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Holly Kramer, Gina Kuffel, Krystal Thomas-White, Alan J Wolfe, Kavitha Vellanki, David J Leehey, Vinod K Bansal, Linda Brubaker, Robert Flanigan, Julia Koval, Anuradha Wadhwa, Michael J Zilliox
PURPOSE: To examine the characteristics of the midstream urine microbiome in adults with stage 3-5 non-dialysis-dependent chronic kidney disease (CKD). METHODS: Patients with non-dialysis-dependent CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate [eGFR] < 60 ml/min/1.73 m2 ) and diuretic use were recruited from outpatient nephrology clinics. Midstream voided urine specimens were collected using the clean-catch method. The bacterial composition was determined by sequencing the hypervariable (V4) region of the bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA gene...
April 12, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
C Sommer, S Rumpel, S Roy, C Farès, V Artero, M Fontecave, E Reijerse, W Lubitz
[FeFe] Hydrogenases catalyze the reversible conversion of H2 into electrons and protons. Their catalytic site, the H-cluster, contains a generic [4Fe-4S]H cluster coupled to a [2Fe]H subsite [Fe2 (ADT)(CO)3 (CN)2 ]2- , ADT = µ(SCH2 )2 NH. Heterologously expressed [FeFe] hydrogenases (apo-hydrogenase) lack the [2Fe]H unit, but this can be incorporated through artificial maturation with a synthetic precursor [Fe2 (ADT)(CO)4 (CN)2 ]2- . Maturation with a [2Fe] complex in which the essential ADT amine moiety has been replaced by CH2 (PDT = propane-dithiolate) results in a low activity enzyme with structural and spectroscopic properties similar to those of the native enzyme, but with simplified redox behavior...
April 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Inorganic Chemistry: JBIC
Michael S Parker, Ambikaipakan Balasubramaniam, Steven L Parker
The size of eukaryotic 25-28S rRNAs shows a progressive phylogenetically linked increase which is pronounced in mammals, and especially in hominids. The increase is confined to specific expansion segments, inserted at points that are highly conserved from yeast to man. These segments also show a progressive increase in nucleotide bias, mostly the GC bias. Substantial parts of the large expansion segments 7, 15 and 27 of 28S rRNA are known to be exposed at the ribosome surface, with no clear association with ribosomal proteins...
March 28, 2018: MicroRNA
Xingfa Gu, Fangwen Bao, Tianhai Cheng, Hao Chen, Ying Wang, Hong Guo
Understanding the role of different sources that contribute to the aerosol extinction coefficient is an important aspect toward analyzing climate change and regional air quality. In Beijing specifically, the region has suffered severe air quality deterioration over the past three decades, but the magnitude of extraneous contributions to aerosol variation has remained uncertain. Therefore, we estimated trends of contributions to aerosol optical depth (AOD) for Beijing from 1980 to 2014 and built a seasonal regression model to decouple the extraneous contribution from the total emitted using ground-based aerosol and meteorological measurements, extended to the emissions of man-made and natural contribution...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Emma Rhodes, Melissa Lamar, David J Libon, Tania Giovannetti
Objective: Competitive Queuing (CQ) models of memory for serial order comprise two layers: parallel planning where target items are activated and competitive choice where serial order is specified. The application of CQ models regarding healthy and pathological aging has received little attention. Method: Participants included patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD; n = 26), vascular dementia (VaD; n = 29), and healthy controls (HC; n = 35). Memory for serial order in the visual domain was assessed using the Object Span Task, where participants briefly viewed then drew a sequence of four figures...
March 16, 2018: Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology: the Official Journal of the National Academy of Neuropsychologists
Michael S Parker, Ambikaipakan Balasubramaniam, Floyd R Sallee, Steven L Parker
Eukaryote ribosomal RNAs (rRNAs) have expanded in the course of phylogeny by addition of nucleotides in specific insertion areas, the expansion segments. These number about 40 in the larger (25-28S) rRNA (up to 2,400 nucleotides), and about 12 in the smaller (18S) rRNA (<700 nucleotides). Expansion of the larger rRNA shows a clear phylogenetic increase, with a dramatic rise in mammals and especially in hominids. Substantial portions of expansion segments in this RNA are not bound to ribosomal proteins, and may engage extraneous interactants, including messenger RNAs (mRNAs)...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
A Campollo-Ovalle, D Sánchez
Lestrimelitta spp. are stingless bees that steal food and nesting materials from other highly social bees to survive. Though most of their victim species respond, either aggressively or submissively, to cephalic components of Lestrimelitta, little is known about if such response changes at some point during extended periods of exposure. Moreover, potential synergistic effects due to a mixture of victim's alarm/defense pheromones and Lestrimelitta mandibular pheromones, like in an actual attack, have not been examined so far...
March 16, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Steven M Falowski, Ashwini Sharan, James McInerney, Darren Jacobs, Lalit Venkatesan, Filippo Agnesi
BACKGROUND: Spinal cord stimulation (SCS) is a common intervention for managing intractable pain. Generally, leads are implanted in a minimally invasive procedure with verbal feedback regarding the location and nature of generated paresthesias by active stimulation; in this way their optimal location can be confirmed. However, lead placement under general anesthesia can have additional benefits. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the outcomes of awake vs asleep lead placement procedures...
March 14, 2018: Neurosurgery
Manuel Kussmann, Stefan Hauer, Petra Pichler, Gottfried Reznicek, Heinz Burgmann, Wolfgang Poeppl, Markus Zeitlinger, Martin Wiesholzer
Peritonitis is still the main infectious complication among patients on peritoneal dialysis. For treatment of peritoneal dialysis-related peritonitis, the intraperitoneal administration of antibiotics admixed to peritoneal dialysis fluids (PDFs) should be preferred. However, the influence of diverse PDFs on the activity of frequently used antibiotics has been investigated insufficiently. Thus, the present study set out to investigate the in vitro activity of fosfomycin against Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus epidermidis, and Staphylococcus aureus in commercially available PDFs...
March 15, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Youngzee Song, Huihao Zhou, My-Nuong Vo, Yi Shi, Mir Hussain Nawaz, Oscar Vargas-Rodriguez, Jolene K Diedrich, John R Yates, Shuji Kishi, Karin Musier-Forsyth, Paul Schimmel
In the original version of this Article, extraneous text not belonging to the article was accidentally appended to end of the first paragraph of the discussion. This error has now been corrected in both the PDF and HTML versions of the Article.
March 13, 2018: Nature Communications
Christopher T Rentsch, Chodziwadziwa Whiteson Kabudula, Jason Catlett, David Beckles, Richard Machemba, Baltazar Mtenga, Nkosinathi Masilela, Denna Michael, Redempta Natalis, Mark Urassa, Jim Todd, Basia Zaba, Georges Reniers
Linking a health and demographic surveillance system (HDSS) to data from a health facility that serves the HDSS population generates a research infrastructure for directly observed data on access to and utilization of health facility services. Many HDSS sites, however, are in areas that lack unique national identifiers or suffer from data quality issues, such as incomplete records, spelling errors, and name and residence changes, all of which complicate record linkage approaches when applied retrospectively...
November 6, 2017: Gates open research
Hye-Sung Kim, Hyun-Jae Cho, Soo-Myoung Bae, Young-Youn Kim, Sung-In Baek, Kwang-Hak Bae
The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the concentration levels of certain kinds of trace elements in hair are associated with periodontitis. We studied a total of 109 participants, which are composed of 25 participants with periodontitis and 84 participants without periodontitis. Periodontal conditions were assessed by measuring the periodontal clinical attachment loss and pocket depth, which were determined at six sites of all teeth. Periodontitis was defined according to the criteria of periodontitis proposed by CDC-AAP...
March 10, 2018: Biological Trace Element Research
Alain Lekoubou, Kinfe G Bishu, Bruce Ovbiagele
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is particularly frequent among children, yet updated and nationwide healthcare utilization estimates are scanty in the United States. OBJECTIVE: To analyze healthcare utilization among children with epilepsy. METHODS: Data on children (≤17-year-old) were extracted from the Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) 2003-2014. Epilepsy was identified using the clinical classification code 83. Healthcare utilization (Inpatient admission, outpatient visits, prescription medication including refill, emergency room visits, and home health provider visits) was compared between children with epilepsy and those without epilepsy...
February 27, 2018: Epilepsy Research
Fan Wang, Zicheng Zuo, Hong Shang, Yingjie Zhao, Yuliang Li
A moderate method is first developed here for superfast (in seconds) growth of an ultrafine graphdiyne (GDY) nanochain on arbitrary substrates in the atmosphere. This is an environmentally friendly and metal-catalyst-free method, efficiently eliminating extraneous contaminations for the carbon materials. The seamless GDY coating on any substrates demonstrates that an all-carbon GDY possesses outstanding controllability and processability, perfectly compensating for the drawbacks of prevailing all-carbon materials...
March 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Abhishek Mishra
Background: The genus Mycobacterium has an ability to persist in hostile environments for years before its reactivation in favorable conditions. The major bottleneck in decades of mycobacterial research is a poor understanding of molecular mechanism which assists bacteria to attain dormancy and reactivation later. Methods: In this study, hydroxyl radical was quantified in aerobically growing mycobacterial cells using 2-deoxy-D-ribose assay. Furthermore, extraneous addition of hydroxyl radical in Wayne's dormancy model induced reactivation of dormant cells...
January 2018: International Journal of Mycobacteriology
Tom Kovitwanichkanont, Tim Driscoll
Isotretinoin has revolutionized the treatment of severe acne vulgaris, a condition which if left untreated may result in significant socio-psychological implications for those affected. Timely access to isotretinoin therapy is important to avoid the risks of potential physical and emotional scarring. However, due to its high risks of teratogenicity, isotretinoin must be used with care in females of childbearing potential. Since isotretinoin's introduction, numerous risk management programs have been implemented across the world in an attempt to prevent isotretinoin use in pregnancy...
March 6, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Szilvia Czigle, Jaroslav Tóth, Nikoletta Jedlinszki, Erzsébet Háznagy-Radnai, Dezső Csupor, Daniela Tekeľová
The aim of this study was to prove whether Ginkgo biloba food supplements on the European market comply with pharmaceutical quality, and whether their composition satisfies the European Pharmacopoeia criteria. Medicinal products containing a standardised Ginkgo leaf extract are used for the improvement of cognitive impairment and quality of life in mild dementia. Further, Ginkgonis folium is used for the treatment of peripheral circulation disorders. Pharmacopoeial Ginkgo dry extract contains 22.0 - 27...
March 5, 2018: Planta Medica
Areeg El-Gharbawy, Jerry Vockley
Fatty acid oxidation disorders (FAODs) and carnitine shuttling defects are inborn errors of energy metabolism with associated mortality and morbidity due to cardiomyopathy, exercise intolerance, rhabdomyolysis, and liver disease with physiologic stress. Hypoglycemia is characteristically hypoketotic. Lactic acidemia and hyperammonemia may occur during decompensation. Recurrent rhabdomyolysis is debilitating. Expanded newborn screening can detect most of these disorders, allowing early, presymptomatic treatment...
April 2018: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Brian Roberts, Robert J Summers
This study explored the extent to which informational masking of speech depends on the frequency region and number of extraneous formants in an interferer. Target formants-monotonized three-formant (F1+F2+F3) analogues of natural sentences-were presented monaurally, with target ear assigned randomly on each trial. Interferers were presented contralaterally. In experiment 1, single-formant interferers were created using the time-reversed F2 frequency contour and constant amplitude, root-mean-square (RMS)-matched to F2...
February 2018: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
Karen L Campbell, Lynn Hasher
We have previously shown that older adults hyper-bind, or form more extraneous associations than younger adults. For instance, when asked to perform a 1-back task on pictures superimposed with distracting words, older adults inadvertently form associations between target-distractor pairs and implicitly transfer these associations to a later paired associate learning task (showing a boost in relearning of preserved over disrupted pairs). We have argued that younger adults are better at suppressing the distracting words and thus, do not form these extraneous associations in the first place...
February 2018: Psychology and Aging
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