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Paper Based Analytical Device

Nai-Yuan Liu, Pinar Cay-Durgun, Tianmiao Lai, Mark Sprowls, Leslie Thomas, Mary Laura Lind, Erica Forzani
This paper introduces a wireless, solid-state, portable, and automated device capable of measuring the total ammonia [ammonia (NH3 ) and ammonium (NH4 + )] levels of fluids, including biological samples. This device reliably measures the total ammonia of biological samples (e.g., urine) faster than the current ammonia quantification techniques. Medical professionals typically estimate NH4+ levels using error-prone indirect measurement techniques (i.e., urine anion gap), which are time-consuming and are seldom suitable for periodic measurements...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Marina Naldi, Anna Tramarin, Manuela Bartolini
Protein analysis is a field under rapid development mainly thanks to technological advances which have granted miniaturization of analytical devices, automation and higher detection sensitivity. The interest in the field has paralleled the expansion of the -omics era, laying down the bases for the current applications in proteomics and glycomics. Advances in protein sample transformation prior to analysis have led to reduction of sample consumption and contamination, enhancing throughput. Within this context, and thanks to the availability of new high performing materials and technologies, increasingly more efficient and miniaturized enzyme-based analytical tools have been proposed to overcome shortcomings encountered in the in-solution enzymatic reactions (protein digestion and protein deglycosylation, for proteomics and glycomics, respectively)...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Lei Zhang, Lihong Sun, Mengmeng Hou, Zhigang Xu, Yuejun Kang, Peng Xue
Temperature is a critical extrinsic physical parameter that determines cell fate. Hyperthermia therapy has become an efficient treatment for tumor ablation. To understand the response of tumor cells under thermal shocks, we present a paper-based photothermal array that can be conveniently coupled with commercial 96-well cell culture plates. This paper chip device was fabricated in one step using Parafilm® and Kimwipers® based on a heat lamination strategy. Liquid was completely adsorbed and confined within the cellulose fibres of hydrophilic regions...
August 9, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
Julaluk Noiphung, Michael P Nguyen, Chamindie Punyadeera, Yunxia Wan, Wanida Laiwattanapaisal, Charles S Henry
Rationale: Saliva as a sample matrix is rapidly gaining interest for disease diagnosis and point-of-care assays because it is easy to collect (non-invasive) and contains many health-related biomarkers. However, saliva poses particular problems relative to more common urine and blood matrices, which includes low analyte concentrations, lack of understanding of biomolecule transportation and inherent viscosity variability in human samples. While several studies have sought to improve assay sensitivity, few have addressed sample viscosity specifically...
2018: Theranostics
Jinglong Han, Anjin Qi, Junrui Zhou, Guan Wang, Bowei Li, Lingxin Chen
A novel strategy for fabricating the paper-based valves on microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs) was described to control fluid in a user-friendly way. Initial prototypes of 3D µPADs manipulate the spatial distribution of fluid within the device. The movable paper channel in different layer could be achieved the channel's connection or disconnection to realize the valve function using plastic comb binding spines (PCBS). The entire valve manipulation process was similar to a desk calendar that can be flipped over and turned back...
August 6, 2018: ACS Sensors
M L Balter, J M Leipheimer, A I Chen, A Shrirao, T J Maguire, M L Yarmush
Diagnostic blood testing is the most commonly performed clinical procedure in the world, and influences the majority of medical decisions made in hospital and laboratory settings. However, manual blood draw success rates are dependent on clinician skill and patient physiology, and results are generated almost exclusively in centralized labs from large-volume samples using labor-intensive analytical techniques. This paper presents a medical device that enables end-to-end blood testing by performing blood draws and providing diagnostic results in a fully automated fashion at the point-of-care...
June 2018: Technology
Yaiza Montes-Cebrián, Lorena Del Torno-de Román, Albert Álvarez-Carulla, Jordi Colomer-Farrarons, Shelley D Minteer, Neus Sabaté, Pere Ll Miribel-Català, Juan Pablo Esquivel
This paper presents an innovative approach in the portable Point-of-Care diagnostics field, the Plug-and-Power concept. In this new disposable sensor and plug-and-play reader paradigm, the energy required to perform a measurement is always available within the disposable test component. The reader unit contains all the required electronic modules to run the test, process data and display the result, but does not include any battery or power source. Instead, the disposable part acts as both the sensor and the power source...
July 18, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Nikolaos Mavredakis, Ramon Garcia Cortadella, Andrea Bonaccini Calia, Jose A Garrido, David Jiménez
This letter investigates the bias-dependent low frequency noise of single layer graphene field-effect transistors. Noise measurements have been conducted with electrolyte-gated graphene transistors covering a wide range of gate and drain bias conditions for different channel lengths. A new analytical model that accounts for the propagation of the local noise sources in the channel to the terminal currents and voltages is proposed in this paper to investigate the noise bias dependence. Carrier number and mobility fluctuations are considered as the main causes of low frequency noise and the way these mechanisms contribute to the bias dependence of the noise is analyzed in this work...
August 9, 2018: Nanoscale
Prakash Rewatkar, Sanket Goel
The present work establishes a membraneless, co-laminar flow-based approach to develop a cost-effective microfluidic paper-based analytical device for enzymatic biofuel cell (μPAD-EBFC). The developed μPAD-EBFC supporting the self-capillary fluid transport action, consists of Y-shaped paper microchannel with the fuel (glucose) and oxidant (O2) streaming in parallel over carbon nanotube (CNT) based bucky paper (BP) electrodes modified with biocompatible electrocatalytic enzymes such as Glucose oxidase (GOx) and Laccase without any additional redox cofactor...
July 18, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Nanobioscience
Andrea Monteriù, Mario Rosario Prist, Emanuele Frontoni, Sauro Longhi, Filippo Pietroni, Sara Casaccia, Lorenzo Scalise, Annalisa Cenci, Luca Romeo, Riccardo Berta, Loreto Pescosolido, Gianni Orlandi, Gian Marco Revel
Smart homes play a strategic role for improving life quality of people, enabling to monitor people at home with numerous intelligent devices. Sensors can be installed to provide a continuous assistance without limiting the resident's daily routine, giving her/him greater comfort, well-being and safety. This paper is based on the development of domestic technological solutions to improve the life quality of citizens and monitor the users and the domestic environment, based on features extracted from the collected data...
July 17, 2018: Sensors
Marta Podrażka, Emilia Witkowska Nery, Aleksandra Pacowska, Damien W M Arrigan, Martin Jönsson-Niedziółka
While ion transfer studies were shown to be a promising method for fundamental electrochemistry, pharmacokinetic studies, and sensing, they suffer from inherent instability of the interface formed between the organic and aqueous phases. This limits to some extent the range of solvents which can be used and confines these studies to the laboratory. We propose here the use of paper, which has revolutionized the way we think of miniaturized analytical devices during the past decade, as a perfect substrate for ion transfer studies across the liquid-liquid interface...
August 7, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Ayokunle Olanrewaju, Maïwenn Beaugrand, Mohamed Yafia, David Juncker
Microfluidics offer economy of reagents, rapid liquid delivery, and potential for automation of many reactions, but often require peripheral equipment for flow control. Capillary microfluidics can deliver liquids in a pre-programmed manner without peripheral equipment by exploiting surface tension effects encoded by the geometry and surface chemistry of a microchannel. Here, we review the history and progress of microchannel-based capillary microfluidics spanning over three decades. To both reflect recent experimental and conceptual progress, and distinguish from paper-based capillary microfluidics, we adopt the more recent terminology of capillaric circuits (CCs)...
August 7, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Konstantin G Nikolaev, Yury E Ermolenko, Andreas Offenhäusser, Sergey S Ermakov, Yulia G Mourzina
The development of electrochemical multisensor systems is driven by the need for fast, miniature, inexpensive, analytical devices, and advanced interdisciplinary based on both chemometric and (nano)material approaches. A multicomponent analysis of complex mixtures in environmental and technological monitoring, biological samples, and cell culture requires chip-based multisensor systems with high-stability sensors. In this paper, we describe the development, characterization, and applications of chip-based nanoelectrochemical sensor arrays prepared by the directed electrochemical nanowire assembly (DENA) of noble metals and metal alloys to analyze aqueous solutions...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Shadab Faham, Gholamreza Khayatian, Hamed Golmohammadi, Raouf Ghavami
A paper based analytical device is presented for the determination of Cr(III) and Cr(VI) using gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) modified with 2,2'-thiodiacetic acid. The modified AuNPs were characterized using UV-Vis spectrophotometry, Fourier transform infrared, dynamic light scattering, zeta potential, energy dispersive spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy. Cr(III) ions induce the aggregation of the modified AuNPs, and the color of the nanoprobe changes from red to blue. This can be detected visually, or by colorimetry, or with a camera...
July 13, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Cristian M Moreira, Sirley V Pereira, Julio Raba, Franco A Bertolino, Germán A Messina
INTRODUCTION: The PKU is an inborn error of amino acid metabolism, in which phenylalanine (Phe) accumulated in the blood causing alterations at the central nervous system. We report a novel paper-based enzymatic platform coupled to screen printed graphene-modified electrode for the neonatal screening of phenylketonuria (PKU0. METHODS: The paper-based analytical device coupled to electrochemical detection (EPAD) is based on the use of paper microzones modified with phenylalanine dehydrogenase enzyme (PheDH)...
July 11, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Alexander Böhm, Simon Trosien, Olga Avrutina, Harald Kolmar, Markus Biesalski
Due to its unique material properties, paper offers many practical advantages as a viable platform for sensing devices. In view of paper-based microfluidic biosensing applications, the covalent immobilization of enzymes with preserved functional activity is highly desirable and ultimately challenging. In the present manuscript, we report an efficient approach to achieving the covalent attachment of certain enzymes on paper fibers via a surface-bound network of hydrophilic polymers bearing protein-modifiable sites...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Cuong Hung Nguyen, Ulrik Hanke, Einar Halvorsen
This paper establishes constitutive equations, or linear two-port models, of piezoelectric layered beams with interdigital electrodes (IDE). The effect of the non-trivial field on the transduction is analyzed. Based on conformal mapping techniques, we derive a new analytic expression for the capacitance, the electric field and the electromechanical coupling factor of an anisotropic dielectric with the IDE configuration on top. The IDE capacitance with an anisotropic permittivity can be treated as the one with an isotropic permittivity...
June 5, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Johannes Stegner, Sebastian Gropp, Dmitry Podoskin, Uwe Stehr, Martin Hoffmann, Matthias A Hein
The importance of micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) for radio-frequency (RF) applications is rapidly growing. In RF mobile-communication systems, MEMS-based circuits enable a compact implementation, low power consumption and high RF performance, e.g., bulk-acoustic wave filters with low insertion loss and low noise or fast and reliable MEMS switches. However, the cross-hierarchical modelling of micro-electronic and micro-electromechanical constituents together in one multi-physical design process is still not as established as the design of integrated micro-electronic circuits, such as operational amplifiers...
July 4, 2018: Sensors
Jennifer Grant, Justin A Modica, Juliet Roll, Paul Perkovich, Milan Mrksich
This paper describes a microfluidic chip wherein the position and order of two immobilized enzymes affects the type and quantity of reaction products in the flowing fluid. Assembly of the chip is based on a self-assembled monolayer presenting two orthogonal covalent capture ligands that immobilize their respective fusion enzyme. A thiol-tagged substrate is flowed over a region presenting the first enzyme-which generates a product that is efficiently transferred to the second enzyme-and the second enzyme's product binds to an adjacent thiol capture site on the chip...
July 3, 2018: Small
Dharitri Rath, N Sathishkumar, Bhushan J Toley
Paper-based microfluidic devices are rapidly becoming popular as a platform for developing point-of-care medical diagnostic tests. However, the design of these devices largely relies on trial and error, owing to a lack of proper understanding of fluid flow through porous membranes. Any porous material having pores of multiple sizes contains partially saturated regions, i.e., regions where less than 100% of the pores are filled with fluid. The capillary pressure and permeability of the material change as a function of the extent of saturation...
July 31, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
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