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b Glucan

Zhihong Wei, Guochuang Chen, Pengying Zhang, Lei Zhu, Linan Zhang, Kaoshan Chen
In this study, a homogeneous polysaccharide (RPS-1) was extracted from liquid-cultured mycelia of Rhizopus nigricans. The weight-average molecular weight of RPS-1 was 1.617 × 107 g/mol and structural characterization indicated that RPS-1 was a non-starch glucan which consisted of a backbone structure of (1→4)-linked α-d-glucopyranosyl residues substituted at the O-6 position with α-d-glucopyranosyl branches. RPS-1 stimulated the production of nitric oxide and tumor necrosis factor-α by triggering phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinases and nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B p65 in RAW 264...
October 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Guy A Channell, Gary G Adams, YuDong Lu, Richard B Gillis, Vlad Dinu, Myriam M-L Grundy, Balazs Bajka, Peter J Butterworth, Peter R Ellis, Alan Mackie, Simon Ballance, Stephen E Harding
Beta 1-3, 1-4 glucans ("beta-glucans") are one of the key components of the cell wall of cereals, complementing the main structural component cellulose. Beta-glucans are also an important source of soluble fibre in foods containing oats with claims of other beneficial nutritional properties such as plasma cholesterol lowering in humans. Key to the function of beta-glucans is their molecular weight and because of their high polydispersity - molecular weight distribution. Analytical ultracentrifugation provides a matrix-free approach (not requiring separation columns or media) to polymer molecular weight distribution determination...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
David R Bundle, Eugenia Paszkiewicz, Hassan R H Elsaidi, Satadru Sekhar Mandal, Susmita Sarkar
Glycoconjugates prepared from the capsular polysaccharide of several pathogenic bacteria and carrier proteins, such as CRM 197 or tetanus toxoid, have been one of the most successful public health measures to be implemented in the last quarter century. A crucial element in the success of conjugate vaccines has been the recruitment of T-cell help and systematic induction of a secondary immune response. The seminal discovery, that degraded polysaccharide fragments with attached peptide are presented to the T-cell receptor of carbohydrate specific T-cells by MHC-II molecules that bind to the peptide component of degraded vaccine, suggests potentially novel designs for conjugate vaccines...
August 6, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Akli Ben Imeddourene, Jérémy Esque, Isabelle André
Among α-transglucosylases from Glycoside-Hydrolase family 70, the ΔN123-GB-CD2 enzyme derived from the bifunctional DSR-E from L. citreum NRRL B-1299 is particularly interesting as it was the first described engineered Branching Sucrase, not able to elongate glucan polymers from sucrose substrate. The previously reported overall structural organization of this multi-domain enzyme is an intricate U-shape fold conserved among GH70 enzymes which showed a certain conformational variability of the so-called domain V, assumed to play a role in the control of product structures, in available X-ray structures...
2018: PloS One
Edna Soares, Sandra Jesus, Olga Borges
The development of new vaccine adjuvants is urgently needed not only to enable new routes of vaccine administration but mostly to go beyond protective humoral immunity, often insufficient to fight infectious diseases. The association of two or more immunopotentiators or mimicking pathogen physicochemical properties are strategies that can favor powerful and more balanced Th1/Th2 immune responses. Therefore, the present work aimed to combine both chitosan and β-glucan biopolymers in the same particle, preferably with surface β-glucan localization to simulate the cell wall of some pathogens and to stimulate the immune cells expressing the Dectin-1 receptor...
July 23, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
T Boch, M Reinwald, B Spiess, T Liebregts, P Schellongowski, P Meybohm, P-M Rath, J Steinmann, F Trinkmann, S Britsch, J D Michels, C Jabbour, W-K Hofmann, D Buchheidt
Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an emerging and life-threatening infectious disease in patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU). Most diagnostic studies are conducted in hematological patients and results cannot readily be transferred to ICU patients lacking classical host factors. In a multicenter, prospective clinical trial including 44 ICU patients, hematological (n = 14) and non-hematological patients (n = 30), concurrent serum and bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples were analyzed by conventional culture, galactomannan (GM), 1-3-beta-D-glucan (BDG) as well as an Aspergillus specific nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR)...
July 4, 2018: Journal of Critical Care
C M Pereyra, S Gil, A Cristofolini, M Bonci, M Makita, M P Monge, M A Montenegro, L R Cavaglieri
The objectives of this study were: to evaluate the use of dry distillery grain soluble extract - DDGse to produce yeast biomass and to obtain cell wall (CW), to use the CW as an aflatoxin B1 (AFB1 ) adsorbent, to study the variation in the composition and thickness of the CW under the influence of DDGse to evaluate their implication on the adsorption process using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR). The production of biomass and CW were variable. The CW thickness values showed that S...
September 2018: Food Research International
R Levine, G Horst, R Tonda, B Lumpkins, G Mathis
This study determined the effect of a dried algae product containing beta-1,3-glucan on broiler performance and immunity during an Eimeria challenge. Heterotrophically grown Euglena gracilis, which contained ∼55% beta-1,3-glucan, was dried and milled for inclusion into a non-medicated starter diet. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate dietary treatments containing 0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 g/ton dried algae. In both experiments, male broilers were orally challenged on day 14 with a coccidial inoculum consisting of E...
July 11, 2018: Poultry Science
Wen Zhao, Jian Zhang, Yunyun Jiang, Xiao Zhao, Xiaona Hao, Liu Li, Zhennai Yang
The exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens GSBa-1 was isolated and purified by ethanol precipitation, DEAE-cellulose and Sepharose CL-6B chromatography. The molecular weight of the purified EPS was determined to be 54 kDa. Monosaccharide analysis showed that the EPS was composed of predominantly glucose, and it was further confirmed by NMR spectroscopy to be α-glucan consisted of a trisaccharide repeating unit with possible presence of two α-(1-->3) and one α-(1-->6) glucosidic linkages...
June 6, 2018: Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
Radfan Ahmed, Santosh Kodgire, B Santhakumari, Rajendra Patil, Mahesh Kulkarni, Gajanan Zore
To understand the impact of fetal bovine serum (FBS) on metabolism and cellular architecture in addition to morphogenesis, we have identified FBS responsive proteome of Candida albicans. FBS induced 34% hyphae and 60% pseudohyphae in C. albicans at 30 °C while 98% hyphae at 37 °C. LC-MS/MS analysis revealed that 285 proteins modulated significantly in response to FBS at 30 °C and 37 °C. Out of which 152 were upregulated and 62 were downregulated at 30 °C while 18 were up and 53 were downregulated at 37 °C...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Martinus J A Daas, Bart Nijsse, Antonius H P van de Weijer, Bart W A J Groenendaal, Fons Janssen, John van der Oost, Richard van Kranenburg
BACKGROUND: Consolidated bioprocessing (CBP) is a cost-effective approach for the conversion of lignocellulosic biomass to biofuels and biochemicals. The enzymatic conversion of cellulose to glucose requires the synergistic action of three types of enzymes: exoglucanases, endoglucanases and β-glucosidases. The thermophilic, hemicellulolytic Geobacillus thermodenitrificans T12 was shown to harbor desired features for CBP, although it lacks the desired endo and exoglucanases required for the conversion of cellulose...
June 27, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
J R Pukrop, K M Brennan, B J Funnell, J P Schoonmaker
A two-part experiment was conducted to determine the effects of a blend of specialized mannan rich and glucan rich fractions of yeast (Select-TC, Alltech Inc.) on the health status and performance of steers during the first two months of the feedlot period. Eighty crossbred steers were acquired from commercial sale barns in Mississippi and Georgia, and transported to Purdue University. All animals were fed a corn silage based receiving diet, and were checked and treated daily for respiratory disease as needed following established treatment protocols...
June 23, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Ricardo Perez-Dulzaides, Emma Camacho, Radames J B Cordero, Arturo Casadevall
Melanization is an intrinsic characteristic of many fungal species, but details of this process are poorly understood because melanins are notoriously difficult pigments to study. While studying the binding of cell-wall dyes, Eosin Y or Uvitex, to melanized and non-melanized Cryptococcus neoformans cells we noted that melanization leads to reduced fluorescence intensity, suggesting that melanin interfered with dye binding to the cell wall. The growth of C. neoformans in melanizing conditions with either of the cell-wall dyes resulted in an increase in supernatant-associated melanin, consistent with blockage of melanin attachment to the cell wall...
August 2018: Microbiology
Shuki Oya, Tsuyoshi Muta
We experienced a breakthrough fungal infection caused by Geotrichum capitatum during empirical therapy with caspofungin. A 68-year-old male patient with refractory acute lymphoblastic leukemia had received umbilical cord blood transplantation after two courses of induction therapy. Empirical therapy with caspofungin was initiated 5 days before transplantation. Tacrolimus was continuously infused to prevent graft-versus-host disease. A minidose of methotrexate was intravenously administered on days 1 and 3 post-transplantation, which was changed to prednisolone from day 7 due to severe mucositis...
June 20, 2018: International Journal of Hematology
Nitin Bansal, Ram Gopalakrishnan, Nandini Sethuraman, Nagarajan Ramakrishnan, P Senthur Nambi, D Suresh Kumar, R Madhumitha, M A Thirunarayan, V Ramasubramanian
Background: The (1,3)-β-D-glucan assay (BDG) is recommended for the early diagnosis of invasive candidiasis (IC). Methods: Records of 154 critically ill adults with suspected IC, on whom BDG was done, were analyzed. Patients were divided into three groups: Group A (confirmed IC), Group B (alternative diagnosis or cause of severe sepsis), and Group C (high candidal score and positive BDG [>80 pg/mL] but without a confirmed diagnosis of IC). Results: Mean BDG levels were significantly higher in Group A ( n = 32) as compared to Group B ( n = 60) and Group C ( n = 62) (448...
May 2018: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
Paola Rossi, Raffaele Difrancia, Vincenzo Quagliariello, Elena Savino, Paolo Tralongo, Cinzia Lucia Randazzo, Massimiliano Berretta
Culinary and medicinal mushrooms are widely used in Asian countries, both as dietary supplements and as nutraceutical foods. They have recently become popular in Europe, as well, for their nutritional and health benefits. In particular, epidemiological studies conducted in Asia suggest that mushroom intake, together with other phytotherapy substances, protects against cancer, specifically gastrointestinal (GI) and breast cancers. Most of the data come from in vitro studies and in vivo experimental animal models...
May 15, 2018: Oncotarget
Shannon K Esher, Kyla S Ost, Maria A Kohlbrenner, Kaila M Pianalto, Calla L Telzrow, Althea Campuzano, Connie B Nichols, Carol Munro, Floyd L Wormley, J Andrew Alspaugh
The human fungal pathogen, Cryptococcus neoformans, dramatically alters its cell wall, both in size and composition, upon entering the host. This cell wall remodeling is essential for host immune avoidance by this pathogen. In a genetic screen for mutants with changes in their cell wall, we identified a novel protein, Mar1, that controls cell wall organization and immune evasion. Through phenotypic studies of a loss-of-function strain, we have demonstrated that the mar1Δ mutant has an aberrant cell surface and a defect in polysaccharide capsule attachment, resulting in attenuated virulence...
June 2018: PLoS Pathogens
Ayumi Kida, Takayuki Ikeda, Hiroki Seto, Yasuhiro Iida
 Only 4 classes of antifungal agents comprising 9 compounds are effective against deep mycosis in Japan, and it has been difficult to develop new antifungal specific agents. Micafungin, which has been used as an antifungal agent since 2002, inhibits β-1,3-glucan synthesis in fungal cell walls, thereby killing yeast and filamentous fungi with no septum. In this study, we constructed a pYES2-BGL2 vector to overexpress β-1,3-glucanase (BGL2) in yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae INVSc1) and evaluated the synergy between BGL2 overexpression and conventional antifungal agents...
2018: Yakugaku Zasshi: Journal of the Pharmaceutical Society of Japan
Alan T Culbertson, Jacqueline J Ehrlich, Jun-Yong Choe, Richard B Honzatko, Olga A Zabotina
The plant cell wall is primarily a polysaccharide mesh of the most abundant biopolymers on earth. Although one of the richest sources of biorenewable materials, the biosynthesis of the plant polysaccharides is poorly understood. Structures of many essential plant glycosyltransferases are unknown and suitable substrates are often unavailable for in vitro analysis. The dearth of such information impedes the development of plants better suited for industrial applications. Presented here are structures of Arabidopsis xyloglucan xylosyltransferase 1 (XXT1) without ligands and in complexes with UDP and cellohexaose...
June 5, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Alan Little, Julian G Schwerdt, Neil J Shirley, Shi F Khor, Kylie Neumann, Lisa A O'Donovan, Jelle Lahnstein, Helen M Collins, Marilyn Henderson, Geoffrey B Fincher, Rachel A Burton
Cell walls are crucial for the integrity and function of all land plants and are of central importance in human health, livestock production, and as a source of renewable bioenergy. Many enzymes that mediate the biosynthesis of cell wall polysaccharides are encoded by members of the large cellulose synthase ( CesA ) gene superfamily. Here, we analyzed 29 sequenced genomes and 17 transcriptomes to revise the phylogeny of the CesA gene superfamily in angiosperms. Our results identify ancestral gene clusters that predate the monocot-eudicot divergence and reveal several novel evolutionary observations, including the expansion of the Poaceae-specific cellulose synthase-like CslF family to the graminids and restiids and the characterization of a previously unreported eudicot lineage, CslM , that forms a reciprocally monophyletic eudicot-monocot grouping with the CslJ clade...
July 2018: Plant Physiology
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