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Susan Immanuel, Venugopal Elakkiya, Muthuppalaniappan Alagappan, Rajendran Selvakumar
In this study, the authors report a simple fabrication of thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) nanofibres-based kit for cholesterol detection. TPU is a polymer that is highly elastic, resistant to microorganisms, abrasion and compatible with blood; thus, making it a natural selection as an immobilisation matrix for cholesterol oxidase (ChOx) enzyme. The nanofibre was fabricated by electrospinning process and was characterised using scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. ChOx was covalently immobilised on TPU nanofibre and cholesterol level/concentration was visually found using 4-aminoantipyrine, a dye that reacts with H2 O2 produced from the oxidation of cholesterol by ChOx and changes colour from yellow to red...
August 2018: IET Nanobiotechnology
Cheonghoon Lee, SungJun Park, Kyuseon Cho, Ju Eun Yoo, Sunghee Lee, GwangPyo Ko
Human noroviruses (HuNoVs) can be easily transferred by the contacts of humans or fomites. Swab sampling methods are widely used for recovering HuNoVs from small surfaces of various fomites or hard-to-reach locations and swab sampling conditions are important for the accurate detection of HuNoVs, which have a low infectious dose and relatively long persistence under a range of environmental conditions. Therefore, to determine the suitable swab sampling method for recovering HuNoVs from various surfaces, we evaluated combinations of four swab materials (cotton, microdenier polyester [a type of microfiber], polyurethane foam, and rayon) and three elution buffer solutions (phosphate-buffered saline [PBS], PBS with 0...
August 9, 2018: Food and Environmental Virology
Mark Lenz, Boyko Gueorguiev, Juan B Gerstner Garces, Michael P Swords, Stefan Rammelt, Gunther O Hofmann, Ivan Zderic, Manuela Ernst, Robert Geoff Richards, Andrew K Sands
Objectives: The varying mechanical properties of human bone have influence on the study results. Pullout and shear forces of human bone were compared to different substitutes to evaluate their suitability for biomechanical studies. Methods: After bone mineral density (BMD) determination, axial pullout tests were performed with cortical 3.5 mm nonlocking (NL) and 2.7 mm head locking (HL) screws on human, porcine and polyurethane composite bones. Porcine and human constructs were additionally loaded in shear direction...
July 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic Translation
Dong Xie, Leah Howard, Rashed Almousa
Antimicrobial surface is important for the inhibition of bacteria or biofilm formation on biomaterials. The objective of this study was to immobilize a novel hydrophilic polymer containing the antibacterial moiety onto polyurethane surface via a simple surface coating technology to make the surface not only antibacterial but also antifouling. The compound 3,4-dichloro-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone was derivatized, characterized and incorporated onto polyvinylpyrrolidone containing succinimidyl functional groups, followed by coating onto the polyurethane surface...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Said Arévalo-Alquichire, Maria Morales-Gonzalez, Luis E Diaz, Manuel F Valero
Polyurethanes are materials with a strong structure-property relationship. The goal of this research was to study the effect of a polyol blend composition of polyurethanes on its properties using a mixture design and setting mathematic models for each property. Water absorption, hydrolytic degradation, contact angle, tensile strength hardness and modulus were studied. Additionally, thermal stability was studied by thermogravimetric analysis. Area under the curve was used to evaluate the effect of polyol blend composition on thermal stability and kinetics of water absorption and hydrolytic degradation...
August 3, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Chang Hyun Cho, Seyong Kwon, Segi Kim, Yoonmi Hong, Pilnam Kim, Eun Sook Lee, Je-Kyun Park
We present here a novel microfluidic platform that can perform microfluidic on-chip immunohistochemistry (IHC) processes on a formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded section slide. Unlike previous microfluidic IHC studies, our microfluidic chip made of organic solvent-resistant polyurethane acrylate (PUA) is capable of conducting on-chip IHC processes consecutively. A narrow channel wall structure of the PUA chip shows effective sealing by pressure-based reversible assembly with a section slide. We performed both on-chip IHC and conventional IHC processes and compared the IHC results based on the immunostaining intensity...
July 2018: Biomicrofluidics
Thomas De Luca, Keely L Szilágyi, Katherine A Hargreaves, Kimberly S Collins, Eric A Benson
Preclinical studies in animals often require frequent blood sampling over prolonged periods. A preferred method in ratsis the implantation of a polyurethane catheter into the jugular vein, with heparinized glycerol as a lock solution. However,analysis of various biologic compounds (for example, microRNA) precludes the use of heparin. We used sodium citrate as an alternative to heparin but observed more frequent loss of catheter patency. We hypothesized that this effect was due toevaporation of lock solution at the exteriorized portion of the catheter, subsequent blood infiltration into the catheter, andultimately clot formation within the catheter...
August 3, 2018: Journal of the American Association for Laboratory Animal Science: JAALAS
Saravana Kumar Jaganathan, Mohan Prasath Mani
In this study, a wound dressing based on polyurethane (PU) blended with copper sulphate nanofibers was developed using an electrospinning technique. The prepared PU and PU nanocomposites showed smooth fibers without any bead defects. The prepared nanocomposites showed smaller fiber (663 ± 156.30 nm) and pore (888 ± 70.93 nm) diameter compared to the pristine PU (fiber diameter 1159 ± 147.48 nm and pore diameter 1087 ± 62.51 nm). The interaction of PU with copper sulphate was evident in the infrared spectrum through hydrogen-bond formation...
August 2018: 3 Biotech
Sandro M Sgrott, Rodrigo D Neves, Armando J D'Acampora, Geraldo J S Bernardes, Luiz Belmonte, Thiago C Martins, Franciane Bobinski, Eduardo Cargnin-Ferreira, Andreza Hoepers, Clarissa M Comim, Daniel F Martins, Anna P Piovezan
Silicone breast implant is associated with complications inherent to the surgical procedure. Prosthesis coating with polyurethane, however, commonly reduces the incidence of such complications. In this paper, the authors evaluated the inflammatory histomorphometric profile and oxidative damage associated to the implant of polyester urethane sheets. Forty-eight Wistar rats were divided into Sham or polyester urethane groups (n = 8/group) and underwent a polyester urethane implant in the dorsal skinfold. Tissue samples were collected on days seven, 30, and 90 after surgery and subjected to histomorphometric analysis and biochemical tests...
July 26, 2018: Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciências
Annette Kienle, Alexander Krieger, Karel Willems, Hans-Joachim Wilke
In order to improve osseointegration, polyetheretherketone (PEEK) interbody fusion cages are frequently surface coated. The bonding strength of the coatings is mostly investigated under unrealistic loading conditions. To close this gap, in this study, uncoated and coated cages were loaded in a clinical setup in order to investigate their real resistance against abrasion. Six uncoated, six calcium phosphate (CaP) nanocoated, and six titanium (Ti) nanocoated PEEK cages were tested in this study. The experimental setup was designed to mimic cage impaction into the intervertebral disc space using polyurethane (PU) foam blocks as vertebral body substitutes...
July 1, 2018: Journal of Applied Biomaterials & Functional Materials
Zainab J Katima, Olubiyi I Olukunle, Olga-Loanna Kalantzi, Adegbenro P Daso, Jonathan O Okonkwo
Polyurethane foam passive samplers were deployed between May 2016 and January 2017 to evaluate concentrations of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), selected alternative flame retardants (AFRs) and total hexabromocyclododecane (HBCDD) (sum of α-, β-, and γ-HBCDD). The PUF air samplers were deployed in semi-urban, urban, industrial and landfill sites in Gauteng Province, South Africa. The acquired results presented a clear semi urban-industrial-urban-landfill concentration gradient for all BFRs measured...
July 24, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Min Ji Noh, Min Jun Oh, Jae Ho Choi, Jae Chul Yu, Woo-Jae Kim, Juhyun Park, Young-Wook Chang, Pil J Yoo
With the advent of the era of consumer-oriented displays and mobile devices, the importance of barrier film coatings for securing devices from oxygen or moisture penetration has become more salient. Recently developed approaches to generate gas barrier films in a combination of polyelectrolyte multilayer matrices and incorporated inorganic nanosheets have shown great potential in outperforming conventional gas barrier films. However, these films have the intrinsic drawback of vulnerability to brittleness and inability to stretch for flexible device applications...
July 31, 2018: Soft Matter
Vicky Varghese, Venkatesh Krishnan, Gurunathan Saravana Kumar
STUDY DESIGN: A biomechanical study of pedicle-screw pullout strength. PURPOSE: To develop a decision tree based on pullout strength for evaluating pedicle-screw instrumentation. OVERVIEW OF LITERATURE: Clinically, a surgeon's understanding of the holding power of a pedicle screw is based on perioperative intuition (which is like insertion torque) while inserting the screw. This is a subjective feeling that depends on the skill and experience of the surgeon...
August 2018: Asian Spine Journal
Claire M Rickard, Nicole Marsh, Joan Webster, Naomi Runnegar, Emily Larsen, Matthew R McGrail, Fiona Fullerton, Emilie Bettington, Jennifer A Whitty, Md Abu Choudhury, Haitham Tuffaha, Amanda Corley, David J McMillan, John F Fraser, Andrea P Marshall, E Geoffrey Playford
BACKGROUND: Two billion peripheral intravenous catheters (PIVCs) are used globally each year, but optimal dressing and securement methods are not well established. We aimed to compare the efficacy and costs of three alternative approaches to standard non-bordered polyurethane dressings. METHODS: We did a pragmatic, randomised controlled, parallel-group superiority trial at two hospitals in Queensland, Australia. Eligible patients were aged 18 years or older and required PIVC insertion for clinical treatment, which was expected to be required for longer than 24 h...
July 26, 2018: Lancet
Emily Gee, Guojun Liu, Heng Hu, Jiandong Wang
NP-GLIDE polyurethane (PU) coatings are prepared by curing a commercial polyol P0, a hexamethylene diisocyanate trimer (HDIT), and P1-g-PDMS, which is a graft copolymer consisting of a polyol backbone P1 bearing poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) side-chains. These materials are known as NP-GLIDE because most test liquids have no problem to cleanly glide off them and because segregated nanopools of a grafted lubricating ingredient (PDMS) for dewetting enablement are dispersed throughout the coating matrix. To optimize the dewetting performance of the NP-GLIDE coatings, the molecular weights of the PDMS side chains in the P1-g-PDMS samples were increased from 1...
July 28, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sang-Ho Ye, Yingqi Chen, Zhongwei Mao, Xinzhu Gu, Venkat Shankarraman, Yi Hong, Vesselin Shanov, William R Wagner
Degradable metallic stents, most commonly comprised of Mg-based alloys, are of interest as an alternative to traditional metallic stents for application in the cardiac and peripheral vasculature. Two major design challenges with such stents are control of the corrosion rate and the acute presentation of a non-thrombogenic surface to passing blood. In this study, several types of sulfobetaine (SB)-bearing biodegradable polyurethanes were developed and assessed as physical, chemical and combination-type coatings for a model degradable Mg alloy, AZ31...
July 30, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yukihide Koyama, Hiroyuki Oshika, Hiroko Nishioka, Naoko Kamoshida, Sousuke Tanaka, Gaku Inagawa, Tomio Andoh
BACKGROUND: The increase in endotracheal tube cuff pressure due to nitrous oxide diffusion is a well-known risk during general anesthesia using nitrous oxide. We hypothesized that lubricating endotracheal tube cuffs with K-Y™ Jelly might inhibit the increase in cuff pressure that occurs during exposure to nitrous oxide. METHODS: We used two types of endotracheal tube cuffs: one made from ultrathin polyurethane (PU) and another made from conventional polyvinyl chloride (PVC)...
July 28, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
Jing-Ling Zhu, Sidney Wing-Kwong Yu, Pierce Kah-Hoe Chow, Yen Wah Tong, Jun Li
Intra-tumoral injection of radiopharmaceuticals such as yttrium-90 (90 Y) or phosphorus-32 (32 P) is an important route for brachytherapy in unresectable solid tumors such as locally advanced hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the injected radiopharmaceuticals can potentially leak out from the tumor site due to high intra-tumoral pressure. In this study, we demonstrated the use of thermogelling copolymers that can be injected into tumor and subsequently solidify as hydrogels within the tumor that can potentially overcome the above problem...
July 17, 2018: Biomaterials
C H Tam, Y C Chan, Y Law, S W Cheng
BACKGROUND: Three-dimensional (3D) printing, also known as rapid prototyping or additive manufacturing, is a novel adjunct in the medical field. The aim of this systematic review is to evaluate the role of 3D printing technology in the field of contemporary vascular surgery in terms of its technical aspect, practicability and clinical outcome. METHODS: A systematic search of literatures published from 1st January 1980 to 15th July 2017 were identified from the EMBASE, MEDLINE and Cochrane library database with reference to the PRISMA guideline...
July 24, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Lucie Hympánová, Rita Rynkevic, Sabiniano Román, Marina G M C Mori da Cunha, Edoardo Mazza, Manuel Zündel, Iva Urbánková, Monica R Gallego, Jakob Vange, Geertje Callewaert, Christopher Chapple, Sheila MacNeil, Jan Deprest
BACKGROUND: There is an urgent need to develop better materials to provide anatomical support to the pelvic floor without compromising its function. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to assess outcomes after simulated vaginal prolapse repair in a sheep model using three different materials: (1) ultra-lightweight polypropylene (PP) non-degradable textile (Restorelle) mesh, (2) electrospun biodegradable ureidopyrimidinone-polycarbonate (UPy-PC), and (3) electrospun non-degradable polyurethane (PU) mesh in comparison with simulated native tissue repair (NTR)...
July 23, 2018: European Urology Focus
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