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Quantum physics

Erling Thyrhaug, Roel Tempelaar, Marcelo J P Alcocer, Karel Žídek, David Bína, Jasper Knoester, Thomas L C Jansen, Donatas Zigmantas
The idea that excitonic (electronic) coherences are of fundamental importance to natural photosynthesis gained popularity when slowly dephasing quantum beats (QBs) were observed in the two-dimensional electronic spectra of the Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) complex at 77 K. These were assigned to superpositions of excitonic states, a controversial interpretation, as the strong chromophore-environment interactions in the complex suggest fast dephasing. Although it has been pointed out that vibrational motion produces similar spectral signatures, a concrete assignment of these oscillatory signals to distinct physical processes is still lacking...
May 21, 2018: Nature Chemistry
Matthew Reichert, Hugo Defienne, Jason W Fleischer
Entangled states of light are essential for quantum technologies and fundamental tests of physics. Current systems rely on entanglement in 2D degrees of freedom, e.g., polarization states. Increasing the dimensionality provides exponential speed-up of quantum computation, enhances the channel capacity and security of quantum communication protocols, and enables quantum imaging; unfortunately, characterizing high-dimensional entanglement of even bipartite quantum states remains prohibitively time-consuming. Here, we develop and experimentally demonstrate a new theory of camera detection that leverages the massive parallelization inherent in an array of pixels...
May 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wenbing Li
The physics models of plasmonics for single nanoparticle, complex single nanoparticle, nanodimer, and single nanoparticle over a metallic thin film with an isolation layer, have been reviewed in this article. In nanoscale, the localized plasmonics from the single nanoparticle, hybrid single nanoparticle, and nanodimer, can be illustrated by classical electrodynamics. When the space of a nanodimer downs to subnanometer, the classical electrodynamics would fail to predict the resonance spectrum or dispersion of the nanostructures...
2018: Plasmonics
N C Costa, T Blommel, W-T Chiu, G Batrouni, R T Scalettar
The Holstein model describes the interaction between fermions and a collection of local (dispersionless) phonon modes. In the dilute limit, the phonon degrees of freedom dress the fermions, giving rise to polaron and bipolaron formation. At higher densities, the phonons mediate collective superconducting (SC) and charge-density wave (CDW) phases. Quantum Monte Carlo (QMC) simulations have considered both these limits but have not yet focused on the physics of more general phonon spectra. Here we report QMC studies of the role of phonon dispersion on SC and CDW order in such models...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
F M Leupold, M Malinowski, C Zhang, V Negnevitsky, A Cabello, J Alonso, J P Home
We use a single trapped-ion qutrit to demonstrate the quantum-state-independent violation of noncontextuality inequalities using a sequence of randomly chosen quantum nondemolition projective measurements. We concatenate 53×10^{6} sequential measurements of 13 observables, and unambiguously violate an optimal noncontextual bound. We use the same data set to characterize imperfections including signaling and repeatability of the measurements. The experimental sequence was generated in real time with a quantum random number generator integrated into our control system to select the subsequent observable with a latency below 50  μs, which can be used to constrain contextual hidden-variable models that might describe our results...
May 4, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Swarnava Nandy, Takashi Hisatomi, Song Sun, Masao Katayama, Tsutomu Minegishi, Kazunari Domen
Oxysulfoselenide semiconductor photocatalysts absorb light at longer wavelengths than the corresponding oxysulfides. However, the synthesis of oxysulfoselenides is challenging due to excessive particle growth and the limited availability of metal selenide precursors. In this study, a La5 Ti2 CuS5 O7 (LTCSO) oxysulfide was annealed with Se powder in sealed, evacuated quartz tubes to obtain LTCSO:Se photocatalysts, and the properties of these materials were investigated. Se was found to be incorporated into the LTCSO upon heating at 973 K or higher, and the Se/(S + Se) ratio was increased to a maximum of 0...
May 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
José Roberto Pereira Guedes, Leoni Villano Bonamin, Vera Luiza Capelozzi
INTRODUCTION:  There are two critical pillars of homeopathy that contrast with the dominant scientific approach: the similitude principle and the potentization of serial dilutions. Three main hypotheses about the mechanisms of action are in discussion: nanobubbles-related hormesis; vehicle-related electric resonance; and quantum non-locality. OBJECTIVES:  The aim of this paper is to review and discuss some key points of such properties: the imprint of supramolecular structures based on the nanoparticle-allostatic, cross-adaptation-sensitization (NPCAS) model; the theory of non-molecular electromagnetic transfer of information, based on the coherent water domains model, and relying (like the NPCAS model) on the idea of local interactions; and the hypothesis of quantum entanglement, based on the concept of non-locality...
May 16, 2018: Homeopathy: the Journal of the Faculty of Homeopathy
Carlos Sánchez Muñoz, Franco Nori, Simone De Liberato
Recent technological developments have made it increasingly easy to access the non-perturbative regimes of cavity quantum electrodynamics known as ultrastrong or deep strong coupling, where the light-matter coupling becomes comparable to the bare modal frequencies. In this work, we address the adequacy of the broadly used single-mode cavity approximation to describe such regimes. We demonstrate that, in the non-perturbative light-matter coupling regimes, the single-mode models become unphysical, allowing for superluminal signalling...
May 15, 2018: Nature Communications
Roberto Luiz A Haiduke, Rodney J Bartlett
Some of the exact conditions provided by the correlated orbital theory are employed to propose new non-empirical parameterizations for exchange-correlation functionals from Density Functional Theory (DFT). This reparameterization process is based on range-separated functionals with 100% exact exchange for long-range interelectronic interactions. The functionals developed here, CAM-QTP-02 and LC-QTP, show mitigated self-interaction error, correctly predict vertical ionization potentials as the negative of eigenvalues for occupied orbitals, and provide nice excitation energies, even for challenging charge-transfer excited states...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Thomas Mehringer, Simon Mährlein, Joachim von Zanthier, Girish S Agarwal
Interference of light fields, first postulated by Young, is one of the fundamental pillars of physics. Dirac extended this observation to the quantum world by stating that each photon interferes only with itself. A precondition for interference to occur is that no welcher-weg information labels the paths the photon takes; otherwise, the interference vanishes. This remains true, even if two-photon interference is considered, e.g., in the Hong-Ou-Mandel-experiment. Here, the two photons interfere only if they are indistinguishable, e...
May 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Carlo Cafaro, Paul M Alsing
The relevance of the concept of Fisher information is increasing in both statistical physics and quantum computing. From a statistical mechanical standpoint, the application of Fisher information in the kinetic theory of gases is characterized by its decrease along the solutions of the Boltzmann equation for Maxwellian molecules in the two-dimensional case. From a quantum mechanical standpoint, the output state in Grover's quantum search algorithm follows a geodesic path obtained from the Fubini-Study metric on the manifold of Hilbert-space rays...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
F Niel, C Riconda, F Amiranoff, R Duclous, M Grech
Radiation reaction in the interaction of ultrarelativistic electrons with a strong external electromagnetic field is investigated using a kinetic approach in the nonlinear moderately quantum regime. Three complementary descriptions are discussed considering arbitrary geometries of interaction: a deterministic one relying on the quantum-corrected radiation reaction force in the Landau and Lifschitz (LL) form, a linear Boltzmann equation for the electron distribution function, and a Fokker-Planck (FP) expansion in the limit where the emitted photon energies are small with respect to that of the emitting electrons...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
James P Edwards, Urs Gerber, Christian Schubert, Maria Anabel Trejo, Axel Weber
We introduce two integral transforms of the quantum mechanical transition kernel that represent physical information about the path integral. These transforms can be interpreted as probability distributions on particle trajectories measuring respectively the relative contribution to the path integral from paths crossing a given spatial point (the hit function) and the likelihood of values of the line integral of the potential along a path in the ensemble (the path-averaged potential).
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Athanasios C Tzemos, Christos Efthymiopoulos, George Contopoulos
We provide a general theory for the structure of the quantum flow near three-dimensional (3D) nodal lines, i.e., one-dimensional loci where the 3D wave function becomes equal to zero. In suitably defined coordinates (comoving with the nodal line) the generic structure of the flow implies the formation of 3D quantum vortices. We show that such vortices are accompanied by nearby invariant lines of the comoving quantum flow, called X lines, which are normally hyperbolic. Furthermore, the stable and unstable manifolds of the X lines produce chaotic scatterings of nearby quantum (Bohmian) trajectories, thus inducing an intricate form of the quantum current in the neighborhood of each 3D quantum vortex...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Dmitry N Makarov
A system of two coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with the Hamiltonian H[over ̂]=1/2(1/m_{1}p[over ̂]_{1}^{2}+1/m_{2}p[over ̂]_{2}^{2}+Ax_{1}^{2}+Bx_{2}^{2}+Cx_{1}x_{2}) can be found in many applications of quantum and nonlinear physics, molecular chemistry, and biophysics. The stationary wave function of such a system is known, but its use for the analysis of quantum entanglement is complicated because of the complexity of computing the Schmidt modes. Moreover, there is no exact analytical solution to the nonstationary Schrodinger equation H[over ̂]Ψ=iℏ∂Ψ/∂t and Schmidt modes for such a dynamic system...
April 2018: Physical Review. E
Elliot J Taffet, Gregory D Scholes
The nature of intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) and the mechanism of intramolecular singlet fission (SF) in peridinin remain open research questions. Obtaining an understanding of the population evolution from the bright state to dark states following a photoinduced electronic transition is critical. Unambiguously describing this evolution in peridinin, and light-harvesting carotenoids in general, has proven elusive experimentally and computationally. To offer a balanced description of bright- and dark-state electronic structure, we here apply ab initio multireference perturbation theory quantum chemistry-the density matrix renormalization group self-consistent-field (DMRG-SCF) and complete-active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) with second-order N-electron valence perturbation theory (NEVPT2)...
May 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Igor Ferrier-Barbut, Matthias Wenzel, Fabian Böttcher, Tim Langen, Mathieu Isoard, Sandro Stringari, Tilman Pfau
We report on the observation of the scissors mode of a single dipolar quantum droplet. The existence of this mode is due to the breaking of the rotational symmetry by the dipole-dipole interaction, which is fixed along an external homogeneous magnetic field. By modulating the orientation of this magnetic field, we introduce a new spectroscopic technique for studying dipolar quantum droplets. This provides a precise probe for interactions in the system, allowing us to extract a background scattering length for ^{164}Dy of 69(4)a_{0}...
April 20, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Niklas Dittmann, Janine Splettstoesser, Nicole Helbig
We simulate the dynamics of a single-electron source, modeled as a quantum dot with on-site Coulomb interaction and tunnel coupling to an adjacent lead in time-dependent density-functional theory. Based on this system, we develop a time-nonlocal exchange-correlation potential by exploiting analogies with quantum-transport theory. The time nonlocality manifests itself in a dynamical potential step. We explicitly link the time evolution of the dynamical step to physical relaxation timescales of the electron dynamics...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Rui-Xing Zhang, Chao-Xing Liu
One of the cornerstones for topological quantum computations is the Majorana zero mode, which has been intensively searched in fractional quantum Hall systems and topological superconductors. Several recent works suggest that such an exotic mode can also exist in a one-dimensional (1D) interacting double-wire setup even without long-range superconductivity. A notable instability in these proposals comes from interchannel single-particle tunneling that spoils the topological ground state degeneracy. Here we show that a 1D Dirac semimetal (DSM) nanowire is an ideal number-conserving platform to realize such Majorana physics...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
Emmanuel Chang, Zohreh Davoudi, William Detmold, Arjun S Gambhir, Kostas Orginos, Martin J Savage, Phiala E Shanahan, Michael L Wagman, Frank Winter
Complete flavor decompositions of the matrix elements of the scalar, axial, and tensor currents in the proton, deuteron, diproton, and ^{3}He at SU(3)-symmetric values of the quark masses corresponding to a pion mass m_{π}∼806  MeV are determined using lattice quantum chromodynamics. At the physical quark masses, the scalar interactions constrain mean-field models of nuclei and the low-energy interactions of nuclei with potential dark matter candidates. The axial and tensor interactions of nuclei constrain their spin content, integrated transversity, and the quark contributions to their electric dipole moments...
April 13, 2018: Physical Review Letters
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