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Yun Wu, Yuan Zhong, Zijuan Ma, Xin Lu, Ning Zhang, Peter T Fox, Chun Wang
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies of panic disorder (PD) have discovered various damaged brain regions, with heterogeneous results across studies. The present study used meta-analytic approaches to discover gray matter (GM) changes consistently detected in PD and to characterize the functional and connectivity profiles of these regions. In the present study we first conducted an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) meta-analysis of eight eligible whole-brain VBM studies. Then, meta-analytic connectivity modeling analyses (MACMs) were used to provide co-atrophy and co-activation profiles across all the experiments stored in BrainMap...
October 2, 2018: Psychiatry research. Neuroimaging
Rieko Tanaka-Yachi, Masato Shirasaki, Rena Otsu, Chie Takahashi-Muto, Hideki Inoue, Yoshinori Aoki, Taisuke Koike, Chikako Kiyose
Activation of thermogenic adipocytes (brown and beige) has been considered an attractive target for weight loss and treatment of metabolic disease. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ co-activator-1 α (PGC1-α) is a master regulator of thermogenic gene expression in thermogenic adipocytes. We previously reported that α-tocopherol upregulated PGC-1α gene expression and promoted thermogenic adipocyte differentiation in mammalian adipocytes. In this study, we investigated the effects of the vitamin E analogs (α-, γ- and δ-tocopherol) on PGC-1α and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1) gene expression in 3T3-L1 cells...
October 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
G Calo, D G Lambert
Opioids are characterised as classical (mu, delta, and kappa) along with the non-classical nociceptin/orphanin FQ (N/OFQ) receptor or NOP. Targeting NOP has therapeutic indications in control of the cardiovascular and respiratory systems and micturition, and a profile as an antidepressant. For all of these indications, there are translational human data. Opioids such as morphine and fentanyl (activating the mu receptor) are the mainstay of pain treatment in the perioperative period, despite a challenging side-effect profile...
November 2018: British Journal of Anaesthesia
Guang Qi, Jian Chen, Ming Chang, Huan Chen, Katherine Hall, John Korin, Fengquan Liu, Daowen Wang, Zheng Qing Fu
Salicylic acid (SA) or 2-hydroxybenoic acid is a phenolic plant hormone that plays an essential role in plant defense against biotrophic and semi-biotrophic pathogens. In Arabidopsis, SA is synthesized from chorismate in chloroplast through the ICS1 (Isochorismate synthase I) pathway during pathogen infection. The transcription co-activator NPR1 (Non-Expresser of Pathogenesis Related Gene 1), as the master regulator of SA signaling, interacts with transcription factors to induce the expression of anti-microbial PR (Pathogenesis-Related) genes...
October 15, 2018: Molecular Plant
Diego E Hernández, Natalia A Salvadores, Guillermo Moya-Alvarado, Romina J Catalán, Francisca C Bronfman, Felipe A Court
Neuronal excitotoxicity induced by glutamate leads to cell death and functional impairment in a variety of central nervous system pathologies. Glutamate-mediated excitotoxicity triggers neuronal apoptosis in the cell soma as well as degeneration of axons and dendrites by a process associated to calcium increase and mitochondrial dysfunction. Importantly, degeneration of axons initiated by diverse stimuli, including excitotoxicity, has been proposed as an important pathological event leading to functional impairment in neurodegenerative conditions...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Cell Science
Kangli Zhu, Deyan Ge, Zhixin Wen, Lin Xia, Qisen Yang
Low oxygen and fluctuant ambient temperature pose serious challenges to mammalian survival. Physiological adaptations in mammals to hypoxia and low temperatures have been intensively investigated, yet their underlying molecular mechanisms need further exploration. Independent invasions of high-altitude plateaus, subterranean burrows and marine environments by different mammals provide opportunities to conduct such analyses. Here, we focused on six genes in the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) pathway and two non-shivering thermogenesis (NST)-related genes [PPAR co-activator 1 (PGC-1) and uncoupling protein 1 (UCP1)] in representative species of pikas and other mammals to understand whether these loci were targeted by natural selection during independent invasions to conditions characterized by hypoxia and temperature fluctuations by high-altitude, subterranean and marine mammals...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Evolution
Jiao Luo, Nyam-Osor Chimge, Beiyun Zhou, Per Flodby, Alessandra Castaldi, Amy L Firth, Yixin Liu, Hongjun Wang, Chenchen Yang, Crystal N Marconett, Edward D Crandall, Ite A Offringa, Baruch Frenkel, Zea Borok
Claudins are a family of transmembrane proteins integral to the structure and function of tight junctions (TJ). Disruption of TJ and alterations in claudin expression are important features of invasive and metastatic cancer cells. Expression of CLDN18.1, the lung-specific isoform of CLDN18, is markedly decreased in lung adenocarcinoma (LuAd). Furthermore, we recently observed that aged Cldn18 -/- mice have increased propensity to develop LuAd. We now demonstrate that CLDN18.1 expression correlates inversely with promoter methylation and with LuAd patient mortality...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Jongchan Kim, Fatemeh Alavi Naini, Yutong Sun, Li Ma
β-catenin is not only a key component of adherens junctions but also a transcriptional co-activator downstream of canonical Wnt signaling. The Wnt/β-catenin pathway plays critical roles in animal development and tissue homeostasis, while mutation or overexpression of β-catenin often leads to tumorigenesis and metastasis. Ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation of β-catenin is a key molecular event in the Wnt/β-catenin pathway. Because deubiquitination of β-catenin can stabilize β-catenin and activate Wnt/β-catenin signaling, targeting the β-catenin deubiquitinase may provide a strategy for treating β-catenin-driven cancers...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
Hyun Hwangbo, Da He Kwon, Eun Ok Choi, Min Yeong Kim, Kyu Im Ahn, Seon Yeong Ji, Jong Sik Kim, Kyung-Il Kim, No-Jin Park, Bum Hoi Kim, Gi-Young Kim, Su-Hyun Hong, Cheol Park, Ji-Suk Jeong, Yung Hyun Choi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Benign prostatic hypertrophy (BPH) is a major cause of abnormal overgrowth of the prostate mainly in the elderly. Corni Fructus has been reported to be effective in the prevention and treatment of various diseases because of its strong antioxidant effect, but its efficacy against BPH is not yet known. This study was designed to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of Corni Fructus water extract (CF) in testosterone-induced BPH rats. MATERIALS/METHODS: To induce BPH, rats were intraperitoneal injected with testosterone propionate (TP)...
October 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
Esther Ortega, Srinivasan Rengachari, Ziad Ibrahim, Naghmeh Hoghoughi, Jonathan Gaucher, Alex S Holehouse, Saadi Khochbin, Daniel Panne
The transcriptional co-activator p300 is a histone acetyltransferase (HAT) that is typically recruited to transcriptional enhancers and regulates gene expression by acetylating chromatin. Here we show that the activation of p300 directly depends on the activation and oligomerization status of transcription factor ligands. Using two model transcription factors, IRF3 and STAT1, we demonstrate that transcription factor dimerization enables the trans-autoacetylation of p300 in a highly conserved and intrinsically disordered autoinhibitory lysine-rich loop, resulting in p300 activation...
October 15, 2018: Nature
Rasha Kamel, Elisa Montaguti, Kypros H Nicolaides, Mahmoud Soliman, Maria Gaia Dodaro, Sherif Negm, Gianluigi Pilu, Mohamed Momtaz, Aly Youssef
BACKGROUND: The Valsalva maneuver is normally accompanied by relaxation of the levator ani muscle, which stretches around the presenting part, but in some women the maneuver is accompanied by levator ani muscle contraction, which is referred to as levator ani muscle co-activation. The effect of such co-activation on labor outcome in women undergoing induction of labor has not been previously assessed. OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to assess the effect of levator ani muscle co-activation on labor outcome, in particular on the duration of the second and active second stage of labor, in nulliparous women undergoing induction of labor...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Qiong Zhang, Xu Han, Jinfeng Chen, Xiaomei Xie, Jiafeng Xu, Yang Zhao, Jie Shen, Lin Hu, Pinglong Xu, Hai Song, Long Zhang, Bin Zhao, Ying-Jie Wang, Zongping Xia
A proper inflammatory response is critical to the restoration of tissue homeostasis after injury or infection, but how such a response is modulated by the physical properties of the cellular and tissue microenvironment is not fully understood. Here, using H358, HeLa and HEK293T cells, we report that cell density can modulate inflammatory responses through the Hippo signaling pathway. We found that NF-κβ activation through the proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) is not affected by cell density...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Komeil Dashti Rostami, Aynollah Naderi, Abbey Thomas
CONTEXT: Hamstring and quadriceps activity adaptations are well known in individuals with anterior cruciate ligament deficiency (ACLD) and reconstructed (ACLR) to potentially compensate for knee joint instability. However, few studies have explored hip muscles activity patterns after ACL injury. OBJECTIVE: to examine the activation characteristics of gluteus medius (GMED) and adductor longus (AL) in ACLR and ACLD subjects compared to controls. DESIGN: case-control study...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Sport Rehabilitation
Shang-Lin Chang, Hsuan-Kai Wang, Luh Tung, Tien-Hsien Chang
Essential genes form the core of a genome and are therefore thought to be indispensable for cellular viability. However, recent findings have challenged this notion in that cells may survive in the absence of some essential genes provided that relevant genetic modifiers are in existence. We therefore hypothesized that the loss of an essential gene may not always be fatefully detrimental; instead, it may pave the way towards genome evolution. We experimentally tested this hypothesis in the context of pre-messenger RNA splicing by evolving yeast cells harbouring a permanent loss of the essential splicing factor Prp28 in the presence of a genetic modifier...
October 8, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
Chunting Chen, Guilin Chen, Xiangkai Kong
Design and development of a single atomic catalyst with high activity is desirable but proved to be very challenging in the renewable energy conversion and storage technologies. As a classic carbon material, graphene has many excellent properties and thus may be a good support to stabilize the isolated metal atoms. However, the oxygen evolution activity of a single cobalt atom supported on graphene is still very low. To improve its performance, support modification has been carried out based on a density functional theory framework for the design predication...
October 4, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
Chihiro Ogawa, Rashmi Bankoti, Truc Nguyen, Nargess Hassanzadeh-Kiabi, Samantha Nadeau, Rebecca A Porritt, Michael Couse, Xuemo Fan, Deepti Dhall, Gerald Eberl, Caspar Ohnmacht, Gislâine A Martins
Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Treg) are essential modulators of immune responses, but the molecular mechanisms underlying their function are not fully understood. Here we show that the transcription factor Blimp-1 is a crucial regulator of the Foxp3+ RORγt+ Treg subset. The intrinsic expression of Blimp-1 in these cells is required to prevent production of Th17-associated cytokines. Direct binding of Blimp-1 to the Il17 locus in Treg is associated with inhibitory histone modifications but unaltered binding of RORγt...
October 2, 2018: Cell Reports
Feng-Cheng Chang, Shih-Hsuan Yen, Szu-Han Wang
In this study, electrospinning technology, physical activation, and carbonization processing were applied to produce lignosulfonate-based activated carbon fibers. The porous structure of the produced lignosulfonate-based activated carbon fibers primarily contained mesopores and a relatively small amount of micropores. Moreover, insufficient carbonization caused fiber damage during CO₂ activation. The weight loss rate and specific surface area increased with increase in carbonization time, and products with carbonization temperatures of 700 °C were of higher quality than those with other temperatures...
October 1, 2018: Materials
Na Wang, Qingan Zou, Jinxin Xu, Jiancun Zhang, Jinsong Liu
Nuclear receptor farnesoid X receptor (FXR) functions as the major bile acid (BA) sensor coordinating cholesterol metabolism, lipid homeostasis and absorption of dietary fats and vitamins. Because of its central role in metabolism, FXR represents an important drug target to manage metabolic and other diseases, such as primary biliary cirrhosis and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. FXR and nuclear receptor retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) form a heterodimer that controls the expression of numerous downstream genes...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Yang Jiang, Dan Wang, Hui Ren, Ying Shi, Yufei Gao
BACKGROUND: There is abundant evidence to indicate that HBXIP functions as an oncoprotein and transcription co-activator during the development and promotion of cancers. In multiple cancers, ZEB1 serves as a transcription activator to regulate gene expression. We explored the roles of ZEB1 in HBXIP-induced breast cancer growth. METHODS: HBXIP regulation of ZEB1 was evaluated by reverse transcription PCR and immunoblotting. The stimulation of ZEB1 promoter by HBXIP and/or Sp1 was tested using luciferase reporter gene analysis...
October 1, 2018: Thoracic Cancer
Vincent C Pai, Chung-Chi Hsu, Tze-Sian Chan, Wen-Ying Liao, Chih-Pin Chuu, Wei-Yu Chen, Chi-Rong Li, Ching-Yu Lin, Shu-Pin Hwang, Li-Tzong Chen, Kelvin K Tsai
Recurrent and hormone-refractory prostate cancer (PCA) exhibits aggressive behaviors while current therapeutic approaches show little effect of prolonging the survival of patients with PCA. Thus, a deeper understanding of the patho-molecular mechanisms underlying the disease progression in PCA is crucial to identify novel diagnostic and/or therapeutic targets to improve the outcome of patients. Recent evidence suggests that activation of Wnt signaling in cancer stem cells (CSCs) contributes to cancer progression in malignant tumors...
September 28, 2018: Oncogene
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