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S Goumon, I Leszkowova, M Šimecková, G Illmann
Farrowing pens with temporary crating have been developed as a compromise between conventional farrowing crates and pens to better accommodate the welfare of both sow and piglets during lactation. However, not much is known about the behavioral and physiological consequences of early removal of confinement on the sow and piglets during lactation. The aim of this study was to assess the effects on sow and piglet performance of temporary crating until 3 days post-partum at two times points; immediately after confinement removal and 25 days into lactation...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Luca Brugnoli, Anna Maria Ferrari, Bartolomeo Civalleri, Alfonso Pedone, Maria Cristina Menziani
CeO2 based materials are very attractive as catalytic component for industrial processes and environment friendly technologies, therefore, a reliable and computationally affordable theoretical description of the main properties of ceria is needed. In particular, the description of the interconversion between the Ce(IV) and Ce(III) oxidation states, on which lies the main chemical features of the Cerium Oxide, results quite challenging at the Density Functional Theory level. Here, we tested several Density functional approximations, spanning from GGA to Hybrid (Global, Meta-Global and Range Separated Corrected) functionals, on the structural, vibrational, electronic and thermochemical properties of bulk CeO2 and Ce2O3...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
Xiao-Ning Li, Xue-Song Liang, Lei Wu, Xiao-Chun Shan, Hao Fu, Ji-Lin Mei, Nuo Li
OBJECTIVE: To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) of "Jiaji" (EX-B 2) on limb locomotor function and expression of Ras homolog gene family member A (RhoA), Rho-associated kinase Ⅱ (ROCK Ⅱ) and myosin light chain (MLC) proteins in the anterior horn of spinal cord in acute spinal cord injury (ASCI) rats, so as to explore its mechanisms under-lying improvement of SCI-induced limb locomotor dysfunction. METHODS: Forty-eight female Wistar rats were randomly divided into sham operation (sham), ASCI model (model), EA EX-B 2 (EA) and ROCK inhibitor (Fasudil) groups which were further divided into 14 d and 28 d subgroups ( n =6 in each)...
July 25, 2018: Zhen Ci Yan Jiu, Acupuncture Research
Charles Philip Gabel, Hamid Reza Mokhtarinia, Jonathan Hoffman, Jason Osborne, E-Liisa Laakso, Markus Melloh
OBJECTIVES: Investigate the relationships between the ability/inability to perform five physical test exercises and the presence or absence of low back pain (LBP). SETTING: Regional Australian council training facility. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive participants recruited during 39 back education classes (8-26 participants per class) for workers in general office/administration, parks/gardens maintenance, roads maintenance, library, child care and management...
August 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Yogesh Kumar, Yogesh Jaiswal, Amit Kumar
An efficient and environmentally friendly synthetic approach toward functionalized dihydropyrrole derivatives is reported. The developed protocol proceeds via chemoselective intramolecular N-C bond formation of alkylimidates through 1,5-hydrogen atom transfer from in situ generated imidate N-radicals. The major advantage of this designed strategy lies in the choice of starting materials, mild reaction conditions, high chemo- and diastereoselectivity, clean source of energy, and good functional group tolerance...
August 7, 2018: Organic Letters
Meghan L Ruebel, Peter Z Schall, Uros Midic, Kailey A Vincent, Benjamin Goheen, Catherine A VandeVoort, Keith E Latham
STUDY QUESTION: Which different pathways and functions are altered in rhesus monkey oocytes that fail to mature after an ovulatory stimulus? SUMMARY ANSWER: FTM oocytes complete a large portion of the transition in transcriptome composition associated with normal maturation, but also manifest numerous differences that indicate incomplete transcriptional repression and cytoplasmic maturation affecting multiple processes. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Oocyte maturation defects contribute to unexplained female infertility...
August 3, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Cristian A Velandia-Huerto, Federico D Brown, Adriaan Gittenberger, Peter F Stadler, Clara I Bermúdez-Santana
Tunicates, or urochordates, are a group of small marine organisms that are found widely throughout the seas of the world. As most plausible sister group of the vertebrates, they are of utmost importance for a comprehensive understanding of chordate evolution; hence, they have served as model organisms for many aspects of the developmental biology. Current genomic analysis of tunicates indicates that their genomes evolved with a fast rate not only at the level of nucleotide substitutions but also in terms of genomic organization...
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
Siv Hege Lyngstad, Erlend Strand Gardsjord, Carmen Simonsen, Magnus Johan Engen, Kristin Lie Romm, Ingrid Melle, Ann Færden
BACKGROUND: Apathy and depression are prevalent in first-episode psychosis (FEP), have overlapping clinical features and are linked to social dysfunction, with indications that persisting symptoms have an even more negative impact. Our objective was to investigate the prevalence of persisting depression (PD), persisting apathy (PA), to what extent they overlap and their relative associations to functioning during a one-year follow-up. METHODS: One hundred and twenty-five participants with a FEP were recruited, and 88 (70%) were reassessed at follow-up...
July 29, 2018: Comprehensive Psychiatry
Michael R Karns, R Tyler Epperson, Sean Baran, Mattias B Nielsen, Nicholas B Taylor, Robert T Burks
PURPOSE: In this cadaveric study, we aim to define the basic anatomy of the anterior glenoid with attention to the relationships of calcified cartilage, capsulolabral complex, and osseous morphology of the anterior glenoid. METHODS: Seventeen cadaveric glenoid specimens (14 male, 3 female, mean age 53.9 ± 10) were imaged with micro-computed tomography (CT) and embedded in poly-methyl-methacrylate. Specimens were included for final analysis only if the entire glenoid articular cartilage, labrum, capsule, and biceps insertion were pristine and without evidence of injury, degeneration, or damage during the preparation process...
August 2018: Arthroscopy: the Journal of Arthroscopic & related Surgery
T Lambourne, L V Minard, H Deal, J Pitman, M Rolle, D Saulnier, J Houlihan
The medication information needs of patients with cancer have been primarily studied using quantitative methods and little qualitative research on this topic exists. The purpose of this study was to explore patients' perspectives of optimal oncology medication education provided to patients at the Nova Scotia Health Authority (NSHA). Adult (≥ 18 years) outpatients in medical, gynecological and hematology oncology at NSHA were invited to participate in focus groups, which were audio-recorded, transcribed and analyzed thematically...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
Silje Endresen Reme, Karin Monstad, Tonje Fyhn, Vigdis Sveinsdottir, Camilla Løvvik, Stein Atle Lie, Simon Øverland
Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of individual placement and support (IPS) for people struggling with work participation due to moderate-to-severe mental illness. The study was conducted in Norway, a setting characterized by a comprehensive welfare system and strong employment protection legislation. Methods A randomized controlled multicenter trial including 410 participants was conducted. The intervention group received IPS according to the IPS manual. The control group received high-quality usual care...
August 2, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health
Jeremy G Sumner, Michael D Woodhams
We present and explore a general method for deriving a Lie-Markov model from a finite semigroup. If the degree of the semigroup is k, the resulting model is a continuous-time Markov chain on k-states and, as a consequence of the product rule in the semigroup, satisfies the property of multiplicative closure. This means that the product of any two probability substitution matrices taken from the model produces another substitution matrix also in the model. We show that our construction is a natural generalization of the concept of group-based models...
August 2, 2018: Bulletin of Mathematical Biology
Pedro Pinheiro-Chagas, Daniele Didino, Vitor G Haase, Guilherme Wood, André Knops
Mental calculation is thought to be tightly related to visuospatial abilities. One of the strongest evidence for this link is the widely replicated operational momentum (OM) effect: the tendency to overestimate the result of additions and to underestimate the result of subtractions. Although the OM effect has been found in both infants and adults, no study has directly investigated its developmental trajectory until now. However, to fully understand the cognitive mechanisms lying at the core of the OM effect it is important to investigate its developmental dynamics...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Mihajlo Novakovic, Samuel F Cousin, Michael J Jaroszewicz, Rina Rosenzweig, Lucio Frydman
Cross-relaxation and isotropic mixing phenomena leading to the Nuclear Overhauser Effect (NOE) and to the TOCSY experiment, lie at the center of structural determinations by NMR. 2D TOCSY and NOESY exploit these polarization transfer effects to determine inter-site connectivities and molecular geometries under physiologically-relevant conditions. Among these sequences' drawback, particularly for the case of NOEs, are a lack of sensitivity arising from small structurally-relevant cross peaks. The present study explores the application of multiple Zeno-like projective measurements, to enhance the cross-peaks between spectrally distinct groups in proteins -in particular between amide and aliphatic protons...
July 28, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance
Alexis Grimaud, Antonella Iadecola, Dmitry Batuk, Matthieu Saubanère, Artem M Abakumov, John W Freeland, Jordi Cabana, Haifeng Li, Marie-Liesse Doublet, Gwenaëlle Rousse, Jean-Marie Tarascon
The finding that triggering the redox activity of oxygen ions within the lattice of transition metal oxides can boost the performances of materials used in energy storage and conversion devices such as Li-ion batteries or oxygen evolution electrocatalysts has recently spurred intensive and innovative research in the field of energy. While experimental and theoretical efforts have been critical in understanding the role of oxygen nonbonding states in the redox activity of oxygen ions, a clear picture of the redox chemistry of the oxygen species formed upon this oxidation process is still missing...
June 12, 2018: Chemistry of Materials: a Publication of the American Chemical Society
Giorgio Arcangeli, Stefano Arcangeli, Valentina Pinzi, Michaela Benassi, Marcello Benassi, Lidia Strigari
PURPOSE: We sought to determine the optimal hypofractionated regimens of moderately hypofractionated (HFRT) versus conventionally fractionated (CFRT) external beam radiotherapy for localized prostate cancer (LPCA), having as primary endpoints the 5-year biochemical failure (BF) and late gastrointestinal (GI) and genitourinary (GU) toxicity. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We performed a systematic literature review of the Medline and National Library of Medicine databases according to the PRISMA guidelines...
July 10, 2018: Cancer Treatment Reviews
Megan McGrath, Zhiyi Yu, Selwyn S Jayakar, Celena Ma, Mansi Tolia, Xiaojuan Zhou, Keith W Miller, Jonathan B Cohen, Douglas E Raines
WHAT WE ALREADY KNOW ABOUT THIS TOPIC: WHAT THIS ARTICLE TELLS US THAT IS NEW: BACKGROUND:: Naphthalene-etomidate, an etomidate analog containing a bulky phenyl ring substituent group, possesses very low γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABAA) receptor efficacy and acts as an anesthetic-selective competitive antagonist. Using etomidate analogs containing phenyl ring substituents groups that range in volume, we tested the hypothesis that this unusual pharmacology is caused by steric hindrance that reduces binding to the receptor's open state...
July 27, 2018: Anesthesiology
Shin-Ichi Tokushige, Yasuo Terao, Shunichi Matsuda, Toshiaki Furubayashi, Takuya Sasaki, Satomi Inomata-Terada, Akihiro Yugeta, Masashi Hamada, Shoji Tsuji, Yoshikazu Ugawa
The rhythm of the internal clock is considered to be determined by the basal ganglia, with some studies suggesting slower internal clock in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, patients may also show motor hastening when they walk (festination) or are engaged in repetitive tapping, indicating faster ticking of the internal clock. Is the internal clock slower or faster in PD? The purpose of this study was to answer this question, i.e., how fast and slow a rhythm they can synchronize with, especially with reference to the limit of sensorimotor synchronization or temporal integration, representing the threshold of slower pace they can entrain into their motor actions, which is known to lie between 2 and 3 s in normal subjects but not yet studied in PD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Peter Arrow, Rob McPhee, David Atkinson, Tamara Mackean, Sanjeewa Kularatna, Utsana Tonmukayakul, David Brennan, David Palmer, Soniya Nanda, Lisa Jamieson
BACKGROUND: The caries experience of Aboriginal children in Western Australia (WA) and elsewhere in Australia is more than twice that of non-Aboriginal children. Early childhood caries (caries among children <6 years) has a significant impact on the quality of life of children and their caregivers, and its management is demanding and commonly undertaken under general anesthesia. A randomized controlled trial using a minimally invasive dentistry approach based on Atraumatic Restorative Treatment (ART) in metropolitan Perth, WA, has demonstrated a significant reduction in the rate of referral to a dental specialist for dental care among children with early childhood caries, potentially reducing the need for treatment under general anesthesia...
July 25, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Takayuki Yoshida, Tatsuo Nakamoto, Chikako Hashimoto, Satoshi Aihara, Kota Nishimoto, Takahiko Kamibayashi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The lateral and anterior approaches for proximal sciatic nerve (SN) block can be used in patients lying supine. We assume that the posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (PFCN) is simultaneously blocked more often via the lateral approach than via the anterior approach, given the proximity of these 2 nerves at the injection level. However, locating the SN is difficult when using the original landmark-based lateral approach. We have introduced ultrasound guidance to alleviate the technical difficulty of the lateral approach and tested the hypothesis that an ultrasound-guided lateral approach would achieve PFCN block more often than the ultrasound-guided anterior approach for SN block...
July 24, 2018: Regional Anesthesia and Pain Medicine
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