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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30080741/thalamic-atrophy-and-dysfunction-in-patients-with-mild-to-moderate-traumatic-diffuse-axonal-injury-a-short-term-and-mid-term-mri-study
#1
Lin Wu, Fuqing Zhou, Yue Zhang, Jian Li, Hongmei Kuang, Jie Zhan, Dechang Peng, Laichang He, Xianjun Zeng, Honghan Gong
Disrupted white matter structure has been established in patients with diffuse axonal injury (DAI), but morphological changes in gray matter and local intrinsic activity in the short and midterm (before 6 months) have not been documented in DAI patients. We hypothesized that regionally selective atrophy observed in deep gray matter in the short-term and mid-term periods in patients with mild-to-moderate DAI, local atrophy, and/or dysfunction would be related to clinical characteristics. We evaluated the changes in regional density and synchronization in 18 DAI patients separately using Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration through Exponentiated Lie algebra-enhanced voxel-based morphometry and regional homogeneity (ReHo)...
August 3, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30011553/quantum-heat-engines-limit-cycles-and-exceptional-points
#2
Andrea Insinga, Bjarne Andresen, Peter Salamon, Ronnie Kosloff
We show that the inability of a quantum Otto cycle to reach a limit cycle is connected with the propagator of the cycle being noncompact. For a working fluid consisting of quantum harmonic oscillators, the transition point in parameter space where this instability occurs is associated with a non-Hermitian degeneracy (exceptional point) of the eigenvalues of the propagator. In particular, a third-order exceptional point is observed at the transition from the region where the eigenvalues are complex numbers to the region where all the eigenvalues are real...
June 2018: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29993754/neural-network-based-model-free-adaptive-near-optimal-tracking-control-for-a-class-of-nonlinear-systems
#3
Yinyan Zhang, Shuai Li, Xiaoping Liu
In this paper, the receding horizon near-optimal tracking control problem about a class of continuous-time nonlinear systems with fully unknown dynamics is considered. The main challenges of this problem lie in two aspects: 1) most existing systems only restrict their considerations to the state feedback part while the input channel parameters are assumed to be known. This paper considers fully unknown system dynamics in both the state feedback channel and the input channel and 2) the optimal control of nonlinear systems requires the solution of nonlinear Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equations...
May 9, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Networks and Learning Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29893385/quantum-correlations-are-weaved-by-the-spinors-of-the-euclidean-primitives
#4
Joy Christian
The exceptional Lie group E 8 plays a prominent role in both mathematics and theoretical physics. It is the largest symmetry group associated with the most general possible normed division algebra, namely, that of the non-associative real octonions, which-thanks to their non-associativity-form the only possible closed set of spinors (or rotors) that can parallelize the 7-sphere. By contrast, here we show how a similar 7-sphere also arises naturally from the algebraic interplay of the graded Euclidean primitives, such as points, lines, planes and volumes, which characterize the three-dimensional conformal geometry of the ambient physical space, set within its eight-dimensional Clifford-algebraic representation...
May 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29891502/reducing-nonlinear-dynamical-systems-to-canonical-forms
#5
Léon Brenig
A global framework for treating nonlinear differential dynamical systems is presented. It rests on the fact that most systems can be transformed into the quasi-polynomial format. Any system in this format belongs to an infinite equivalence class characterized by two canonical forms, the Lotka-Volterra (LV) and the monomial systems. Both forms allow for finding total or partial integrability conditions, invariants and dimension reductions of the original systems. The LV form also provides Lyapunov functions and systematic tools for stability analysis...
July 28, 2018: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29845973/continuous-vibronic-symmetries-in-jahn-teller-models
#6
Raphael F Ribeiro, Joel Yuen-Zhou
Explorations of the consequences of the Jahn-Teller (JT) effect remain active in solid-state and chemical physics. In this topical review we revisit the class of JT models which exhibit continuous vibronic symmetries. A treatment of these systems is given in terms of their algebraic properties. In particular, the compact symmetric spaces corresponding to JT models carrying a vibronic Lie group action are identified, and their invariants used to reduce their adiabatic potential energy surfaces into orbit spaces of the corresponding Lie groups...
August 22, 2018: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29756933/qudit-basis-universal-quantum-computation-using-%C3%AF-2-interactions
#7
Murphy Yuezhen Niu, Isaac L Chuang, Jeffrey H Shapiro
We prove that universal quantum computation can be realized-using only linear optics and χ^{(2)} (three-wave mixing) interactions-in any (n+1)-dimensional qudit basis of the n-pump-photon subspace. First, we exhibit a strictly universal gate set for the qubit basis in the one-pump-photon subspace. Next, we demonstrate qutrit-basis universality by proving that χ^{(2)} Hamiltonians and photon-number operators generate the full u(3) Lie algebra in the two-pump-photon subspace, and showing how the qutrit controlled-Z gate can be implemented with only linear optics and χ^{(2)} interactions...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29748773/preliminary-evidence-of-altered-gray-matter-volume-in-subjects-with-internet-gaming-disorder-associations-with-history-of-childhood-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-symptoms
#8
Deokjong Lee, Kee Namkoong, Junghan Lee, Young-Chul Jung
Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly comorbid with Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Although childhood ADHD symptoms may decline during late brain maturation, structural alterations in some brain areas may persist into adulthood. This study investigated whether young adults with IGD and a history of childhood ADHD symptoms had gray matter volume (GMV) alterations that were distinct from subjects without a history of childhood ADHD. As an exploratory investigation, we conducted a whole-brain voxel-based morphometry with the diffeomorphic anatomical registration using an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm and applied an uncorrected threshold at the voxel level for multiple comparisons...
May 11, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700532/modeling-tadf-in-organic-emitters-requires-a-careful-consideration-of-the-environment-and-going-beyond-the-franck-condon-approximation
#9
Jan-Michael Mewes
The origin of the thermally-activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) of three organic emitters is investigated, focusing on the nature of the lowest excited states, their transition properties, as well as the role of the environment. For this purpose, the algebraic-diagrammatic construction for the polarization propagator at second order of perturbation theory [ADC(2)], time-dependent density-functional theory in the Tamm-Dancoff approximation (TDA) and unrestricted Kohn-Sham DFT in combination with the maximum-overlap method (ΔDFT) are employed...
May 9, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497239/orbispaces-as-differentiable-stratified-spaces
#10
Marius Crainic, João Nuno Mestre
We present some features of the smooth structure and of the canonical stratification on the orbit space of a proper Lie groupoid. One of the main features is that of Morita invariance of these structures-it allows us to talk about the canonical structure of differentiable stratified space on the orbispace (an object analogous to a separated stack in algebraic geometry) presented by the proper Lie groupoid. The canonical smooth structure on an orbispace is studied mainly via Spallek's framework of differentiable spaces, and two alternative frameworks are then presented...
2018: Letters in Mathematical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497238/normal-forms-for-poisson-maps-and-symplectic-groupoids-around-poisson-transversals
#11
Pedro Frejlich, Ioan Mărcuț
Poisson transversals are submanifolds in a Poisson manifold which intersect all symplectic leaves transversally and symplectically. In this communication, we prove a normal form theorem for Poisson maps around Poisson transversals. A Poisson map pulls a Poisson transversal back to a Poisson transversal, and our first main result states that simultaneous normal forms exist around such transversals, for which the Poisson map becomes transversally linear, and intertwines the normal form data of the transversals...
2018: Letters in Mathematical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497237/filtrations-on-springer-fiber-cohomology-and-kostka-polynomials
#12
Gwyn Bellamy, Travis Schedler
We prove a conjecture which expresses the bigraded Poisson-de Rham homology of the nilpotent cone of a semisimple Lie algebra in terms of the generalized (one-variable) Kostka polynomials, via a formula suggested by Lusztig. This allows us to construct a canonical family of filtrations on the flag variety cohomology, and hence on irreducible representations of the Weyl group, whose Hilbert series are given by the generalized Kostka polynomials. We deduce consequences for the cohomology of all Springer fibers...
2018: Letters in Mathematical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29497236/poisson-traces-d-modules-and-symplectic-resolutions
#13
Pavel Etingof, Travis Schedler
We survey the theory of Poisson traces (or zeroth Poisson homology) developed by the authors in a series of recent papers. The goal is to understand this subtle invariant of (singular) Poisson varieties, conditions for it to be finite-dimensional, its relationship to the geometry and topology of symplectic resolutions, and its applications to quantizations. The main technique is the study of a canonical D-module on the variety. In the case the variety has finitely many symplectic leaves (such as for symplectic singularities and Hamiltonian reductions of symplectic vector spaces by reductive groups), the D-module is holonomic, and hence, the space of Poisson traces is finite-dimensional...
2018: Letters in Mathematical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419401/optimization-of-dartel-settings-for-the-detection-of-alzheimer-disease
#14
J Komatsu, I Matsunari, M Samuraki, K Shima, M Noguchi-Shinohara, K Sakai, T Hamaguchi, K Ono, H Matsuda, M Yamada
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Although Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie Algebra (DARTEL) has been introduced as an alternative to conventional voxel-based morphometry, there are scant data available regarding the optimal image-processing settings. The aim of this study was to optimize image-processing and ROI settings for the diagnosis of Alzheimer disease using DARTEL. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between May 2002 and August 2014, we selected 158 patients with Alzheimer disease and 198 age-matched healthy subjects; 158 healthy subjects served as the control group against the patients with Alzheimer disease, and the remaining 40 served as the healthy data base...
February 1, 2018: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29367809/noise-and-dissipation-on-coadjoint-orbits
#15
Alexis Arnaudon, Alex L De Castro, Darryl D Holm
We derive and study stochastic dissipative dynamics on coadjoint orbits by incorporating noise and dissipation into mechanical systems arising from the theory of reduction by symmetry, including a semidirect product extension. Random attractors are found for this general class of systems when the Lie algebra is semi-simple, provided the top Lyapunov exponent is positive. We study in details two canonical examples, the free rigid body and the heavy top, whose stochastic integrable reductions are found and numerical simulations of their random attractors are shown...
2018: Journal of Nonlinear Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284799/on-sets-defining-few-ordinary-circles
#16
Aaron Lin, Mehdi Makhul, Hossein Nassajian Mojarrad, Josef Schicho, Konrad Swanepoel, Frank de Zeeuw
An ordinary circle of a set P of n points in the plane is defined as a circle that contains exactly three points of P . We show that if P is not contained in a line or a circle, then P spans at least [Formula: see text] ordinary circles. Moreover, we determine the exact minimum number of ordinary circles for all sufficiently large n and describe all point sets that come close to this minimum. We also consider the circle variant of the orchard problem. We prove that P spans at most [Formula: see text] circles passing through exactly four points of P ...
2018: Discrete & Computational Geometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244231/differences-in-regional-grey-matter-volumes-in-currently-ill-patients-with-anorexia-nervosa
#17
Andrea Phillipou, Susan Lee Rossell, Caroline Gurvich, David Jonathan Castle, Larry Allen Abel, Richard Grant Nibbs, Matthew Edward Hughes
Neurobiological findings in anorexia nervosa (AN) are inconsistent, including differences in regional grey matter volumes. Methodological limitations often contribute to the inconsistencies reported. The aim of this study was to improve on these methodologies by utilising voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis with the use of diffeomorphic anatomic registration through an exponentiated lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL), in a relatively large group of individuals with AN. Twenty-six individuals with AN and 27 healthy controls underwent a T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scan...
January 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29096444/an-experimental-and-theoretical-study-of-the-valence-shell-photoelectron-spectra-of-2-chloropyridine-and-3-chloropyridine
#18
D M P Holland, I Powis, A B Trofimov, R C Menzies, A W Potts, L Karlsson, I L Badsyuk, T E Moskovskaya, E V Gromov, J Schirmer
The valence shell photoelectron spectra of 2-chloropyridine and 3-chloropyridine have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Synchrotron radiation has been employed to record angle resolved photoelectron spectra in the photon energy range 20-100 eV, and these have enabled anisotropy parameters and branching ratios to be derived. The experimental results have been compared with theoretical predictions obtained using the continuum multiple scattering Xα approach. This comparison shows that the anisotropy parameter associated with the nominally chlorine lone-pair orbital lying in the molecular plane is strongly affected by the atomic Cooper minimum...
October 28, 2017: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884950/abnormal-gray-matter-volume-and-impulsivity-in-young-adults-with-internet-gaming-disorder
#19
Deokjong Lee, Kee Namkoong, Junghan Lee, Young-Chul Jung
Reduced executive control is one of the central components of model on the development and maintenance of Internet gaming disorder (IGD). Among the various executive control problems, high impulsivity has consistently been associated with IGD. We performed voxel-based morphometric analysis with diffeomorphic anatomical registration by using an exponentiated Lie algebra algorithm (DARTEL) to investigate the relationship of gray matter abnormalities to impulsivity in IGD. Thirty-one young male adults whose excessive Internet gaming began in early adolescence, and 30 age-matched male healthy controls were examined...
September 8, 2017: Addiction Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860557/differential-cortical-gray-matter-deficits-in-adolescent-and-adult-onset-first-episode-treatment-na%C3%A3-ve-patients-with-schizophrenia
#20
Chengcheng Zhang, Qiang Wang, Peiyan Ni, Wei Deng, Yinfei Li, Liansheng Zhao, Xiaohong Ma, Yingcheng Wang, Hua Yu, Xiaojing Li, Pingping Zhang, Yajing Meng, Sugai Liang, Mingli Li, Tao Li
The current study aimed to explore age-variant trait differences of cortical gray matter volume (GMV) in a unique sample of first-episode and treatment-naïve patients with schizophrenia. A total of 158 subjects, including 26 adolescent-onset patients and 49 adult-onset patients as well as 83 age- and gender-matched controls were scanned using a 3T MRI scanner. Voxel-based morphometry (VBM) following Diffeomorphic Anatomical Registration Through Exponentiated Lie algebra (DARTEL) was used to explore group differences between patients and controls in regional GMV...
August 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
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