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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29201011/development-and-validation-of-two-instruments-measuring-intrinsic-extraneous-and-germane-cognitive-load
#1
Melina Klepsch, Florian Schmitz, Tina Seufert
Cognitive Load Theory is one of the most powerful research frameworks in educational research. Beside theoretical discussions about the conceptual parts of cognitive load, the main challenge within this framework is that there is still no measurement instrument for the different aspects of cognitive load, namely intrinsic, extraneous, and germane cognitive load. Hence, the goal of this paper is to develop a differentiated measurement of cognitive load. In Study 1 (N = 97), we developed and analyzed two strategies to measure cognitive load in a differentiated way: (1) Informed rating: We trained learners in differentiating the concepts of cognitive load, so that they could rate them in an informed way...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29186521/oxidation-of-selected-phenothiazine-drugs-during-sample-preparation-effects-of-varying-extraction-conditions-on-the-extent-of-oxidation
#2
Courtney Campbell, Heather Cornthwaite, James Watterson
Characterization of degradation products formed from selected phenothiazine drugs during standard solid-phase extraction (SPE) approaches is described. An analytical method for promethazine (PMZ), chlorpromazine (CPZ) and their respective N-desmethyl and sulfoxide metabolites in biological samples (bone tissue extract and blood) by ultra performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection, using mixed-mode SPE for basic drugs was developed. When ethyl acetate:isopropanol:ammonium hydroxide (80:17:3) was used as the elution solvent during method development, extraneous peaks were observed that were absent in the negative controls...
November 23, 2017: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29183261/self-reported-participation-in-sport-exercise-among-adolescents-and-young-adults-with-and-without-mild-to-moderate-intellectual-disability
#3
Janet Robertson, Eric Emerson, Susannah Baines, Chris Hatton
BACKGROUND: Physical inactivity is a leading risk factor for mortality. Adults with intellectual disability are extremely inactive, but less is known about physical activity levels in children and youth with intellectual disability. This paper examines the participation by adolescents and young adults with and without mild to moderate intellectual disability in sport/exercise. METHODS: Secondary analysis was undertaken of Next Steps, an annual panel study that followed a cohort from early adolescence into adulthood...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Physical Activity & Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29171008/patient-reported-outcome-measures-for-young-people-with-developmental-disabilities-incorporation-of-design-features-to-reduce-cognitive-demands
#4
REVIEW
Ariel E Schwartz, Jessica M Kramer, Angela L Longo
Use of patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) may increase the involvement of young people with developmental disabilities in their healthcare decisions and healthcare-related research. Young people with developmental disabilities may have difficulty completing PROMs because of extraneous assessment demands that require additional cognitive processes. However, PROM design features may mitigate the impact of these demands. We identified and evaluated six pediatric PROMs of self-care and domestic life tasks for the incorporation of suggested design features that can reduce cognitive demands...
November 24, 2017: Developmental Medicine and Child Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29149617/decoding-early-and-late-cortical-contributions-to-individuation-of-attended-and-unattended-objects
#5
Claire K Naughtin, Jason B Mattingley, Angela D Bender, Paul E Dux
To isolate a visual stimulus as a unique object with a specific spatial location and time of occurrence, it is necessary to first register (individuate) the stimulus as a distinct perceptual entity. Recent investigations into the neural substrates of object individuation have suggested it is subserved by a distributed neural network, but previous manipulations of individuation load have introduced extraneous visual confounds, which might have yielded ambiguous findings, particularly in early cortical areas...
November 8, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29143224/investigation-of-dna-transfer-onto-clothing-during-regular-daily-activities
#6
Travis Ruan, Mark Barash, Peter Gunn, David Bruce
Low levels of DNA from an unidentified human source, often referred to as trace DNA, are ubiquitous, can be transferred onto objects by either direct or indirect methods and have an unknown longevity in situ. Clothing items from crime scenes are often submitted for trace DNA analysis, usually in attempt to identify a person of interest. This study examined the transfer of DNA onto three 10 × 10 cm areas located on the front, back and shoulder of an individual's external clothing (n = 300) during a regular day's activity...
November 15, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140802/characterization-with-scanning-electron-microscopy-energy-dispersive-x-ray-spectrometry-of-microtraces-from-the-ligature-mean-in-hanging-mechanical-asphyxia-a-series-of-forensic-cases
#7
Francesca Maghin, Salvatore Ambrogio Andreola, Michele Boracchi, Guendalina Gentile, Francesca Maciocco, Riccardo Zoja
The authors applied scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry to the furrow derived from hanging means. The study was conducted with the purpose to detect possible extraneous microtraces, deriving from the ligature, that could have had an interaction with the cutaneous biological matrix, thanks to a transfert mechanism, in the proximities of the lesion.Fifteen cutaneous samples of the furrow and an equal number of fragments of graphite tape, directly positioned on the lesion produced by the ligature mean and used as a "conductor" of possible traces, were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometry...
November 15, 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29136597/lead-in-egyptian-soils-origin-reactivity-and-bioavailability-measured-by-stable-isotope-dilution
#8
W H Shetaya, E R Marzouk, E F Mohamed, M Elkassas, E H Bailey, S D Young
The current availability of Pb in Egyptian soils and associated plants were studied in 15 locations (n=159) that had been historically subjected to industrial and automobile Pb emissions. Isotopic dilution with enriched (204)Pb was used to estimate the soil Pb labile pool (PbE); results showed that %PbE values were mostly <25% which is likely due to the alkaline nature of the soils. Nonetheless, lability of Pb was significantly higher in urban and industrial locations indicating greater reactivity of anthropogenic Pb in comparison to geogenic-Pb...
November 11, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29132963/screening-for-viral-extraneous-agents-in-live-attenuated-avian-vaccines-by-using-a-microbial-microarray-and-sequencing
#9
Majken Lindholm Olesen, Lotte Leick Jørgensen, Merete Blixenkrone-Møller, Eva Sandberg, Peer Lyng Frandsen, Erik Østergaard, Eva Rauhe Bækdahl, Helena Fridholm, Anders Fomsgaard, Maiken Worsøe Rosenstierne
The absence of extraneous agents (EA) in the raw material used for production and in finished products is one of the principal safety elements related to all medicinal products of biological origin, such as live-attenuated vaccines. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of the Lawrence Livermore Microbial detection array version 2 (LLMDAv2) combined with whole genome amplification and sequencing for screening for viral EAs in live-attenuated vaccines and specific pathogen-free (SPF) eggs...
November 10, 2017: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29124752/extending-the-seductive-allure-of-neuroscience-explanations-effect-to-popular-articles-about-educational-topics
#10
Soo-Hyun Im, Keisha Varma, Sashank Varma
BACKGROUND: The seductive allure of neuroscience explanations (SANE) is the finding that people overweight psychological arguments when framed in terms of neuroscience findings. AIM: This study extended this finding to arguments concerning the application of psychological findings to educational topics. SAMPLE: Participants (n = 320) were recruited from the general public, specifically among English-speaking Amazon Mechanical Turk workers residing in the United States...
December 2017: British Journal of Educational Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123137/high-fraction-brookite-films-from-amorphous-precursors
#11
James E S Haggerty, Laura T Schelhas, Daniil A Kitchaev, John S Mangum, Lauren M Garten, Wenhao Sun, Kevin H Stone, John D Perkins, Michael F Toney, Gerbrand Ceder, David S Ginley, Brian P Gorman, Janet Tate
Structure-specific synthesis processes are of key importance to the growth of polymorphic functional compounds such as TiO2, where material properties strongly depend on structure as well as chemistry. The robust growth of the brookite polymorph of TiO2, a promising photocatalyst, has been difficult in both powder and thin-film forms due to the disparity of reported synthesis techniques, their highly specific nature, and lack of mechanistic understanding. In this work, we report the growth of high-fraction (~95%) brookite thin films prepared by annealing amorphous titania precursor films deposited by pulsed laser deposition...
November 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29116172/building-on-sub-arctic-soil-geopolymerization-of-muskeg-to-a-densified-load-bearing-composite
#12
Gregory R Waetzig, Junsang Cho, Max Lacroix, Sarbajit Banerjee
The marshy water-saturated soil typical of the sub-Arctic represents a considerable impediment to the construction of roads, thereby greatly hindering human habitation and geological excavation. Muskeg, the native water-laden topsoil characteristic of the North American sub-Arctic, represents a particularly vexing challenge for road construction. Muskeg must either be entirely excavated, or for direct construction on muskeg, a mix of partial excavation and gradual compaction with the strategic placement of filling materials must be performed...
November 7, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061702/presynaptic-neuronal-nicotinic-receptors-differentially-shape-select-inputs-to-auditory-thalamus-and-are-negatively-impacted-by-aging
#13
Sarah Y Sottile, Troy A Hackett, Rui Cai, Lynne Ling, Daniel A Llano, Donald M Caspary
Acetylcholine is a potent neuromodulator capable of modifying patterns of acoustic information flow. In auditory cortex, cholinergic systems have been shown to increase salience/gain while suppressing extraneous information. However, the mechanism by which cholinergic circuits shape signal processing in the auditory thalamus (medial geniculate body, MGB) is poorly understood. The present study, in male Fischer Brown Norway rats, seeks to determine the location and function of presynaptic neuronal nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) at the major inputs to MGB and characterize how nAChRs change during aging...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29040428/understanding-the-promises-and-hurdles-of-metagenomic-next-generation-sequencing-as-a-diagnostic-tool-for-infectious-diseases
#14
Patricia J Simner, Steven Miller, Karen C Carroll
Agnostic metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) has emerged as a promising single, universal pathogen detection method for infectious diseases diagnostics. This methodology allows for identification and genomic characterization of bacteria, fungi, parasites and viruses without the need for a priori knowledge of a specific pathogen directly from clinical specimens. Although there are increasing reports of mNGS successes, several hurdles need to be addressed, such as differentiation of colonization from infection, extraneous sources of nucleic acid, method standardization, and data storage, protection, analysis, and interpretation...
October 12, 2017: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035750/attention-and-the-sense-of-agency-a-review-and-some-thoughts-on-the-matter
#15
REVIEW
Nicholas Hon
Much is now known about the sense of agency and how it is produced. What is lacking, though, is an understanding of how it relates to other cognitive domains and operations. Here, the relationship between the sense of agency and attention is explored. A review of the literature suggests that attention is involved in the sense of agency in (at least) two key ways. First, agency processing is dependent on attentional resources. Second, attentional enhancement is necessary for extraneous information to have an influence over the sense of agency...
October 13, 2017: Consciousness and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028741/fundamental-epidemiology-terminology-and-measures-it-really-is-all-in-the-name
#16
Thomas R Vetter, Christine A Jesser
Epidemiology is the study of how disease is distributed in populations and the factors that influence or determine this distribution. Clinical epidemiology denotes the application of epidemiologic methods to questions relevant to patient care and provides a highly useful set of principles and methods for the design and conduct of quantitative clinical research. Validly analyzing, correctly reporting, and successfully interpreting the findings of a clinical research study often require an understanding of the epidemiologic terms and measures that describe the patterns of association between the exposure of interest (treatment or intervention) and a health outcome (disease)...
October 11, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992079/sustained-activation-of-p2x7-induces-mmp-2-evoked-cleavage-and-functional-purinoceptor-inhibition
#17
Christopher N J Young, Natalia Chira, Justyna Róg, Rasha Al-Khalidi, Magalie Benard, Ludovic Galas, Philippe Chan, David Vaudry, Krzysztof Zablocki, Dariusz C Górecki
P2X7 purinoceptor promotes survival or cytotoxicity depending on extracellular adenosine triphosphate (ATP) stimulus intensity controlling its ion channel or P2X7-dependent large pore (LP) functions. Mechanisms governing this operational divergence and functional idiosyncrasy are ill-understood. We have discovered a feedback loop where sustained activation of P2X7 triggers release of active matrix metalloproteinase 2 (MMP-2), which halts ion channel and LP responses via the MMP-2-dependent receptor cleavage...
August 18, 2017: Journal of Molecular Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28976978/activity-recognition-with-wearable-sensors-on-loose-clothing
#18
Brendan Michael, Matthew Howard
Observing human motion in natural everyday environments (such as the home), has evoked a growing interest in the development of on-body wearable sensing technology. However, wearable sensors suffer from motion artefacts introduced by the non-rigid attachment of sensors to the body, and the prevailing view is that it is necessary to eliminate these artefacts. This paper presents findings that suggest that these artefacts can, in fact, be used to distinguish between similar motions, by exploiting additional information provided by the fabric motion...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28974153/image-memorability-across-longer-time-intervals
#19
Lore Goetschalckx, Pieter Moors, Johan Wagemans
You may find some images easier to remember than others. Recent studies of visual memory have found remarkable levels of consistency for this inter-item variability across observers, suggesting that memorability can be considered an intrinsic image property. The current study replicated and extended previous results, while adopting a more traditional visual long-term memory task with retention intervals of 20 min, one day, and one week, as opposed to the previously used repeat-detection task, which typically relied on short retention intervals (5 min)...
October 3, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28973265/extraneous-sentence-in-the-abstract
#20
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2017: JAMA Internal Medicine
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