated innate immune tolerance in human monocytes. In contrast, induction of trained immunity by β-glucan counteracted tolerance induced in a model of human endotoxemia by inhibiting the expression of immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1), the enzyme that controls itaconate synthesis...
October 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Katarzyna Błaszczyk, Małgorzata Gajewska, Jacek Wilczak, Dariusz Kamola, Alicja Majewska, Joanna Harasym, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska
PURPOSE: Beta-glucans are biologically active polysaccharides having antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antiinflammatory properties. This study investigated the transcriptomic profile in peripheral blood of rats with LPS-induced enteritis, which were fed a diet supplemented with high- (G1) and low- (G2) molecular-weight oat beta-glucans. METHODS: Two-color rat gene expression microarrays were applied and the analysis was performed using a common reference design to provide easy means of comparing samples from various experimental conditions against one another...
October 4, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Bozhena S Komarova, Sarah S W Wong, Maria V Orekhova, Yury E Tsvetkov, Vadim B Krylov, Anne Beauvais, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, John F Kearney, Vishukumar Aimanianda, Jean-Paul Latgé, Nikolay E Nifantiev
Biotinylated hepta-, nona- and undeca-α-(1 → 3)-d-glucosides representing long oligosaccharides of α-(1 → 3)-d-glucan, one of the major components of the cell walls of the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, were synthesized for the first time via a blockwise strategy. Convergent assembly of the α-(1 → 3)-d-glucan chains was achieved by glycosylation with oligoglucoside derivatives bearing 6- O-benzoyl groups. Those groups are capable of remote α-stereocontrolling participation, making them efficient α-directing tools even in the case of large glycosyl donors...
November 2, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Xuerui Yao, Hao Jiang, Shuang Liang, Xinghui Shen, Qingshan Gao, Yong Nan Xu, Nam-Hyung Kim
Laminarin (LAM) is a β-glucan oligomer known to possess biological activities such as anticancer and antioxidant effects. This study explored the influence of LAM supplementation on in vitro aged porcine oocytes and the underlying mechanisms behind this influence. We found that LAM delayed the aging process and improved the quality of aged oocytes. LAM supplementation enhanced the subsequent developmental competence of aged oocytes during the in vitro aging process. The blastocyst formation rate was significantly increased in aged oocytes treated with 20 µg/ml LAM compared to non-treated aged oocytes (45...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
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