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b Glucan

Zeinab Hamza, Maher El-Hashash, Soher Aly, Amal Hathout, Ernesto Soto, Bassem Sabry, Gary Ostroff
This study aimed to assess the effect of encapsulating humic acid inside yeast cell walls (YCW) to detoxify AFB1 in in vitro gastrointestinal models. Glucan Mannan Lipid Particles (GMLPs) from Saccharomyces cerevisiae cell walls showed the highest AFB1 adsorption in simulated gastric fluid (SGF) after 10 min, and in simulated intestinal fluid (SIF) after 1 h. GMLPs are hollow 3-4 micron porous microspheres that provide an efficient system for the synthesis and encapsulation of AFB1 -absorbing nanoparticles (NPs)...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Shuai Zhou, Qingjiu Tang, Chuanhong Tang, Yanfang Liu, Fuying Ma, Xiaoyu Zhang, Jing-Song Zhang
We analyzed the changes in triterpenes and soluble polysaccharides in Ganoderma lucidum strain G0119 during 4 growth phases in 3 regions of the fruiting bodies using reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography, and we also analyzed the soluble polysaccharides using high-performance size-exclusion chroma-tography-multiple-angle laser-light scattering refractive index analysis. The strong polar triterpenes decreased while weak polar triterpenes increased during the growth cycle of G. lucidum. The highest contents of ganoderic acid B, ganoderic acid A, and ganoderenic acid B were detected in the stipe during phase II, and ganoderic acid S, ganoderic acid T, and ganoderiol B peaked in the base during phase IV...
2018: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jorge Domínguez-Andrés, Boris Novakovic, Yang Li, Brendon P Scicluna, Mark S Gresnigt, Rob J W Arts, Marije Oosting, Simone J C F M Moorlag, Laszlo A Groh, Jelle Zwaag, Rebecca M Koch, Rob Ter Horst, Leo A B Joosten, Cisca Wijmenga, Alessandro Michelucci, Tom van der Poll, Matthijs Kox, Peter Pickkers, Vinod Kumar, Henk Stunnenberg, Mihai G Netea
Sepsis involves simultaneous hyperactivation of the immune system and immune paralysis, leading to both organ dysfunction and increased susceptibility to secondary infections. Acute activation of myeloid cells induced itaconate synthesis, which subsequently mediated innate immune tolerance in human monocytes. In contrast, induction of trained immunity by β-glucan counteracted tolerance induced in a model of human endotoxemia by inhibiting the expression of immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1), the enzyme that controls itaconate synthesis...
October 1, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Katarzyna Błaszczyk, Małgorzata Gajewska, Jacek Wilczak, Dariusz Kamola, Alicja Majewska, Joanna Harasym, Joanna Gromadzka-Ostrowska
PURPOSE: Beta-glucans are biologically active polysaccharides having antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and antiinflammatory properties. This study investigated the transcriptomic profile in peripheral blood of rats with LPS-induced enteritis, which were fed a diet supplemented with high- (G1) and low- (G2) molecular-weight oat beta-glucans. METHODS: Two-color rat gene expression microarrays were applied and the analysis was performed using a common reference design to provide easy means of comparing samples from various experimental conditions against one another...
October 4, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Bozhena Sergeyevna Komarova, Sarah Sze Wah Wong, Maria V Orekhova, Yury Evgenievich Tsvetkov, Vadim B Krylov, Anne Beauvais, Jean-Philippe Bouchara, John F Kearney, Vishukumar Aimanianda, Jean-Paul Latge, Nikolay E Nifantiev
Biotinylated hepta-, nona- and undeca-α-(1→3)-D-glucosides representing long oligosaccharides of α-(1→3)-D-glucan, one of the major components of the cell walls of the fungal pathogen Aspergillus fumigatus, were synthesized for the first time via a blockwise strategy. Convergent assembly of the α-(1→3)-D-glucan chains was achieved by glycosylation with oligoglucoside derivatives bearing 6- O-benzoyl groups. Those groups are capable of remote α-stereocontrolling participation, making them efficient α-directing tools even in the case of large glycosyl donors...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Organic Chemistry
Xuerui Yao, Hao Jiang, Shuang Liang, Xinghui Shen, Qingshan Gao, Yong Nan Xu, Nam-Hyung Kim
Laminarin (LAM) is a β-glucan oligomer known to possess biological activities such as anticancer and antioxidant effects. This study explored the influence of LAM supplementation on in vitro aged porcine oocytes and the underlying mechanisms behind this influence. We found that LAM delayed the aging process and improved the quality of aged oocytes. LAM supplementation enhanced the subsequent developmental competence of aged oocytes during the in vitro aging process. The blastocyst formation rate was significantly increased in aged oocytes treated with 20 µg/ml LAM compared to non-treated aged oocytes (45...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Reproduction and Development
Marloes van Splunter, Thijs L J van Osch, Sylvia Brugman, Huub F J Savelkoul, Leo A B Joosten, Mihai G Netea, R J Joost van Neerven
Innate immune memory, also termed "trained immunity" in vertebrates, has been recently described in a large variety of plants and animals. In most cases, trained innate immunity is induced by pathogens or pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), and is associated with long-term epigenetic, metabolic, and functional reprogramming. Interestingly, recent findings indicate that food components can mimic PAMPs effects and induce trained immunity. The aim of this study was to investigate whether bovine milk or its components can induce trained immunity in human monocytes...
September 27, 2018: Nutrients
Yan Li, Nan Lan, Lijian Xu, Qun Yue
Fungal diseases are a global public health problem. Invasive fungal infections pose a serious threat to patients with compromised immune systems, such as those undergoing organ or bone marrow transplants, cancer, or HIV/AIDS. Pneumocandins are antifungal lipohexapeptides of the echinocandin family that noncompetitively inhibit of 1,3-β-glucan synthase of fungal cell wall and provide the precursor for the semisynthesis of caspofungin, which is widely used as first-line therapy for invasive fungal infections...
September 25, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
R Rautemaa-Richardson, V Rautemaa, F Al-Wathiqi, C B Moore, L Craig, T W Felton, E G Muldoon
Objectives: A concise invasive candidosis guideline (based on the ESCMID candidaemia guideline) utilizing an informative biomarker [serum β-1-3-d-glucan (BDG)] was developed in 2013 by an antifungal stewardship (AFS) team and implemented with the help of an AFS champion in 2014. The main aims of the AFS programme were to reduce inappropriate use of antifungals and improve patient outcomes. The aim of this project was to evaluate the compliance of the ICU teams with the invasive candidosis guideline and the impact of the AFS programme on mortality and antifungal consumption on the ICUs (total of 71 beds)...
September 24, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Amadeu Z Silva, Felipe P L Costa, Ingrid L Souza, Mariana C Ribeiro, Morenna Alana Giordani, Diogo A Queiroz, Renata A M Luvizotto, André F Nascimento, Gisele F Bomfim, Mario M Sugizaki, Robert F H Dekker, Aneli M Barbosa-Dekker, Eveline A I F Queiroz
AIMS: Obesity is associated with comorbidities such as diabetes and hepatic steatosis. β-Glucans have been described as effective in treating conditions including dyslipidaemia and diabetes. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of botryosphaeran [(1 → 3)(1 → 6)-β-D-glucan] on obesity and its comorbidities, and understand its mechanism of action. MAIN METHODS: Obesity was induced in adult male Wistar rats by ingestion of a high-fat diet and water with sucrose (300 g/L) for 8 weeks...
October 15, 2018: Life Sciences
Mingzhu Fan, Klaus Herburger, Jacob Krüger Jensen, Starla Zemelis-Durfee, Federica Brandizzi, Stephen C Fry, Curtis G Wilkerson
Mixed-linkage glucan (MLG) is a polysaccharide that is highly abundant in grass endosperm cell walls and present at lower amounts in other tissues. Cellulose synthase-like F (CSLF) and cellulose synthase-like H (CSLH) genes synthesize MLG, but it is unknown if other genes participate in the production and restructuring of MLG. Using Brachypodium distachyon transcriptional profiling data, we identified a B. distachyon trihelix family transcription factor (BdTHX1) that is highly co-expressed with the B. distachyon CSLF6 gene (BdCSLF6), which suggests that BdTHX1 is involved in the regulation of MLG biosynthesis...
September 17, 2018: Plant Physiology
Anna Bzducha-Wróbel, Katarzyna Pobiega, Stanisław Błażejak, Marek Kieliszek
New ideas on production of yeast origin β-glucan preparations for industrial application are attracting interest considering market development of that high-value functional polysaccharide. Sellecting an efficient yeast producer and designing culture conditions are a prerequisite for obtaining high yield of β-glucan. The aim of this study was to describe at the first time the influence of the mode of cultivation (shake-flasks and batch fermentation) and time of culture on characteristic and yield of biomass and β(1,3)/(1,6)-glucan preparations of Candida utilis ATCC 9950 after cultivation in medium based on waste potato juice water supplemented with 10% of glycerol...
September 13, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
I G Akhapkina, A B Antropova, E A Akhmatov, T M Zheltikova
Beta-glucans, homopolysaccharides composed of 3,6-branching β-(1→3)-D-glucan chains, attract great interest as inducers of cytokine synthesis. In this work, we studied the ability of linear fragments of beta-glucan chains to activate cytokine synthesis. Synthetic nona-β-(1→3)-D-glucoside (SO) representing a linear fragment of beta-glucan chain, endotoxin (ED), and natural β-(1→3)-D-glucan (GL) were tested for their role as inducers of cytokines in whole peripheral blood cultures collected from 17 individuals...
August 2018: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
Zhao Jin, James Gillespie, John Barr, Jochum J Wiersma, Mark E Sorrells, Steve Zwinger, Thomas Gross, Jaime Cumming, Gary C Bergstrom, Robert Brueggeman, Richard D Horsley, Paul B Schwarz
This project was initiated with the goal of investigating the malt quality of winter rye cultivars and hybrids grown in the United States in 2014 and 2015, but high levels of deoxynivalenol (DON) were subsequently found in many of the malt samples. DON levels in 75% of the investigated rye samples (n = 117) were actually below 1.0 mg/kg, as quantified by a gas chromatography combined with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). However, 83% of the samples had DON in excess of 1.0 mg/kg following malting, and the average DON level in malted rye was 10...
September 11, 2018: Toxins
Yahui Guo, Qing Chang, Liqing Cheng, Sihan Xiong, Xinming Jia, Xin Lin, Xueqiang Zhao
Infection by invasive fungi, such as Candida albicans , Aspergillus fumigatus , and Cryptococcus neoformans , is one of the leading death causes for the increasing population of immunocompromised and immunodeficient patients. Several C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), including Dectin-1, -2, and -3 and Mincle can recognize fungal surface components and initiate the host antifungal immune responses. Nevertheless, it remains to be determined whether other CLRs are involved in antifungal immunity. Our recent study suggests that CD23 (CLEC4J), a CLR and also a well-known B cell surface marker, may function to sense C...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Lindsay B Kock, Yolanda Brummer, Tracy Exley, Camille Rhymer, Joanne Storsley, Kenny Xie, YiFang Chu, Boxin Ou, Nancy P Ames, Susan M Tosh, Nicolas Bordenave
The purpose of this inter-laboratory study was to test the repeatability and reproducibility of an in vitro method aimed at analyzing the physicochemical properties under physiological conditions of β-glucans from foods. After evaluating β-glucans molar mass and quantification methods using five β-glucan controls, four laboratories ran six oat-based products through in vitro digestion, measured β-glucans solubility and viscosity and molar mass of solubilized β-glucans. The determination of the molar mass of β-glucan controls, their viscosity in solution and β-glucans content in food samples exhibited relative standard reproducibility of 20...
November 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Christoph Arens, Timo Kramm, Sebastian Decker, Jens Spannenberger, Thorsten Brenner, Daniel Christoph Richter, Markus Alexander Weigand, Florian Uhle, Christoph Lichtenstern
BACKGROUND: In non-neutropenic intensive care unit (ICU) patients, current risk stratification scores lack specificity to reliably predict the risk of a prospective invasive candidiasis (IC). We aimed to explore possible associations of distinct immunological markers with different degrees of Candida affection in patients with abdominal sepsis. METHODS: The presented explorative, non-interventional diagnosis study, recruited patients admitted to the surgical ICU at Heidelberg University Hospital with abdominal sepsis...
August 22, 2018: Shock
Zhihong Wei, Guochuang Chen, Pengying Zhang, Lei Zhu, Linan Zhang, Kaoshan Chen
In this study, a homogeneous polysaccharide (RPS-1) was extracted from liquid-cultured mycelia of Rhizopus nigricans. The weight-average molecular weight of RPS-1 was 1.617 × 107 g/mol and structural characterization indicated that RPS-1 was a non-starch glucan which consisted of a backbone structure of (1→4)-linked α-d-glucopyranosyl residues substituted at the O-6 position with α-d-glucopyranosyl branches. RPS-1 stimulated the production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α by triggering phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B p65 in RAW 264...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Guy A Channell, Gary G Adams, YuDong Lu, Richard B Gillis, Vlad Dinu, Myriam M-L Grundy, Balazs Bajka, Peter J Butterworth, Peter R Ellis, Alan Mackie, Simon Ballance, Stephen E Harding
Beta 1-3, 1-4 glucans ("beta-glucans") are one of the key components of the cell wall of cereals, complementing the main structural component cellulose. Beta-glucans are also an important source of soluble fibre in foods containing oats with claims of other beneficial nutritional properties such as plasma cholesterol lowering in humans. Key to the function of beta-glucans is their molecular weight and because of their high polydispersity - molecular weight distribution. Analytical ultracentrifugation provides a matrix-free approach (not requiring separation columns or media) to polymer molecular weight distribution determination...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
David R Bundle, Eugenia Paszkiewicz, Hassan R H Elsaidi, Satadru Sekhar Mandal, Susmita Sarkar
Glycoconjugates prepared from the capsular polysaccharide of several pathogenic bacteria and carrier proteins, such as CRM 197 or tetanus toxoid, have been one of the most successful public health measures to be implemented in the last quarter century. A crucial element in the success of conjugate vaccines has been the recruitment of T-cell help and systematic induction of a secondary immune response. The seminal discovery, that degraded polysaccharide fragments with attached peptide are presented to the T-cell receptor of carbohydrate specific T-cells by MHC-II molecules that bind to the peptide component of degraded vaccine, suggests potentially novel designs for conjugate vaccines...
August 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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