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Lian C T Shoute, Afreen Anwar, Scott MacKay, Gaser N Abdelrasoul, Donghai Lin, Zhimin Yan, Anh H Nguyen, Mark T McDermott, Manzoor A Shah, Jian Yang, Jie Chen, Xiujie S Li
Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by the fungal pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum, is a destructive disease of canola and many other broadleaf crops. The primary inoculum responsible for initiating Sclerotinia epidemics is airborne ascospores released from the apothecia of sclerotia. Timely detection of the presence of airborne ascospores can serve as an early-warning system for forecasting and management of the disease. A major challenge is to develop a portable and automated device which can be deployed onsite to detect and quantify the presence of minute quantities of ascospores in the air and serves as a unit in a network of systems for forecasting of the epidemic...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Manuel C Martos-Maldonado, Christian T Hjuler, Kasper K Sørensen, Mikkel B Thygesen, Jakob E Rasmussen, Klaus Villadsen, Søren R Midtgaard, Stefan Kol, Sanne Schoffelen, Knud J Jensen
Methods for site-selective chemistry on proteins are in high demand for the synthesis of chemically modified biopharmaceuticals, as well as for applications in chemical biology, biosensors and more. Inadvertent N-terminal gluconoylation has been reported during expression of proteins with an N-terminal His tag. Here we report the development of this side-reaction into a general method for highly selective N-terminal acylation of proteins to introduce functional groups. We identify an optimized N-terminal sequence, GHHHn - for the reaction with gluconolactone and 4-methoxyphenyl esters as acylating agents, facilitating the introduction of functionalities in a highly selective and efficient manner...
August 17, 2018: Nature Communications
Banxian Ruan, Qi You, Jiaqi Zhu, Leiming Wu, Jun Guo, Xiaoyu Dai, Yuanjiang Xiang
Fano resonance is realized in the multilayer structure consisting of two planar waveguides (PWGs) and few layer graphene, and the coupling mechanism between the two PWG modes with graphene is analyzed in detail. It is revealed that the Fano resonance originates from the different quality factors due to the different intrinsic losses of the graphene in the two waveguides, and the electric field distributions in the multilayer structure confirms our results. Fano resonance in our proposed structures can be applied in the ultrasensitive biosensor, and a significantly improved figure of merit (FOM) of 9340 RIU-1 has been obtained by optimizing the structure parameters, which has a 2~3 orders of magnitude enhancement compared to the traditional surface plasmon polaritons (SPR) sensor...
June 25, 2018: Optics Express
Bala Prabhakar, Pravin Shende, Steffi Augustine
Cancer is one of most fatal forms of disease with rapid, abnormal and uncontrolled division of cells which spreads into different organs in the body. The primary aim of this review is to showcase the current and emerging diagnostic techniques that are used in lung cancer detection. Lung cancer is a leading cause of death among smokers and it has been emerging in non-smokers due to passive smoke inhalation by non-smokers. The mortality rate of patients with lung cancer is very high due to the change in lifestyle and environmental factors...
July 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jaewook Lee, Oluwasesan Adegoke, Enoch Y Park
Recently, highly sensitive and selective biosensors have become necessary for improving public health and well-being. To fulfill this need, high-performance biosensing systems based on various nanomaterials, such as nanoparticles, carbon nanomaterials, and hybrid nanomaterials, have been developed. Numerous nanomaterials have shown excellent physical properties, including plasmonic, magnetic, catalytic, mechanical and fluorescence properties and high electrical conductivities, and these unique and beneficial properties have contributed to the fabrication of high-performance biosensors with various applications, including in optical, electrical, and electrochemical detection platforms...
August 17, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Jiajun Song, Peng Lin, Yi-Fan Ruan, Wei-Wei Zhao, Weiwei Wei, Jin Hu, Shanming Ke, Xierong Zeng, Jing-Juan Xu, Hong-Yuan Chen, Wei Ren, Feng Yan
Organic bioelectronics have shown promising applications for various sensing purposes due to their significant advantages in term of high flexibility, portability, easy fabrication, and biocompatibility. Here, a new type of organic device, organic photo-electrochemical transistor (OPECT), is reported, which is the combination of an organic electrochemical transistor and a photo-electrochemical gate electrode modified with CdS quantum dots (QDs). Thanks to the inherent amplification function of the transistor, the OPECT-based biosensor exhibits much higher sensitivity than that of a traditional biosensor...
August 16, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Karen Yasmim Pereira Dos Santos Avelino, Isaac Aarón Morales Frías, Norma Lucena-Silva, César Augusto Souza de Andrade, Maria Danielly Lima de Oliveira
A label-free impedimetric biosensor was developed for determination of BCR/ABL transcripts. Specific DNA primers were covalently immobilized on a gold electrode modified with carboxylated multiwalled carbon nanotubes (cMWCNTs) and zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO-NPs). Aggregation of the ZnO-NPs is prevented by the introduction of an amino-modified silica coating, which also allows a subsequent covalent linkage to cMWCNTs. The impedimetric biosensor was typically operated at a working voltage of +10 mV vs. Ag/AgCl, in a frequency range from 100 mHz to 100 kHz...
August 16, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Léa Girard, François Lantoine, Raphaël Lami, Florence Vouvé, Marcelino T Suzuki, Julia Baudart
N-Acyl homoserine lactone (AHL)-mediated Quorum sensing (QS) is one of the most studied social behavior among Proteobacteria. However, despite the current knowledge on QS-associated phenotypes such as bioluminescence, biofilm formation, or pathogenesis, the characterization of environmental factors driving QS in realistic ecological settings remains scarce. We investigated the dynamics of AHL and AHL-producing Vibrio among 840 isolates  collected fortnightly from the Salses-Leucate Mediterranean lagoon in spring and summer 2015 and 2016...
August 16, 2018: ISME Journal
Emma M Sundin, John D Ciubuc, Kevin E Bennet, Katia Ochoa, Felicia S Manciu
To better understand detection and monitoring of the important neurotransmitter adenosine at physiological levels, this study combines quantum chemical density functional modeling and ultrasensitive surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic (SERS) measurements. Combined simulation results and experimental data for an analyte concentration of about 10-11 molar indicate the presence of all known molecular forms resulting from adenosine's complex redox-reaction. Detailed analysis presented here, besides assessing potential Raman signatures of these adenosinic forms, also sheds light on the analytic redox process and voltammetric detection...
August 16, 2018: Sensors
Kavitha Kalavoor Gopalan, Bruno Paulillo, David M A Mackenzie, Daniel Rodrigo, Nestor Bareza, Patrick R Whelan, Abhay Shivayogimath, Valerio Pruneri
Despite its great potential for a wide variety of devices, especially mid-infrared biosensors and photodetectors, graphene plasmonics is still confined to academic research. A major reason is the fact that, so far, expensive and low-throughput lithography techniques are needed to fabricate graphene nanostructures. Here, we report for the first time, a detailed experimental study on electrostatically tunable graphene nano-hole array surfaces with periods down to 100 nm, showing clear plasmonic response in the range ≈ 1300-1600 cm-1, which can be fabricated by scalable nanoimprint technique...
August 16, 2018: Nano Letters
David Öling, Lina Lawenius, William Shaw, Sonya Clark, Ross Kettleborough, Tom Ellis, Niklas Larsson, Mark Wigglesworth
Site saturation mutagenesis (SSM) is a powerful mutagenesis strategy for protein engineering and directed evolution experiments. However, limiting factors using this method are either biased representation of variants, or limiting library size. To overcome these hurdles, we generated large scale targeted synthetic SSM libraries using massively parallel oligonucleotide synthesis and benchmarked this against an error-prone (epPCR) library. The yeast glucose activated GPCR - Gpr1 was chosen as a prototype to evolve novel glucose sensors...
August 16, 2018: ACS Synthetic Biology
Donggee Rho, Seunghyun Kim
We have developed a low-cost optical cavity-based biosensor with a differential detection method for point-of-care medical diagnostics. To experimentally demonstrate its label-free real-time biosensing capability, we performed the detection of biotinylated bovine serum albumin (BSA). Streptavidin is introduced into the optical cavity structure and immobilized on 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) coated surface. After rinsing out unbound streptavidin with DI water, biotinylated BSA without any labeling is introduced...
July 23, 2018: Optics Express
Susan E Dorman
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The current review highlights recent advances in tuberculosis (TB) diagnostics that are relevant for clinicians engaged in the care of HIV-positive adults. RECENT FINDINGS: The first section focuses on newly available tools, highlighting recent progress. The second section focuses on new diagnostic approaches that are not yet widely available or implemented, but have considerable potential to improve the management of TB/HIV coinfected persons...
August 14, 2018: Current Opinion in HIV and AIDS
Ye Wang, Philip D Howes, Eunjung Kim, Christopher D Spicer, Michael R Thomas, Yiyang Lin, Spencer W Crowder, Isaac J Pence, Molly M Stevens
Advances in nanotechnology have provided new opportunities for the design of next-generation nucleic acid biosensors and diagnostics. Indeed, combining advances in functional nanoparticles, DNA nanotechnology, and nuclease-enzyme-based amplification can give rise to new assays with advantageous properties. In this work, we developed a microRNA (miRNA) assay using bright fluorescent quantum dots (QDs), simple DNA probes, and the enzyme duplex-specific nuclease. We employed an isothermal target-recycling mechanism, where a single miRNA target triggers the cleavage of many DNA signal probes...
August 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
S A Kozin, V I Polshakov, Y V Mezentsev, A S Ivanov, S S Zhokhov, M M Yurinskaya, M G Vinokurov, A A Makarov, V A Mitkevich
Intact amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) may undergo prion-like aggregation when they interact with chemically or structurally modified variants of Aβ present in extracellular pathohistological inclusions (amyloid plaques). This aggregation is regarded as one of the key molecular mechanisms of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis. Zinc ions are involved in the pathological dimerization and oligomerization of natural Aβ isoforms, and zinc-induced oligomers can also initiate the pathological aggregation of Aβ. Based on the earlier found molecular mechanism of zinc-dependent oligomerization of Aβ, it has been suggested that the targeted inhibition of the 11EVHH14 site in one Aβ molecule from zinc-mediated interactions with the same site of another Aβ molecule can effectively inhibit the oligomerization and aggregation of Aβ...
July 2018: Molekuliarnaia Biologiia
Rocio L Espinosa, María Fe Laguna, Fátima Fernández, Beatriz Santamaria, Francisco Javier Sanza, Maria Victoria Maigler, Juan J Álvarez-Millán, Víctor Canalejas-Tejero, Miguel Holgado
Food allergy is a common disease worldwide with over 6% of the population (200⁻250 million people) suffering from any food allergy nowadays. The most dramatic increase seems to be happening in children and young people. Therefore, improvements in the diagnosis efficiency of these diseases are needed. Immunoglobulin type E (IgE) biomarker determination in human serum is a typical in vitro test for allergy identification. In this work, we used a novel biosensor based on label-free photonic transducers called BICELLs (Biophotonic Sensing Cells) for IgE detection...
August 15, 2018: Sensors
Jagriti Narang, Annu Mishra, Roberto Pilloton, Alekhya Vv, Shikha Wadhwa, Chandra Shekhar Pundir, Manika Khanuja
The present study was aimed to develop "fluorine doped" tin oxide glass electrode with a MoSe2 nano-urchin based electrochemical biosensor for detection of Escherichia. coli Shiga toxin DNA. The study comprises two conductive electrodes, and the working electrodes were drop deposited using MoSe2 nano-urchin, and DNA sequences specific to Shiga toxin Escherichia. coli. Morphological characterizations were performed using Fourier transforms infrared spectrophotometer; X-ray diffraction technique and scanning electron microscopy...
August 14, 2018: Biosensors
Han Su, Shaopei Li, Mauricio Terebiznik, Cyril Guyard, Kagan Kerman
The adhesin Legionella collagen-like (Lcl) protein can bind to extracellular matrix components and mediate the binding of Legionella pneumophila to host cells. In this study, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and surface plasmon resonance (SPR)-based biosensors were employed to characterize these interactions between glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) and the adhesin Lcl protein. Fucoidan displayed a high affinity (KD 18 nM) for Lcl protein. Chondroitin sulfate A and dermatan sulfate differ in the position of a carboxyl group replacing D-glucuronate with D-iduronate...
August 14, 2018: Sensors
Ami S Bhatt
New England Journal of Medicine, Volume 379, Issue 7, Page 686-688, August 2018.
August 16, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Manjari Bhamidipati, Hyeon-Yeol Cho, Ki Bum Lee, Laura Fabris
Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)-based biosensors have been used increasingly over the past few years for cancer detection and diagnosis. SERS-based imaging offers excellent sensitivity and has advantages over other detection techniques such as fluorescence. In this study, we developed a novel biosensor to detect the cancer biomarker epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM) and quantify its expression at the single cell level. EpCAM is one of the most commonly expressed markers on a variety of cancer cells; importantly it has been suggested that reduction of its expression levels could be associated to the epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), and thus to the onset of metastasis...
August 15, 2018: Bioconjugate Chemistry
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