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Zhixuan Wang, Junaid Saleem, John P Barford, Gordon McKay
Cellulose is widely used as an effective sorbent to treat wastewater. Cellulosic sorbents have the advantage of biodegradability, as they are natural plant based materials, compared with the synthetic materials such as polypropylene (PP) or polyurethane (PU). Among the raw biomass materials used for cellulose production, rice husk is one of the most cost competitive and widely available. In this work, biological treatments are compared to find the most effective treatment method for cellulose fiber production from rice husk...
December 5, 2018: Environmental Technology
Sun Jeong Kim, Philip D Tatman, Da-Hyun Song, Albert O Gee, Deok-Ho Kim, Sang Jun Kim
Background: Tendon-derived stem cells (TDSCs) are key factors associated with regeneration and healing in tendinopathy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of mechanical stiffness and topographic signals on the differentiation of TDSCs depending on age and pathological conditions. Materials and methods: We compared TDSCs extracted from normal tendon tissues with TDSCs from tendinopathic Achilles tendon tissues of Sprague Dawley rats in vitro and TDSCs cultured on nanotopographic cues and substrate stiffness to determine how to control the TDSCs...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Ronan Cleber Contrera, Mario José Lucero Culi, Dione Mari Morita, José Alberto Domingues Rodrigues, Marcelo Zaiat, Valdir Schalch
This work used a pilot scale (with a total volume of 1300 L) Anaerobic Sequencing Batch Biofilm Reactor (AnSBBR) to treat landfill leachate from São Carlos-SP (Brazil) as well as to evaluate the biomass growth and its behavior. Biomass from the bottom of a landfill leachate stabilization pond was immobilized in polyurethane foam cubes as inoculum. The leachate characteristics varied during the experiment. Ethanol or volatile fatty acids were added as additional substrate when the leachate was temporarily recalcitrant...
December 2018: Waste Management
Saba Zahid, Abdul Samad Khan, Aqif Anwar Chaudhry, Sarah Ghafoor, Qurat Ul Ain, Ahtasham Raza, Muhammad Imran Rahim, Oliver Goerke, Ihtesham Ur Rehman, Asma Tufail
Development of a guided occlusive biodegradable membrane with controlled morphology in order to restrict the ingrowth of epithelial cells is still a challenge in dental tissue engineering. A bilayer membrane with a non-porous upper layer (polyurethane) and porous lower layer (polycaprolactone and bioactive glass composite) with thermoelastic properties to sustain surgery treatment was developed by lyophilization. Morphology, porosity, and layers attachment were controlled by using the multi-solvent system. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, cell attachment, and cell proliferation were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histology...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Katsuki Kimura, Hiroki Uchida
Intensive membrane cleaning can be used with ceramic membranes since they are physically/chemically robust. It might therefore be possible for membrane bioreactors (MBRs) to be operated under the condition of a high membrane flux when ceramic membranes are used with such intensive membrane cleaning. In this study, bench-scale MBRs equipped with flat-sheet ceramic membranes were operated for long periods. Circulation of granular materials (cylindrical polyurethane) in the tank and frequent chemically enhanced backwash (CEB) were used as intensive physical cleaning and chemical cleaning in this study, respectively...
November 14, 2018: Water Research
Xiao Liang, Li-Hua Peng, Shuo Zhang, Shuxue Zhou, Asami Yoshida, Kiyoshi Osatomi, Nikoleta Bellou, Xing-Pan Guo, Sergey Dobretsov, Jin-Long Yang
In many environments, biofilms are a major mode and an emergent form of microbial life. Biofilms play crucial roles in biogeochemical cycling and invertebrate recruitment in marine environments. However, relatively little is known about how marine biofilms form on different substrata and about how these biofilms impact invertebrate recruitment. Here, we performed a comparative analysis of a 28-day-old biofilm community on non-coated (a control glass) and coated substrata (polyurethane (PU), epoxy resin (EP) and polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)) and examined the settlement of Mytilus coruscus plantigrades on these biofilms...
November 20, 2018: Chemosphere
Ayesha Javed, Fahed Parvaiz, Sobia Manzoor
Bacterial Vaginosis (BV) is a complex polymicrobial infection of vagina that shifts the paradigms of vaginal flora from lactobacilli to opportunistic pathogens. BV is catagorized by greyish white discharge, pH greater than 4.5. It results in the preterm labor, abortion, pelvic inflammatory disorders, post cesarean infections. BV is associated with Sexually Transmitted Diseases (STDs) or immune deficiency disorders like Human Immunodeficiency Virus, Human Papilloma Virus, Herpes Simplex Virus 1 and 2, and Neisseria gonorrhoeae...
November 28, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Paula Martinez-Ros, Marta Lozano, Fernando Hernandez, Alejandra Tirado, Alejandro Rios-Abellan, Maria Carmen López-Mendoza, Antonio Gonzalez-Bulnes
Induction and synchronization of estrus and ovulation in sheep is based on intravaginal progestagen-impregnated polyurethane sponges or progesterone-loaded silicon-based devices (CIDR), in either short- (6⁻7 days) or long-term (12⁻14 days) protocols. Bearing in mind that the use of intravaginal sponges in long-term protocols has been related to the presence of vaginitis at removal, we compared the effects of sponges and CIDRs, maintained during either 7 or 14 days, on vaginal features (characteristics of vaginal mucus discharge, pH and microbiota) and fertility under field conditions...
November 29, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Zhuowei Cheng, Ke Feng, Danhua Xu, Christian Kennes, Jianmeng Chen, Dongzhi Chen, Shihan Zhang, Jiexu Ye, Dionysios D Dionysiou
The type of packing material for biofiltration has a great impact on microbial growth and pollutant removal. This study evaluated the feasibility of a nutritional slow-release packing material with functional microorganisms (NSRP-FM) in a biofilter for the removal of gaseous n-butyl acetate. Through the emulsification-cross linked process and microbial immobilization, an innovative packing material was obtained, with a specific surface area of 2.45 m2  g-1 and a bulk density of 40.75 kg m-3 . The cumulative release rates of total phosphorus and total nitrogen were 90...
November 17, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Ji Zhou, Qing Cai, Xing Liu, Yanhuai Ding, Fu Xu
Polyurethane (PU) nanofibers were prepared from electrospun method. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was employed to characterize the mechanical properties of electrospun PU nanofibers. The impact of temperature on the mechanical behavior of PU nanofibers was studied using three-point bending test based on AFM. A Young's modulus of ~ 25 GPa was obtained for PU nanofibers with diameter at ~ 150 nm at room temperature. With decrease in nanofiber's diameter, the increasing Young's modulus can be due to the surface tension effect...
November 29, 2018: Nanoscale Research Letters
Hyunsu Jung, Hyeck Go, Gye-Choon Park, Seongku Kim, Changhun Yun
The new stretchable transparent electrode was proposed and fabricated based on a process which utilizes silver nanowires (AgNWs) on a Polyurethane (PU) substrate. In order to overcome the rough surface nature of the silver nanowire electrode, a titanium oxide (TiO₂) buffer layer was over-coated and then followed by a heat treatment of organo-metalic sol-gel solution. The fabricated stretchable electrodes exhibit electrical sheet resistance of 24 Ω/□, transmittance of 78% at 550 nm wavelength and average surface roughness of less than 5 nm...
April 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Suset Barroso-Solares, Javier Pinto, Despina Fragouli, Athanassia Athanassiou
Superhydrophobic and oleophilic polyurethane foams were obtained by spray-coating their surfaces with solutions of thermoplastic polyurethane and hydrophobic silicon oxide nanoparticles. The developed functionalized foams were exploited as reusable oil absorbents from stable water-in-oil emulsions. These foams were able to remove oil efficiently from a wide range of emulsions with oil contents from 10 to 80 v.%, stabilized using Span80. The modified foams could reach oil absorption capacities up to 29 g/g, becoming a suitable candidate for water-in-oil stable emulsions separation...
November 27, 2018: Materials
Xingtong Chen, Chunguo Liu, Shuo Liu, Bing Lyu, Donglai Li
In this work, a piezoresistive sensor structure based on carbon black (CB)@polyurethane (PU) yarn material was developed. Specifically, CB@PU yarn was constructed by the polymer-mediated water-based electrostatic deposition method. The distribution of the yarn was artificially controlled to fabricate conductive networks. The CB conductive layer was efficiently supported by the net-like structure of PU yarn, thus generating collaborative advantage. The as-fabricated pressure sensor not only displayed compressibility of over 97%, but also detected a wide pressure change from 25 Pa to 20 kPa...
November 26, 2018: Sensors
Justin C Morse, Meghan H Shilts, Kim A Ely, Ping Li, Quanhu Sheng, Li-Ching Huang, Todd J Wannemuehler, Naweed I Chowdhury, Rakesh K Chandra, Suman R Das, Justin H Turner
BACKGROUND: Olfactory dysfunction is a common symptom of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). We previously identified several cytokines potentially linked to smell loss, potentially supporting an inflammatory etiology for CRS-associated olfactory dysfunction. In the current study we sought to validate patterns of olfactory dysfunction in CRS using hierarchical cluster analysis, machine learning algorithms, and multivariate regression. METHODS: CRS patients undergoing functional endoscopic sinus surgery were administered the Smell Identification Test (SIT) preoperatively...
November 28, 2018: International Forum of Allergy & Rhinology
Haizhu Kuang, Shuofei Yang, Yao Wang, Yuting He, Kaiqiang Ye, Junfeng Hu, Wei Shen, Yosry Morsi, Shuyang Lu, Xiumei Mo
In this study, we prepared a composite vascular graft with two layers. The inner layer, which was comprised of degradable Poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA)/Collagen (PC) nanofibers modified by mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN), was grafted with polyethylene glycol (PEG) and heparin to promote cell proliferation and to improve blood compatibility. The outer layer was comprised of polyurethane (PU) nanofibers in order to provide mechanical support. The growth and proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) in the inner layer was significant, and blood compatibility testing showed that the inner layer had good blood compatibility...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
Tiffany Marie Crescentini, Sarah M Stow, Jay G Forsythe, Jody C May, John A McLean, David M Hercules
Matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is used to characterize methylenedianiline (MDA) 3-ring and 4-ring species. Building on our previous MALDI-MS 2-ring MDA isomer study, here we compare 3-ring and 4-ring electrospray ionization (ESI) and MALDI results. In ESI, 3-ring and 4-ring MDAs each form one single [M+H]+ parent ion. Whereas in MALDI, each MDA multimer forms three unique precursor ions: [M+H]+, [M.]+, and [M-H]+. In this study, 3-ring and 4-ring MDA precursors are characterized to identify the unique fragment ions formed and their respective fragmentation pathways...
November 27, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Chang Wan Kang, Jaewon Jin, Yoon-Joo Ko, Sang Moon Lee, Hae Jin Kim, Seung Uk Son
This work shows that the surface properties of polyurethane acrylate (PUA) films can be controlled by the coating of na-noporous organic networks (NONs). By the NON coating, the hydrophilic nature of nanostructured PUA (N-PUA) film was converted to superhydrophobic surface. The NON-coated N-PUA films (N-PUA-NONs) were applied as stationary adsor-bents for the capture of particulate matter (PM) in air. Compared with the original PUA films, the N-PUA-NON films showed much enhanced capture performance toward PM and recyclability through water washing, indicating the potential of out-door application as stationary self-cleaning adsorbents under natural surroundings...
November 27, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lili Lin, Jingqi Ma, Quanjing Mei, Bin Cai, Jie Chen, Yi Zuo, Qin Zou, Jidong Li, Yubao Li
Plastic surgeons have long searched for the ideal materials to use in craniomaxillofacial reconstruction. The aim of this study was to obtain a novel porous elastomer based on designed aliphatic polyurethane (PU) and nanosized hydroxyapatite (n-HA) fillers for plastic reconstruction. The physicochemical properties of the prepared composite elastomer were characterized by infrared spectroscopy (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDX), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermal analysis, mechanical tests, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS)...
November 25, 2018: Nanomaterials
Arnaldo Leal-Junior, Jonathan Casas, Carlos Marques, Maria José Pontes, Anselmo Frizera
This paper presents the development of temperature sensors based on fiber Bragg gratings (FBGs) embedded in 3D-printed structures made of different materials, namely polylatic acid (PLA) and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU). A numerical analysis of the material behavior and its interaction with the FBG sensor was performed through the finite element method. A simple, fast and prone to automation process is presented for the FBG embedment in both PLA and TPU structures. The temperature tests were made using both PLA- and TPU-embedded FBGs as well as an unembedded FBG as reference...
November 24, 2018: Sensors
Ilaria Teobaldi, Vincenzo Stoico, Fabrizia Perrone, Massimiliano Bruti, Enzo Bonora, Alessandro Mantovani
Honey has been used as a wound dressing for hundreds of years by ancient civilizations, but only recently it has acquired scientific interest because of its relevant biological properties. In the last decade, indeed, several trials and observational studies have reported that, compared to conventional treatment (e.g. antiseptics, polyurethane film, paraffin gauze, soframycin-impregnated gauze), honey dressings seem to be better in healing time of different types of wounds, including diabetic foot ulcers. However, to date, information about a potential favorable biological effect of honey dressings on diabetic ulcers with exposed tendon are still scarce...
November 16, 2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
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