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Paper Based Analytical Device

Stefano Cinti, Elena Proietti, Federica Casotto, Danila Moscone, Fabiana Arduini
The detection of double stranded DNA (dsDNA) is often associated with the use of laboratory-bound approaches and/or with the prior generation of the single stranded DNA (ssDNA), making these methods not suitable for in-situ monitoring, i.e. point-of-care diagnostics. Screen-printed technology, coupled to the use of triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFO) as the recognizing probes, offers a great possibility towards the development of portable analytical tools. Moreover, the continuous demand for sustainable processes and waste lowering have highlighted the role of paper-based substrates for manufacturing easy-to-use, low-cost, and sustainable electrochemical devices...
October 19, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Elena Zdrachek, Eric Bakker
This review describes, with 186 references, progress in the field of potentiometric sensing in the period between January 2016 and August 2018. January 2016 was when the last fundamental review covering the topic of potentiometric sensors appeared in the special issue of Analytical Chemistry and was set as start date. This review starts with a description of progress in the development and improve-ment of reference electrodes, which represent an indispensable part of any electro-chemical cell and has a particularly important influence on the accuracy of potentiometric measurements...
October 17, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Xiwei Huang, Dandan Xu, Jin Chen, Jixuan Liu, Yangbo Li, Jing Song, Xing Ma, Jinhong Guo
The traditional analytical biosensor instruments are relatively bulky, expensive, and not easy to handle, thus their applications are largely limited in resource-limited settings. The recent development of microfluidic lab-on-a-chip (LOC) technology has provided a possible solution to miniaturize the conventional biosensing system, yet other accessory devices to detect, readout, analyze, transfer, and display results are still required. With the rapid development, mass production, and pervasive distribution of smartphones in recent years, they have provided people with portable, cost-effective, and easy-to-operate platforms to build analytical biosensors for point-of-care (POC) applications and mobile health...
October 17, 2018: Analyst
Sudkate Chaiyo, Kurt Kalcher, Amara Apilux, Orawon Chailapakul, Weena Siangproh
A novel paper-based analytical device (PAD) was fabricated and developed for the simple and rapid determination of the albumin to creatinine ratio (ACR) in urine samples. The detection was based on a colorimetric reaction using bromocresol green (BG) in a phosphate buffer (PB) at pH 4 for the determination of albumin (AL) and creatinine (CR). BG changes color from greenish-yellow to bluish-green in the presence of AL and/or CR. Picric acid (PA) in 0.25 M NaOH was used to detect CR, and PA changes color from yellow to orange...
October 15, 2018: Analyst
Yuan Jia, Hao Sun, Xiao Li, Dongke Sun, Tao Hu, Nan Xiang, Zhonghua Ni
Rapid, disposable, point-of-care (POC) oral fluid testing has gained considerable attention in recent years as saliva contains biomarker and components of the serum proteome that offer important information on both oral and systemic disease. Microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) coupled with smartphone reflectance sensing systems have long been considered to be an effective POC tool for the diagnostics of biomarkers in oral fluid. However, the existing portable systems are limited by the poor color distribution in the detection area as well as not being universally applicable...
October 12, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
C S Pundir, Seema Jakhar, Vinay Narwal
Urea is the major end product of nitrogen metabolism in humans, which is eliminated from the body mainly by the kidneys through urine but is also secreted in body fluids such as blood and saliva. Its level in urine ranges from 7 to 20 mg/dL, which drastically rises under patho-physiological conditions thus providing key information of renal function and diagnosis of various kidney and liver disorders. Increase in urea levels in blood, also referred to as azotemia or uremia. The chronic kidney disease (CKD) or end stage renal disease (ESRD) is generally caused due to the progressive loss of kidney function...
September 20, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Yu-Ci Liu, Chia-Hui Hsu, Bing-Jyun Lu, Peng-Yi Lin, Mei-Lin Ho
A new microfluidic paper-based analytical device, a (Ag-μPAD)-based chemiresistor composed of silver ink, has been developed for the selective, sensitive, and quantitative determination of nitrite ions in environmental analysis. The silver ink acts as an efficient transducer in terms of resistance changes due to nitrite initiating a diazo reaction and further reacting with the ink. The silver ink is synthesized onto the μPADs by pulsed light sintering from silver nanoparticles, a mixture of silver nanowires and nanoparticles...
October 8, 2018: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Ashish Rauniyar, Paal Engelstad, Olav N Østerbø
Amidst the rapid development of the fifth generation (5G) networks, Internet of Things (IoT) is considered as one of the most important part of 5G next generation networks as it can support massive object communications. These massive object communications in the context of IoT is expected to consume a huge power. Furthermore, IoT sensors or devices are rather power constrained and are mostly battery operated. Therefore, energy efficiency of such network of IoT devices is a major concern. On the other hand, energy harvesting (EH) is an emerging paradigm that allows the wireless nodes to recharge themselves through radio frequency (RF) signals directed to them from the source node and then relaying or transmitting the information...
September 27, 2018: Sensors
Hua Li, Andrew J Steckl
Blood is the most intensely studied human biofluid and is used as the main indicator (so-called "gold standard") of the health status of the individual. Blood is also a very complex fluid, containing a multiplicity of components, including cells and cell fragments (red and white blood cells, platelets), proteins, and many other organic molecules. Laboratory-based blood analysis is a standard procedure that provides a wealth of information about the concentration of key components and enables medical personnel to establish diagnoses and treatments...
September 26, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Andrea Montero-Oleas, Cesar Costa-Vera, Elizabeth Samaniego Onofre, Miguel Angel Mendez
Paper-based analytics allows building portable and disposable devices for point-of-care (POC) diagnosis. Conventional methods for quantifying proteins exhibit substantial disadvantages related to costs and difficulty of the technique when used in settings where fast and cost-effective assays are needed. We report the successful application of a simple, rapid, easy to use, and label-free aptasensor strategy based on the selective fluorescence of the NMM IX dye. For the probe design, the three-dimensional (3-D) structures of the DNA components were carefully analyzed using software for the 3-D visualization of crystallographic structures...
September 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Foteini A Kappi, George Z Tsogas, Anna-Maria Routsi, Dionysios C Christodouleas, Dimosthenis L Giokas
This study describes the development of paper-based devices for the determination of biothiols. The devices are inexpensive (composed of paper and silver halide particles), and the analytical protocol is easily executable with minimum technical expertise and without the need of specialized equipment; the user has to add a test sample, illuminate the device with a UV lamp, and read the color change of the sensing area using a simple imaging device (i.e., cell-phone camera) or a bare eye. The detection mechanism of the assay is based on the biothiols-mediated photoreduction of nanometer-sized silver chloride particles deposited on the surface of paper; photoreduced silver chloride particles have a grayish coloration that depends on the concentration of biothiols in the tested solution...
December 7, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Luhong Sun, Yujun Jiang, Ruili Pan, Mingyu Li, Rui Wang, Sihan Chen, Shiqian Fu, Chaoxin Man
Cronobacter spp. are recognized as a world-wide emerging opportunistic food-borne pathogens that can persist in various food and processing environment for a long time. Therefore, the prevention and detection of them are particularly important. In this study, a micro-spot paper-based analytical device (μPADs) was created by combining PVC pad with filter paper. Detection is achieved by measuring the color change (from colorless to indigo) when a species-specific enzyme associated with the Cronobacter spp. of interest reacts with a chromogenic substrate...
December 7, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Esra Neufeld, Niels Kuster
Extreme broadband wireless devices operating above 10 GHz may transmit data in bursts of a few milliseconds to seconds. Even though the time- and area-averaged power density values remain within the acceptable safety limits for continuous exposure, these bursts may lead to short temperature spikes in the skin of exposed people. In this paper, a novel analytical approach to pulsed heating is developed and applied to assess the peak-to-average temperature ratio as a function of the pulse fraction α (relative to the averaging time [INCREMENT]T; it corresponds to the inverse of the peak-to-average ratio)...
September 21, 2018: Health Physics
Shuang Nie, Chenxi Zhang, Jizhou Song
Thermal management of the system consisting of epidermal electronics devices (EEDs) and skin is critically important since a few degrees in temperature increase may induce thermal discomfort. In this paper, considering insensible sweating, a three-dimensional analytical thermal model, validated by finite element analysis, is developed to derive analytical expressions for the steady temperature distributions in the EED/skin system. The influences of various parameters including the thickness and thermal conductivity of the substrate in EEDs on the maximum skin temperature are investigated...
September 20, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huma Rasheed, Ludwig Höllein, Ulrike Holzgrabe
Substandard and falsified (SF) medicines have emerged as a global public health issue within the last two decades especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Serious consequences of this problem include a loss of trust and increased financial costs due to less disease control and more frequent complications during therapy. Of note, antimicrobial resistance is an additional long-term implication of poor-quality antimicrobials. This review covers information technology tools including medicines authentication tools (MAT) as mobile apps and messaging service, 2D barcoding approaches with drug safety alert systems, web based drug safety alerts, radiofrequency identification tags, databases to support visual inspection, digital aids to enhance the performance of quality evaluation kits, reference libraries for identification of falsified and substandard medicines, and quality evaluation kits based on machine learning for field testing...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Bo Wei, Kang Mao, Na Liu, Man Zhang, Zhugen Yang
Prostate specific antigen (PSA) is a widely used marker for the diagnosis of prostate cancer, and the increasing attention has been attracted on the development of rapid assay using biosensing technology. However, it remains challenging for the sensitive and selective detection of PSA in clinical samples. Here, we report a label-free microfluidic paper-based analytical device for highly sensitive electrochemical detection of PSA. The paper device was fabricated with wax printing to generate hydrophobic and hydrophilic layers for the construction of microfluidic channel, followed by screen-printing of three electrodes including working, counter and reference electrode...
December 15, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
William R de Araujo, Thiago M G Cardoso, Raquel G da Rocha, Mário H P Santana, Rodrigo A A Muñoz, Eduardo M Richter, Thiago R L C Paixão, Wendell K T Coltro
This current review article focuses on recent contributions to on-site forensic investigations. Portable and potentially portable methods are presented and critically discussed about (bio)chemical trace analysis and studies performed outside the controlled laboratory environment to rapidly help in crime scene inquiries or forensic intelligence purposes. A wide range of approaches including electrochemical sensors, microchip electrophoresis, ambient ionization on portable mass spectrometers, handheld Raman and NIR instruments as well as and point-of-need devices, like paper-based platforms, for in-field analysis of latent evidences, controlled substances, drug screening, hazards, and others to assist in law enforcements and solving crime more efficiently are highlighted...
November 30, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Noorhayati Idros, Daping Chu
Heavy metals are highly toxic at trace levels and their pollution has shown great threat to the environment and public health worldwide where current detection methods require expensive instrumentation and laborious operation, which can only be accomplished in centralized laboratories. Herein, we report a low-cost, paper-based microfluidic analytical device (μPAD) for facile, portable, and disposable monitoring of mercury, lead, chromium, nickel, copper, and iron ions. Triple indicators or ligands that contain ions or molecules are preloaded on the μPADs and upon addition of a metal ion, the colorimetric indicators will elicit color changes observed by the naked eyes...
September 28, 2018: ACS Sensors
Soraia Vasconcelos de Freitas, Fabrício Ribeiro de Souza, Jorge Candido Rodrigues Neto, Géssica A Vasconcelos, Patrícia Verardi Abdelnur, Boniek G Vaz, Charles S Henry, Wendell K T Coltro
This study describes the use of mass spectrometry imaging with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) and desorption electrospray ionization (DESI) to understand the color gradient generation commonly seen in microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (µPADs). The formation of color gradients significantly impacts assay sensitivity and reproducibility with µPADs but the mechanism for formation is poorly understood. The glucose enzymatic assay using potassium iodide (KI) as a chromogenic agent was selected to investigate the color gradient generated across a detection spot...
September 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Tengfei Wang, Guangning Xu, Wenyuan Wu, Xiaoying Wang, Xueliang Chen, Shumin Zhou, Fan You
Nowadays, there is great interest in the use of microfluidic paper-based analytical devices (μPADs) for low-cost diagnostics. In most cases, the test equipment is needed. Here we report a new type of device-independent detection method based on timer-paper-based analytical devices, which can be tested by smartphone, and its application for cholesterol detection. The Quick Response code was designed as the timer component of this device. Wax printing method was employed to print the pattern on filter paper...
September 5, 2018: Biomedical Microdevices
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