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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908109/perturbation-of-hydration-layer-in-solvated-proteins-by-external-electric-and-electromagnetic-fields-insights-from-non-equilibrium-molecular-dynamics
#1
Prithwish K Nandi, Zdenek Futera, Niall J English
Given the fundamental role of water in governing the biochemistry of enzymes, and in regulating their wider biological activity (e.g., by local water concentration surrounding biomolecules), the influence of extraneous electric and electromagnetic (e/m) fields thereon is of central relevance to biophysics and, more widely, biology. With the increase in levels of local and atmospheric microwave-frequency radiation present in modern life, as well as other electric-field exposure, the impact upon hydration-water layers surrounding proteins, and biomolecules generally, becomes a particularly pertinent issue...
November 28, 2016: Journal of Chemical Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899440/the-elimination-of-transfer-distances-is-an-important-part-of-hospital-design
#2
Sauli Karvonen, Isto Nordback, Jussi Elo, Jouni Havulinna, Heikki-Jussi Laine
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the present study was to describe how a specific patient flow analysis with from-to charts can be used in hospital design and layout planning. BACKGROUND: As part of a large renewal project at a university hospital, a detailed patient flow analysis was applied to planning the musculoskeletal surgery unit (orthopedics and traumatology, hand surgery, and plastic surgery). METHOD: First, the main activities of the unit were determined...
November 29, 2016: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867831/examining-ecological-validity-in-social-interaction-problems-of-visual-fidelity-gaze-and-social-potential
#3
Arran T Reader, Nicholas P Holmes
Social interaction is an essential part of the human experience, and much work has been done to study it. However, several common approaches to examining social interactions in psychological research may inadvertently either unnaturally constrain the observed behaviour by causing it to deviate from naturalistic performance, or introduce unwanted sources of variance. In particular, these sources are the differences between naturalistic and experimental behaviour that occur from changes in visual fidelity (quality of the observed stimuli), gaze (whether it is controlled for in the stimuli), and social potential (potential for the stimuli to provide actual interaction)...
2016: Culture and Brain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832706/the-simulated-clinical-environment-cognitive-and-emotional-impact-among-undergraduates
#4
Marie-Laurence Tremblay, Alexandre Lafleur, Jimmie Leppink, Diana H J M Dolmans
CONTEXT: Simulated clinical immersion (SCI) is used in undergraduate healthcare programs to expose the learner to real-life situations in authentic simulated clinical environments. For novices, the environment in which the simulation occurs can be distracting and stressful, hence potentially compromising learning. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to determine whether SCI (with environment) imposes greater extraneous cognitive load and stress on undergraduate pharmacy students than simulated patients (SP) (without environment)...
November 10, 2016: Medical Teacher
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799437/the-preservation-of-archaeological-brain-remains-in-a-human-skeleton
#5
Sonia O'Connor, Howell G M Edwards, Esam M A Ali
The identification of biomass within the cranial cavity of a waterlogged human skeleton inside a fish-tailed wooden coffin from a nineteenth century burial has been confirmed as brain tissue. A comparison is made between the Raman spectra obtained in the current study with those from an Iron Age brain found in an isolated cranium dating from about 500 years BCE, the only other Raman spectroscopy study made of human brain recovered from waterlogged, archaeological excavations. The spectra give some surprisingly detailed information about the state of preservation of brain tissue in both burials, especially when it is realized that, unlike preserved bog bodies, no other soft tissue has survived...
December 13, 2016: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27798553/misuse-of-opioids-in-orthopaedic-post-operative-patients
#6
Gangavalli Anup, Malige Ajith, Terres George, Rehman Saqib, Nwachuku Chinenye
OBJECTIVE: In light of the recent uptrend in the prescription of opioids, this study seeks to identify patterns of opioid misuse among orthopaedic post-operative patients and principal external sources in obtaining these medications. DESIGN: Ten-month survey based study. SETTING: Two Level-I trauma centers (urban and suburban). PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: 207 patients between the ages of 18 to 89 years who underwent surgical fixation of fractures involving the pelvis, long bones or peri-articular regions of the knee, ankle, elbow and wrist...
October 26, 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789047/self-induced-illegal-abortion-with-rivanol-%C3%A2-a-medicolegal-toxicological-case-report
#7
Sarah C Koelzer, Hannelore Held, Stefan W Toennes, Marcel A Verhoff, Cora Wunder
Approximately during the 30th week of pregnancy, a woman gave birth to a still-born child in a hospital. After first citing an extraneous cause for the premature still-birth, the woman later admitted to having self-induced the abortion by injecting the antiseptic Rivanol(®) (active agent: ethacridine lactate) through her abdominal wall into the amniotic cavity. The investigating authorities ordered an autopsy of the fetus along with additional toxicological investigations. To the naked eye, no obvious cause of death was apparent...
August 27, 2016: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788923/evaluating-handoffs-in-the-context-of-a-communication-framework
#8
Hani Hasan, Fadwa Ali, Paul Barker, Robert Treat, Jacob Peschman, Matthew Mohorek, Philip Redlich, Travis Webb
BACKGROUND: The implementation of mandated restrictions in resident duty hours has led to increased handoffs for patient care and thus more opportunities for errors during transitions of care. Much of the current handoff literature is empiric, with experts recommending the study of handoffs within an established framework. METHODS: A prospective, single-institution study was conducted evaluating the process of handoffs for the care of surgical patients in the context of a published communication framework...
October 24, 2016: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787987/a-meta-analysis-evaluating-the-relationship-between-aquatic-contaminants-and-chironomid-larval-deformities-in-laboratory-studies
#9
Bryant S Gagliardi, Vincent J Pettigrove, Sara M Long, Ary A Hoffmann
Chironomid larval deformities have been widely investigated as an aquatic pollution toxicity endpoint. Field chironomid surveys often show a spatial association between contaminants and deformities, suggesting contaminants cause deformities. However, over 40 years of laboratory assays have not been able to confirm this causality. We therefore conducted a review of the literature and meta-analysis, in order to A) assess whether trends across assays indicated dose-response effects, B) characterize the consistency of results, and C) investigate whether experimental issues and publication bias were contributing to inconsistency and/or reducing confidence in results...
October 27, 2016: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27774757/the-influences-and-outcomes-of-phonological-awareness-a-study-of-ma-pa-and-auditory-processing-in-pre-readers-with-a-family-risk-of-dyslexia
#10
Jeremy M Law, Jan Wouters, Pol Ghesquière
The direct influence of phonological awareness (PA) on reading outcomes has been widely demonstrated, yet PA may also exert indirect influence on reading outcomes through other cognitive variables such as morphological awareness (MA). However, PA's own development is dependent and influenced by many extraneous variables such as auditory processing, which could ultimately impact reading outcomes. In a group of pre-reading children with a family risk of dyslexia and low-risk controls, this study sets out to answer questions surrounding PA's relationship at various grain sizes (syllable, onset/rime and phoneme) with measures of auditory processing (frequency modulation (FM) and an amplitude rise-time task (RT)) and MA, independent of reading experience...
October 23, 2016: Developmental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756567/study-design-and-methodology-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-as-a-treatment-for-unipolar-and-bipolar-depression
#11
Angelo Alonzo, Scott Aaronson, Marom Bikson, Mustafa Husain, Sarah Lisanby, Donel Martin, Shawn M McClintock, William M McDonald, John O'Reardon, Zeinab Esmailpoor, Colleen Loo
Transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) is a new, non-invasive neuromodulation approach for treating depression that has shown promising efficacy. The aim of this trial was to conduct the first international, multicentre randomised controlled trial of tDCS as a treatment for unipolar and bipolar depression. The study recruited 120 participants across 6 sites in the USA and Australia. Participants received active or sham tDCS (2.5mA, 20 sessions of 30min duration over 4weeks), followed by a 4-week open label active treatment phase and a 4-week taper phase...
October 15, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736907/scarless-gene-tagging-with-one-step-transformation-and-two-step-selection-in-saccharomyces-cerevisiae-and-schizosaccharomyces-pombe
#12
Dirk Landgraf, Dann Huh, Erinc Hallacli, Susan Lindquist
Gene tagging with fluorescent proteins is commonly applied to investigate the localization and dynamics of proteins in their cellular environment. Ideally, a fluorescent tag is genetically inserted at the endogenous locus at the N- or C- terminus of the gene of interest without disrupting regulatory sequences including the 5' and 3' untranslated region (UTR) and without introducing any extraneous unwanted "scar" sequences, which may create unpredictable transcriptional or translational effects. We present a reliable, low-cost, and highly efficient method for the construction of such scarless C-terminal and N-terminal fusions with fluorescent proteins in yeast...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720918/methylmercury-induces-an-initial-increase-in-gaba-evoked-currents-in-xenopus-oocytes-expressing-%C3%AE-1-and-%C3%AE-6-subunit-containing-gabaa-receptors
#13
Tidao Tsai, Yukun Yuan, Ravindra K Hajela, Shuan W Philips, William D Atchison
Early onset effects of methylmercury (MeHg) on recombinant α1β2γ2S or α6β2γ2S subunit-containing GABAA receptors were examined. These are two of the most prevalent receptor types found in cerebellum-a consistent target of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity. Heterologously expressed receptors were used in order to: 1) isolate receptor-mediated events from extraneous effects of MeHg due to stimulation of the receptor secondary to increased release of GABA seen with MeHg in neurons in situ and 2) limit the phenotypes of GABAA receptors present at one time...
October 6, 2016: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27715320/association-between-chronotype-and-nonrestorative-sleep-in-a-college-population
#14
Joshua Tutek, Sarah E Emert, Natalie D Dautovich, Kenneth L Lichstein
Nonrestorative sleep (NRS), characterized by a lack of refreshment upon awakening, has received little attention in the sleep literature even though it can occur and cause impairment apart from other sleep difficulties associated with insomnia. The Restorative Sleep Questionnaire (RSQ) is one of the first validated self-report instruments for investigating NRS severity, presenting new opportunities to explore what factors predict and perhaps contribute to unrefreshing sleep. The present study sought to determine whether inherent circadian preference for morning or evening activity, known as chronotype, predicted restorative sleep in 164 college undergraduates who completed daily RSQs over 2 weeks...
August 11, 2016: Chronobiology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27714606/affinity-purification-of-proteins-in-tag-free-form-split-intein-mediated-ultrarapid-purification-sirp
#15
Dongli Guan, Zhilei Chen
Proteins purified using affinity-based chromatography often exploit a recombinant affinity tag. Existing methods for the removal of the extraneous tag, needed for many applications, suffer from poor efficiency and/or high cost. Here we describe a simple, efficient, and potentially low-cost approach-split intein-mediated ultrarapid purification (SIRP)-for both the purification of the desired tagged protein from Escherichia coli lysate and removal of the tag in less than 1 h. The N- and C-fragment of a self-cleaving variant of a naturally split DnaE intein from Nostoc punctiforme are genetically fused to the N-terminus of an affinity tag and a protein of interest (POI), respectively...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713884/resistance-mechanisms
#16
Yasemin Cag, Hulya Caskurlu, Yanyan Fan, Bin Cao, Haluk Vahaboglu
By definition, the terms sepsis and septic shock refer to a potentially fatal infectious state in which the early administration of an effective antibiotic is the most significant determinant of the outcome. Because of the global spread of resistant bacteria, the efficacy of antibiotics has been severely compromised. S. pneumonia, Escherichia coli (E. coli), Klebsiella, Acinetobacter, and Pseudomonas are the predominant pathogens of sepsis and septic shock. It is common for E. coli, Klebsiella, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas to be resistant to multiple drugs...
September 2016: Annals of Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690637/referential-communication-abilities-in-children-with-22q11-2-deletion-syndrome
#17
Ellen Van Den Heuvel, Christina ReuterskiöLd, Cynthia Solot, Eric Manders, Ann Swillen, Inge Zink
PURPOSE: This study describes the performance on a perspective- and role-taking task in 27 children, ages 6-13 years, with 22q11.2 deletion syndrome (22q11.2DS). A cross-cultural design comparing Dutch- and English-speaking children with 22q11.2DS explored the possibility of cultural differences. METHOD: Chronologically age-matched and younger typically developing (TD) children matched for receptive vocabulary served as control groups to identify challenges in referential communication...
October 3, 2016: International Journal of Speech-language Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27684589/measuring-spray-droplet-size-from-agricultural-nozzles-using-laser-diffraction
#18
Bradley K Fritz, W Clint Hoffmann
When making an application of any crop protection material such as an herbicide or pesticide, the applicator uses a variety of skills and information to make an application so that the material reaches the target site (i.e., plant). Information critical in this process is the droplet size that a particular spray nozzle, spray pressure, and spray solution combination generates, as droplet size greatly influences product efficacy and how the spray moves through the environment. Researchers and product manufacturers commonly use laser diffraction equipment to measure the spray droplet size in laboratory wind tunnels...
September 16, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27680756/influence-of-different-peritoneal-dialysis-fluids-on-the-in-vitro-activity-of-cefepime-ciprofloxacin-ertapenem-meropenem-and-tobramycin-against-escherichia-coli
#19
Manuel Kussmann, Linda Schuster, Sarah Wrenger, Petra Pichler, Gottfried Reznicek, Heinz Burgmann, Wolfgang Poeppl, Markus Zeitlinger, Martin Wiesholzer
♦ BACKGROUND: Peritonitis is a major problem among patients on peritoneal dialysis (PD). The influence of diverse PD fluids on the activity of frequently used antibiotics has been insufficiently investigated. Thus, the present study set out to investigate the impact of different PD fluids on the activity of cefepime, ciprofloxacin, ertapenem, meropenem, and tobramycin against Escherichia coli. ♦ METHODS: Time-kill curves in 4 different PD fluids (Dianeal PDG4, Extraneal, Nutrineal PD4 and Physioneal 40, all Baxter Healthcare Corp...
November 2016: Peritoneal Dialysis International: Journal of the International Society for Peritoneal Dialysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27663836/what-is-a-trophic-cascade
#20
William J Ripple, James A Estes, Oswald J Schmitz, Vanessa Constant, Matthew J Kaylor, Adam Lenz, Jennifer L Motley, Katharine E Self, David S Taylor, Christopher Wolf
Few concepts in ecology have been so influential as that of the trophic cascade. Since the 1980s, the term has been a central or major theme of more than 2000 scientific articles. Despite this importance and widespread usage, basic questions remain about what constitutes a trophic cascade. Inconsistent usage of language impedes scientific progress and the utility of scientific concepts in management and conservation. Herein, we offer a definition of trophic cascade that is designed to be both widely applicable yet explicit enough to exclude extraneous interactions...
September 20, 2016: Trends in Ecology & Evolution
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