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Andrea Temesi, Julianna Thuróczy, Lajos Balogh, Ádám Miklósi
In recent years more and more studies have revealed the effect of extraneous oxytocin on the social behavior of dogs. The distribution of administered oxytocin in different physiologically relevant compartments is important because this knowledge forms the basis for the timing of behavior tests after the administration. Most behavioral studies rely on the non-invasive intranasal application of oxytocin. The aim of this study was to determine the time course of intranasal administered oxytocin secretion into blood and urine and also establish a connection between intranasal received oxytocin and urinary cortisol in dogs...
2017: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
Xiangyu Xu, Jinshan Pan, Yu-Jin Zhang, Ming-Hsuan Yang
The success of the state-of-the-art deblurring methods mainly depends on restoration of sharp edges in a coarse-tofine kernel estimation process. In this paper, we propose to learn a deep convolutional neural network for extracting sharp edges from blurred images. Motivated by the success of the existing filtering based deblurring methods, the proposed model consists of two stages: suppressing extraneous details and enhancing sharp edges. We show that the two-stage model simplifies the learning process and effectively restores sharp edges...
September 18, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
Jeyantt S Sankaran, Manasvi Varshney, Stefan Judex
The C57BL/6 mouse, the most frequently utilized animal model in biomedical research, is in use as several substrains, all of which differ by a small array of genomic differences. Two of these substrains, C57BL/6J (B6J) and C57BL/6N (B6N), are commonly used but it is unclear how phenotypically similar or different they are. Here, we tested whether adolescent B6N mice have a bone phenotype and respond to the loss of weightbearing differently than B6J. At 9 weeks of age, normally ambulating B6N had lower trabecular bone volume fraction but greater bone formation rates and osteoblast surfaces than corresponding B6J...
September 14, 2017: Mammalian Genome: Official Journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society
Takenari Sato, Takumi Yoshida, Hamad H Al Mamari, Laurean Ilies, Eiichi Nakamura
We report here a manganese-catalyzed C-H methylation reaction of considerable substrate scope, using MeMgBr, a catalytic amount of MnCl2·2LiCl, and an organic dihalide oxidant. The reaction features ambient temperature, low catalyst loading, typically 1%, high catalytic turnover reaching 5.9 × 10(3), and no need for an extraneous ligand and illustrates a unique catalytic use of simple manganese salts for C-H activation, which so far has relied on catalysis by manganese carbonyls.
September 14, 2017: Organic Letters
Mohammad Mizanur Rahman, Chalie Charoenlarpnopparut, Prapun Suksompong, Pisanu Toochinda, Attaphongse Taparugssanagorn
Electronic noses (E-Noses) are becoming popular for food and fruit quality assessment due to their robustness and repeated usability without fatigue, unlike human experts. An E-Nose equipped with classification algorithms and having open ended classification boundaries such as the k-nearest neighbor (k-NN), support vector machine (SVM), and multilayer perceptron neural network (MLPNN), are found to suffer from false classification errors of irrelevant odor data. To reduce false classification and misclassification errors, and to improve correct rejection performance; algorithms with a hyperspheric boundary, such as a radial basis function neural network (RBFNN) and generalized regression neural network (GRNN) with a Gaussian activation function in the hidden layer should be used...
September 12, 2017: Sensors
Guang-Ning Liu, Xu Zhang, Hong-Mei Wang, Hong Xu, Zi-Han Wang, Xiang-Long Meng, Ya-Nan Dong, Ruo-Yu Zhao, Cuncheng Li
Two types of in situ formed structure directing agents (SDAs) including aromatic triphenylphosphine (PPh3)- and aliphatic piperazine (H2pp)-derivative cations were used to synthesize five new hybrid iodoargentates, namely (EtPPh3)Ag3I4 (1, Et = ethyl), (n-PrPPh3)Ag3I4 (2, n-Pr = n-propyl), (i-PrPPh3)Ag5I6 (3, i-Pr = isopropyl), (Me4pp)0.5AgI2 (4, Me = methyl), and (H3app)2(Ag2I6)·2I·2H2O (5, app = N-aminoethylpiperazine). A comparative study of the two types of SDAs on the structures, stabilities and properties of hybrid iodoargentates was performed in detail...
September 12, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Alistair Mitchell-Innes, Robert Morse, Richard Irving, Philip Begg
Totally implantable cochlear implants may be able to address many of the problems cochlear implant users have around cosmetic appearances, discomfort, and restriction of activities. The major technological challenges that need to be solved to develop a totally implantable device relate to implanted microphone performance. Previous attempts at implanting microphones for cochlear implants have not performed as well as conventional cochlear implant microphones, and in addition have struggled with extraneous body or surface contact noise...
September 11, 2017: Cochlear Implants International
John M Ferron, Seang-Hwane Joo, Joel R Levin
We developed masked visual analysis (MVA) as a structured complement to traditional visual analysis. The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the effects of computer-simulated MVA of a four-case multiple-baseline (MB) design in which the phase lengths are determined by an ongoing visual analysis (i.e., response-guided) versus those in which the phase lengths are established a priori (i.e., fixed criteria). We observed an acceptably low probability (less than .05) of false detection of treatment effects...
September 9, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
Susannah Worster, Henrik Mouritsen, P J Hore
Billions of migratory birds navigate thousands of kilometres every year aided by a magnetic compass sense, the biophysical mechanism of which is unclear. One leading hypothesis is that absorption of light by specialized photoreceptors in the retina produces short-lived chemical intermediates known as radical pairs whose chemistry is sensitive to tiny magnetic interactions. A potentially serious but largely ignored obstacle to this theory is how directional information derived from the Earth's magnetic field can be separated from the much stronger variations in the intensity and polarization of the incident light...
September 2017: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Dong Kyu Lim, Nguyen Phuoc Long, Changyeun Mo, Ziyuan Dong, Lingmei Cui, Giyoung Kim, Sung Won Kwon
The mixing of extraneous ingredients with original products is a common adulteration practice in food and herbal medicines. In particular, authenticity of white rice and its corresponding blended products has become a key issue in food industry. Accordingly, our current study aimed to develop and evaluate a novel discrimination method by combining targeted lipidomics with powerful supervised learning methods, and eventually introduce a platform to verify the authenticity of white rice. A total of 30 cultivars were collected, and 330 representative samples of white rice from Korea and China as well as seven mixing ratios were examined...
October 2017: Food Research International
A B Blair, A Dwarakanath, A Mehta, H Liang, X Hui, C Wyman, J P P Ouanes, H T Nguyen
PURPOSE: Inguinal hernia repair is a common general surgery procedure with low morbidity. However, postoperative urinary retention (PUR) occurs in up to 22% of patients, resulting in further extraneous treatments.This single institution series investigates whether patient comorbidities, surgical approaches, and anesthesia methods are associated with developing PUR after inguinal hernia repairs. METHODS: This is a single institution retrospective review of inguinal hernia from 2012 to 2015...
September 4, 2017: Hernia: the Journal of Hernias and Abdominal Wall Surgery
Andrew N Bankston, Li Ku, Yue Feng
Cdk5 activity is regulated by the amounts of two activator proteins, p35 and p39 (Tsai et al., 1994; Zheng et al., 1998; Humbert et al., 2000). The p35-Cdk5 and p39-Cdk5 complexes have differing sensitivity to salt and detergent concentrations (Hisanaga and Saito, 2003; Sato et al., 2007; Yamada et al., 2007; Asada et al., 2008). Cdk5 activation can be directly measured by immunoprecipitation of Cdk5 with its bound activator, followed by a Cdk5 kinase assay. In this protocol, buffers for cell lysis and immunoprecipitation are intended to preserve both p35- and p39-Cdk5 complexes to assess total Cdk5 activity...
July 5, 2017: Bio-protocol
Girgis Obaid, Bryan Q Spring, Shazia Bano, Tayyaba Hasan
The emergence of fluorescently labeled therapeutic antibodies has given rise to molecular probes for image-guided surgery. However, the extraneous interstitial presence of an unbound and nonspecifically accumulated probe gives rise to false-positive detection of tumor tissue and margins. Thus, the concept of tumor-cell activation of smart probes provides a potentially superior mechanism of delineating tumor margins as well as small tumor deposits. The combination of molecular targeting with intracellular activation circumvents the presence of extracellular, nonspecific signals of targeted probe accumulation...
August 2017: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Wei Zhang, Chao Liang, Jenny Kao-Kniffin, Hongbo He, Hongtu Xie, Xudong Zhang
The incorporation of extraneous nitrogen (N) into amino sugars (AS) could reflect the contribution of microbial residues to soil N transformation. Investigating the impact of drying-wetting (DW) on dynamics of newly-produced AS is critical because this represents microbial-driven N retention/losses in soil. A 36-day incubation of soil samples was conducted under different drying intensities, using (15)N-labelled-(NH4)2SO4 as an N source together with/without glucose addition. There were multiple DW periods and they ranged from a constant moisture content treatment, to a one day drying (low-drying-intensity, LD), a two day drying (medium-drying-intensity, MD), or a three day drying event (severe-drying-intensity, SD)...
August 25, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jason Nassios, James A Giesecke
Economic consequence analysis is one of many inputs to terrorism contingency planning. Computable general equilibrium (CGE) models are being used more frequently in these analyses, in part because of their capacity to accommodate high levels of event-specific detail. In modeling the potential economic effects of a hypothetical terrorist event, two broad sets of shocks are required: (1) physical impacts on observable variables (e.g., asset damage); (2) behavioral impacts on unobservable variables (e.g., investor uncertainty)...
August 17, 2017: Risk Analysis: An Official Publication of the Society for Risk Analysis
Kay B Leissner, Jessica L Shanahan, Peter L Bekker, Houman Amirfarzan
BACKGROUND: As part of an effort to maximize value in the perioperative setting, a paradigm shift is underway in the way that patients are cared for preoperatively, on the day of surgery, and postoperatively-a setting collectively known as the perioperative care. Enhanced Recovery After Surgery (ERAS(®)) is an evidence-based, patient-centered team approach to delivering high-quality perioperative care to surgical patients. METHODS: This review focuses on anesthesiologists, with their unique purview of perioperative setting, who are important drivers of change in the delivery of valuable perioperative care...
September 2017: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Vidhya Munnamalai, Ulrike J Sienknecht, R Keith Duncan, M Katie Scott, Ankita Thawani, Kristen N Fantetti, Nadia M Atallah, Deborah J Biesemeier, Kuhn H Song, Kirsten Luethy, Eric Traub, Donna M Fekete
Vertebrate hearing organs manifest cellular asymmetries across the radial axis that underlie afferent versus efferent circuits between the inner ear and the brain. Thus, understanding the molecular control of patterning across this axis has important functional implications. Radial axis patterning begins before the cells become postmitotic, and is likely linked to the onset of asymmetric expression of secreted factors adjacent to the sensory primordium. This study explores one such asymmetrically-expressed gene, Wnt9a, that becomes restricted to the neural edge of the avian auditory organ, the basilar papilla, by embryonic day (E) 5...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Gayatri Pole, Bright Thomas
Gossypiboma or textiloma is the result of a foreign-body reaction to extraneous material, usually a surgical sponge that was accidentally retained within the body. The diagnosis of a retained surgical sponge is often delayed due to its infrequent occurrence and protean appearances. The purpose of this pictorial review is to define the common sonographic and CT features of gossypiboma. A retrospective review of sonographic and CT images of 6 surgically proven cases of retained surgical sponges was undertaken...
2017: Polish Journal of Radiology
Claude M Setodji, Daniel F McCaffrey, Lane F Burgette, Daniel Almirall, Beth Ann Griffin
Estimating the causal effect of an exposure (versus some control) on an outcome using observational data often requires addressing the fact that exposed and control groups differ on pre-exposure characteristics that may be related to the outcome (confounders). Propensity score methods have long been used as a tool for adjusting for observed confounders in order to produce more valid causal effect estimates under the strong ignorability assumption. In this article, we compare two promising propensity score estimation methods (for time invariant binary exposures) when assessing the average treatment effect on the treated: the generalized boosted models and covariate-balancing propensity scores, with the main objective to provide analysts with some rules-of-thumb when choosing between these two methods...
August 16, 2017: Epidemiology
Edith Galy, Julie Paxion, Catherine Berthelon
The distinction between several components of mental workload is often made in the ergonomics literature. However, measurements used are often established from a global score, notably with several questionnaires that originally reflect several dimensions. The present study tested the effect of driving situation complexity, experience and subjective levels of tension and alertness on each dimension of the NASA-TLX questionnaire of workload, in order to highlight the potential influence of intrinsic, extraneous and germane load factors...
September 8, 2017: Ergonomics
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