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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328872/the-role-of-the-iacuc-in-ensuring-research-reproducibility
#1
REVIEW
Jerald Silverman, James Macy, Patricia A Preisig
There is a "village" of people impacting research reproducibility, such as funding panels, the IACUC and its support staff, institutional leaders, investigators, veterinarians, animal facilities, and professional journals. IACUCs can contribute to research reproducibility by ensuring that reviews of animal use requests, program self-assessments and post-approval monitoring programs are sufficiently thorough, the animal model is appropriate for testing the hypothesis, animal care and use is conducted in a manner that is compliant with external and institutional requirements, and extraneous variables are minimized...
March 22, 2017: Lab Animal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323765/misuse-of-opioids-in-orthopaedic-postoperative-patients
#2
Anup Gangavalli, Ajith Malige, George Terres, Saqib Rehman, Chinenye Nwachuku
OBJECTIVE: In light of the recent uptrend in the prescription of opioids, this study seeks to identify patterns of opioid misuse among orthopaedic postoperative patients and principal external sources in obtaining these medications. DESIGN: Ten-month survey-based study. SETTING: Two Level I trauma centers (urban and suburban). PATIENTS/PARTICIPANTS: Two hundred seven patients between the ages of 18 and 89 years who underwent surgical fixation of fractures involving the pelvis, long bones, or periarticular regions of the knee, ankle, elbow, and wrist...
April 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303510/enhanced-resistance-against-vibrio-harveyi-infection-by-carvacrol-and-its-association-with-the-induction-of-heat-shock-protein-72-in-gnotobiotic-artemia-franciscana
#3
Kartik Baruah, Parisa Norouzitallab, Ho Phuong Pham Duy Phong, Guy Smagghe, Peter Bossier
Induction of HSP72 is a natural response of stressed organisms that protects against many insults including bacterial diseases in farm (aquatic) animals. It would therefore be of great health benefit to search for natural compounds that are clinically safe yet able to induce HSP72 in animals. The phenolic compound carvacrol, an approved food component, had been shown in in vitro study to act as a co-inducer of HSP72, enhancing HSP72 production only in combination with a bona fide stress compared to the compound alone...
March 16, 2017: Cell Stress & Chaperones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302641/gradual-escalation-of-use-of-force-reduces-police-officer-injury
#4
Katelyn K Jetelina, Jennifer M Reingle Gonzalez, Stephen A Bishopp
OBJECTIVE: To examine how escalation through the force continuum predicts officer injury in the presence of citizen aggression, while controlling for extraneous factors, like citizen and officer characteristics. METHODS: Cross-sectional data were extracted from 2244 use-of-force reports from the Dallas Police Department in 2015. Multilevel, mixed logistic regression models were used to evaluate the relationship between use of force and officer injury. Multilevel path analysis tested indirect and direct relationships between citizen aggression and officer injury...
March 16, 2017: Injury Prevention: Journal of the International Society for Child and Adolescent Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299782/a-test-of-a-skeletal-ageing-method-based-on-resorption-of-the-alveolar-crest-following-tooth-loss-using-a-skeletal-population-of-documented-age-at-death
#5
Simon Mays
OBJECTIVES: Resorption of the alveolar process occurs following tooth loss, and appears to continue for a prolonged period. Previous study (Mays, ) with a known-age collection of human remains suggested the potential of this phenomenon for age estimation in remains of adults who have lost one or more molar teeth. This article tests this ageing technique on another known age group, and attempts to evaluate the impact of some extraneous factors on the method. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group comprises adult skeletons (Nā€‰=ā€‰110) of documented age at death from 18th to 19th century London...
March 16, 2017: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298919/overestimation-of-crop-root-biomass-in-field-experiments-due-to-extraneous-organic-matter
#6
Juliane Hirte, Jens Leifeld, Samuel Abiven, Hans-Rudolf Oberholzer, Andreas Hammelehle, Jochen Mayer
Root biomass is one of the most relevant root parameters for studies of plant response to environmental change, soil carbon modeling or estimations of soil carbon sequestration. A major source of error in root biomass quantification of agricultural crops in the field is the presence of extraneous organic matter in soil: dead roots from previous crops, weed roots, incorporated above ground plant residues and organic soil amendments, or remnants of soil fauna. Using the isotopic difference between recent maize root biomass and predominantly C3-derived extraneous organic matter, we determined the proportions of maize root biomass carbon of total carbon in root samples from the Swiss long-term field trial "DOK...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298208/looking-back-to-move-forward-a-twenty-year-audit-of-herpes-zoster-in-asia-pacific
#7
REVIEW
Liang-Kung Chen, Hidenori Arai, Liang-Yu Chen, Ming-Yueh Chou, Samsuridjal Djauzi, Birong Dong, Taro Kojima, Ki Tae Kwon, Hoe Nam Leong, Edward M F Leung, Chih-Kuang Liang, Xiaohong Liu, Dilip Mathai, Jiun Yit Pan, Li-Ning Peng, Eduardo Rommel S Poblete, Philip J H Poi, Stewart Reid, Terapong Tantawichien, Chang Won Won
BACKGROUND: Herpes zoster (HZ) is a prevalent viral disease that inflicts substantial morbidity and associated healthcare and socioeconomic burdens. Current treatments are not fully effective, especially among the most vulnerable patients. Although widely recommended, vaccination against HZ is not routine; barriers in Asia-Pacific include long-standing neglect of adult immunisation and sparse local data. To address knowledge gaps, raise awareness, and disseminate best practice, we reviewed recent data and guidelines on HZ from the Asia-Pacific region...
March 15, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28274438/detection-of-unexpected-frauds-screening-and-quantification-of-maleic-acid-in-cassava-starch-by-fourier-transform-near-infrared-spectroscopy
#8
Hai-Yan Fu, He-Dong Li, Lu Xu, Qiao-Bo Yin, Tian-Ming Yang, Chuang Ni, Chen-Bo Cai, Ji Yang, Yuan-Bin She
Fourier transform near-infrared (FT-NIR) spectroscopy and chemometrics were adopted for the rapid analysis of a toxic additive, maleic acid (MA), which has emerged as a new extraneous adulterant in cassava starch (CS). After developing an untargeted screening method for MA detection in CS using one-class partial least squares (OCPLS), multivariate calibration models were subsequently developed using least squares support vector machine (LS-SVM) to quantitatively analyze MA. As a result, the OCPLS model using the second-order derivative (D2) spectra detected 0...
July 15, 2017: Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28255601/in-respect-to-the-cognitive-load-theory-adjusting-instructional-guidance-with-student-expertise
#9
Jim Schilling
The amount of guidance supplied by educators to students in allied health programs is a factor in student learning. According to the cognitive load theory of learning, without adequate instructional support, novice learners will be overwhelmed and unable to store information, while unnecessary guidance supplied to advanced students will cause extraneous cognitive load on the working memory system. Adjusting instructional guidance for students according to their level of expertise to minimize extraneous cognitive load and optimize working memory storage capacity will enhance learning effectiveness...
2017: Journal of Allied Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28247192/a-proposal-to-redefine-clinical-immunogenicity-assessment
#10
Daniel T Mytych, M Benjamin Hock, Mark Kroenke, Vibha Jawa, Arunan Kaliyaperumal, Yanchen Zhou
With more than 100 therapeutic proteins (TP) approved since the first EMA guidance on immunogenicity in 2007, a vast amount of clinical experience with a variety of therapeutic proteins has been gained. This has provided data on anti-drug antibodies (ADA) and their observed clinical impact, or lack thereof. It has become evident that not all ADA responses are clinically relevant. The current "standard practice" is to test for ADA in all patients on every study. It is essential that we acknowledge the immunogenicity data gained from marketed TPs and that options for immunogenicity testing reflect this information...
February 28, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223982/mouse-model-of-neurological-complications-resulting-from-encephalitic-alphavirus-infection
#11
Shannon E Ronca, Jeanon Smith, Takaaki Koma, Magda M Miller, Nadezhda Yun, Kelly T Dineley, Slobodan Paessler
Long-term neurological complications, termed sequelae, can result from viral encephalitis, which are not well understood. In human survivors, alphavirus encephalitis can cause severe neurobehavioral changes, in the most extreme cases, a schizophrenic-like syndrome. In the present study, we aimed to adapt an animal model of alphavirus infection survival to study the development of these long-term neurological complications. Upon low-dose infection of wild-type C57B/6 mice, asymptomatic and symptomatic groups were established and compared to mock-infected mice to measure general health and baseline neurological function, including the acoustic startle response and prepulse inhibition paradigm...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179112/glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase-and-trypanothione-reductase-interaction-protects-leishmania-donovani-from-metalloid-mediated-oxidative-stress
#12
Ayan Kumar Ghosh, Savita Saini, Sushmita Das, Abhishek Mandal, Abul Hasan Sardar, Md Yousuf Ansari, Kumar Abhishek, Ajay Kumar, Ruby Singh, Sudha Verma, Asif Equbal, Vahab Ali, Pradeep Das
Exploration of metabolons as viable drug target is rare in kinetoplastid biology. Here we present a novel protein-protein interaction among Glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (LdG6PDH) and Trypanothione reductase (LdTryR) of Leishmania donovani displaying interconnection between central glucose metabolism and thiol metabolism of this parasite. Digitonin fractionation patterns observed through immunoblotting indicated localisation of both LdG6PDH and LdTryR in cytosol. In-silico and in-vitro interaction observed by size exclusion chromatography, co-purification, pull-down assay and spectrofluorimetric analysis revealed LdG6PDH and LdTryR physically interact with each other in a NADPH dependent manner...
February 4, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28164420/an-exploration-of-caregiver-choice-through-the-lens-of-sartrean-existentialism
#13
Kristin L Corey, Mary K McCurry
There are innumerable social and ethical factors which affect one's decision to become an informal caregiver for someone with chronic illness. The existential philosophy of Jean-Paul Sartre provides unique insight into human motivation and choice. The purpose of this paper was to examine the social and ethical influences on the individual's decision to become a caregiver through the lens of Sartrean existentialism and discuss how this unique philosophy can advance nursing knowledge. The factors affecting one's choice to become a caregiver were considered using the Sartrean existential concepts of The Other, human freedom, choice, bad faith, shame and authenticity...
February 6, 2017: Nursing Philosophy: An International Journal for Healthcare Professionals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28152846/cancer-communication-in-the-social-media-age-could-twitter-help-clinical-trial-accrual
#14
Roger B Cohen, Raina M Merchant, Marilyn M Schapira
194 Background: Twitter, a social networking site, is transforming communication. Effective use of Twitter might be one way to communicate with the public about cancer clinical trials and increase awareness and perhaps enrollment. We conducted a content analysis of tweets about lung cancer, describing dialogues specific to lung cancer clinical trials and seeing where embedded-links in tweets about therapeutic trials are leading the public. METHODS: We used the Twitter search engine to identify a cohort of 26,059 tweets with the keyword "lung cancer" from January 5 - 21, 2015...
March 2016: Journal of Clinical Oncology: Official Journal of the American Society of Clinical Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131745/the-systems-biology-of-auxin-in-developing-embryos
#15
REVIEW
Victoria Mironova, William Teale, Mojgan Shahriari, Jonathan Dawson, Klaus Palme
Systems biology orientates signaling pathways in their biological context. This aim invariably requires models that ignore extraneous factors and focus on the most crucial pathways of any given process. The developing embryo encapsulates many important processes in plant development; understanding their interaction will be key to designing crops able to maximize yield in an ever-more challenging world. Here, we briefly summarize the role of auxin during embryo development. We highlight recent advances in our understanding of auxin signaling and discuss implications for a systems understanding of development...
March 2017: Trends in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125388/bias-analysis-for-uncontrolled-confounding-in-the-health-sciences
#16
Onyebuchi A Arah
Uncontrolled confounding due to unmeasured confounders biases causal inference in health science studies using observational and imperfect experimental designs. The adoption of methods for analysis of bias due to uncontrolled confounding has been slow, despite the increasing availability of such methods. Bias analysis for such uncontrolled confounding is most useful in big data studies and systematic reviews to gauge the extent to which extraneous preexposure variables that affect the exposure and the outcome can explain some or all of the reported exposure-outcome associations...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110694/tourette-syndrome-in-the-context-of-evolution-and-behavioral-ecology
#17
Jared Edward Reser
Tourette syndrome, and the closely related spectrum of tic disorders, are inherited neuropsychiatric conditions characterized by the presence of repetitive and stereotyped movements. Tics are elicited by either environmental experiences or internal signals that instruct the basal ganglia to initiate automatic or procedural movements. In most vertebrates the basal ganglia encode instructions for habitually used sequences of motor movements that are essential to survival. Tic disorders may represent evolved phenotypes with a lower threshold for basal ganglia-directed actions...
February 2017: Medical Hypotheses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095861/challenges-in-conducting-natural-experiments-in-parks-lessons-from-the-revamp-study
#18
Jenny Veitch, Jo Salmon, Billie Giles-Corti, David Crawford, Kate Dullaghan, Alison Carver, Anna Timperio
Experimental evidence on the role of the built environment for promoting physical activity is important for informing how to create cities that promote active living. Parks provide opportunities for physical activity; however, there is little robust evidence on the impact of park refurbishment. Government agencies often modify parks, providing opportunities for natural experiment studies of these interventions. Such an opportunity was provided by the modification of a large park in Victoria, Australia in 2013 when the Recording and EValuating Activity in a Modified Park (REVAMP) study was established...
January 17, 2017: International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28095683/colorimetric-detection-of-staphylococcus-aureus-contaminated-solutions-without-purification
#19
Pamela Tiet, Karen C Clark, James O McNamara, Jacob M Berlin
Current water quality monitoring methods rely on growth-based measurements to detect fecal indicator bacteria, such as Escherichia coli and enterococci, and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). These growth-based measurements, however, can take days to complete. This is a significant limitation in the evaluation of contaminated food and water sources. Various methods for selective in vitro detection of S. aureus have also been reported; however, these strategies, such as ELISA, agar-diffusion, PCR, or liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry, all require overnight culturing or sophisticated instrumentation...
January 18, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28067671/a-fatal-case-of-coin-battery-ingestion-in-an-18-month-old-child-case-report-and-literature-review
#20
Francesco Ventura, Sara Candosin, Rosario Barranco, Alessandro Bonsignore, Luisa Andrello, Luca Tajana, Antonio Osculati
The ingestion of extraneous substances is quite common in clinical practice; it usually befalls in the pediatric age, mostly between 6 months and 6 years. In most cases, complications do not emerge, and the prognosis is considered favorable. However, when a case of battery ingestion occurs, serious adverse events may develop. The ingestion of these components is a potential life-threatening event for children.In this article, we report the case of an 18-month-old child who died from hemorrhagic shock due to an aortoesophageal fistula caused by a 20 mm lithium button battery lodged in the esophagus...
March 2017: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
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