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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103623/metabolic-inflexibility-with-obesity-and-the-effects-of-fenofibrate-on-skeletal-muscle-fatty-acid-oxidation
#1
Kristen E Boyle, Jacob E Friedman, Rachel C Janssen, Chantal Underkofler, Joseph A Houmard, Neda Rasouli
This study was designed to investigate mechanisms of lipid metabolic inflexibility in human obesity and the ability of fenofibrate (FENO) to increase skeletal muscle fatty acid oxidation (FAO) in primary human skeletal muscle cell cultures (HSkMC) exhibiting metabolic inflexibility. HSkMC from 10 lean and 10 obese, insulin resistant subjects were treated with excess fatty acid for 24 h (24hFA) to gauge lipid-related metabolic flexibility. Metabolically inflexible HSkMC from obese individuals were then treated with 24hFA in combination with FENO to determine effectiveness for increasing FAO...
January 2017: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103621/development-and-validation-of-a-training-module-on-the-use-of-acetic-acid-for-the-detection-of-barrett-s-neoplasia
#2
Fergus J Q Chedgy, Kesavan Kandiah, Hugh Barr, Simon Dwerryhouse, Balint Eross, Charles Gordon, Susi Green, Andy Li, James Brown, Gaius Longcroft-Wheaton, Pradeep Bhandari
Background and study aims Acetic acid chromoendoscopy (AAC) enhances the ability to correctly identify Barrett's neoplasia, and is increasingly used by both expert and nonexpert endoscopists. Despite its increasing use, there is no validated training strategy to achieve competence. The aims of our study were to develop a validated training tool in AAC-assisted lesion recognition, to assess endoscopists' baseline knowledge of AAC-assisted lesion recognition, and to evaluate the efficacy and impact of this training tool...
January 19, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103620/a-novel-and-effective-delivery-method-for-polyglycolic-acid-sheets-to-post-endoscopic-submucosal-dissection-ulcers
#3
Toshitatsu Takao, Yoshitaka Takegawa, Hiroyuki Ono, Madoka Takao, Shiro Oka, Noriko Shinya, Hiromu Kutsumi, Takeshi Azuma
Background and aims Shielding methods for post-endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) ulcers have delivery-related problems. We developed an enveloped device for this purpose and evaluated its usefulness. Materials and methods Polyglycolic acid (PGA) sheets were delivered to six 3.0-cm ulcers in two resected porcine stomachs and six 5.0-cm ulcers in another three stomachs. In the regular method group, small PGA sheets were delivered via forceps. In the novel method group, a large PGA sheet was delivered via the new device...
January 19, 2017: Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103592/influences-of-various-peptide-linkers-on-the-thermotoga-maritima-msb8-nitrilase-displayed-on-the-spore-surface-of-bacillus-subtilis
#4
Huayou Chen, Zhi Chen, Bangguo Wu, Jawad Ullah, Tianxi Zhang, Jinru Jia, Hongcheng Wang, Tianwei Tan
In the present study, fusion genes composed of Thermotoga maritima MSB8 nitrilase and Bacillus subtilis 168 outer coat protein CotG were constructed with various peptide linkers and displayed on B. subtilis DB 403 spores. The successful display of CotG-nit fusion proteins on the spore surface of B. subtilis was verified by Western blot analysis and activity measurement. It was demonstrated that the fusion with linker GGGGSEAAAKGGGGS presented the highest thermal and pH stability, which is 2.67- and 1.9-fold of the fusion without linker...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Molecular Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103571/identification-of-aurintricarboxylic-acid-as-a-selective-inhibitor-of-the-tweak-fn14-signaling-pathway-in-glioblastoma-cells
#5
Alison Roos, Harshil D Dhruv, Ian T Mathews, Landon J Inge, Serdar Tuncali, Lauren K Hartman, Donald Chow, Nghia Millard, Holly H Yin, Jean Kloss, Joseph C Loftus, Jeffrey A Winkles, Michael E Berens, Nhan L Tran
The survival of patients diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM), the most deadly form of brain cancer, is compromised by the proclivity for local invasion into the surrounding normal brain, which prevents complete surgical resection and contributes to therapeutic resistance. Tumor necrosis factor-like weak inducer of apoptosis (TWEAK), a member of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF) superfamily, can stimulate glioma cell invasion and survival via binding to fibroblast growth factor-inducible 14 (Fn14) and subsequent activation of the transcription factor NF-κB...
January 17, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103535/down-regulation-of-histone-deacetylase-4-5-and-6-as-a-mechanism-of-synergistic-enhancement-of-apoptosis-in-human-lung-cancer-cells-treated-with-the-combination-of-a-synthetic-retinoid-am80-and-green-tea-catechin
#6
Yukiko Oya, Anupom Mondal, Anchalee Rawangkan, Sonthaya Umsumarng, Keisuke Iida, Tatsuro Watanabe, Miki Kanno, Kaori Suzuki, Zhenghao Li, Hiroyuki Kagechika, Koichi Shudo, Hirota Fujiki, Masami Suganuma
(-)-Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), a green tea catechin, acts as a synergist with various anticancer drugs, including retinoids. Am80 is a synthetic retinoid with a different structure from all-trans-retinoic acid: Am80 is now clinically utilized as a new drug for relapsed and intractable acute promyelocytic leukemia patients. Our experiments showed that the combination of EGCG and Am80 synergistically induced both apoptosis in human lung cancer cell line PC-9 and up-regulated expressions of growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gene 153 (GADD153), death receptor 5, and p21(waf1) genes in the cells...
January 8, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103530/an-anti-oxidant-%C3%AE-lipoic-acid-conjugated-oleoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholineas-a-helper-lipid-in-cationic-liposomal-formulations
#7
Priya Dharmalingam, Balakrishna Marrapu, Chandrashekhar Voshavar, Rasagna Nadella, Vignesh Kumar Rangasami, R V Shaji, Salar Abbas, R B N Prasad, Shiva Shanker Kaki, Srujan Marepally
Development of safe non-viral carrier systems for efficient intra-cellular delivery of drugs and genes hold promise in the area of translational research. Liposome based delivery systems have emerged as one of the attractive strategies for efficient delivery of drugs and nucleic acids. To this end, number of investigations was carried on liposomal formulations using lipids for achieving higher efficiency in transfection with lower cytotoxicities. In our efforts to develop safer and efficient liposomal delivery systems, we synthesized a novel anti-oxidant lipid, α-lipoyl, oleyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (LOPC) and used as a helper lipid in combination with a cationic amphiphile, Di-Stearyl Dihydroxy Ethyl Ammonium Chloride (DSDEAC) and 1,2-dioleoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DOPC) at varying concentrations of LOPC...
January 10, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103529/improving-osteogenesis-of-three-dimensional-porous-scaffold-based-on-mineralized-recombinant-human-like-collagen-via-mussel-inspired-polydopamine-and-effective-immobilization-of-bmp-2-derived-peptide
#8
Jing Zhou, Xiaodong Guo, Qixin Zheng, Yongchao Wu, Fuzai Cui, Bin Wu
An ideal bone substitute should be biocompatible, biodegradable, osteoinductive and osteoconductive. In our previous work, we fabricated a three-dimensional porous scaffold based on mineralized recombinant human-like collagen, nano-hydroxyapatite/recombinant human-like collagen/poly(lactic acid) (nHA/RHLC/PLA). Like other HA/collagen scaffolds, the nHA/RHLC/PLA scaffold lacked osteoinductive bioactivity. The purpose of the present study was to develop a polydopamine (pDA)-assisted BMP-2-derived peptide (designated as P24) surface modification strategy for improving the osteogenesis of the nHA/RHLC/PLA scaffold...
January 4, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103515/strong-synergistic-effects-in-pla-pcl-blends-impact-of-pla-matrix-viscosity
#9
Aleksandra Ostafinska, Ivan Fortelný, Jiří Hodan, Sabina Krejčíková, Martina Nevoralová, Jana Kredatusová, Zdeněk Kruliš, Jiří Kotek, Miroslav Šlouf
Blends of two biodegradable polymers, poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and poly(ϵ-caprolactone) (PCL), with strong synergistic improvement in mechanical performance were prepared by melt-mixing using the optimized composition (80/20) and the optimized preparation procedure (a melt-mixing followed by a compression molding) according to our previous study. Three different PLA polymers were employed, whose viscosity decreased in the following order: PLC ≈ PLA1 > PLA2 > PLA3. The blends with the highest viscosity matrix (PLA1/PCL) exhibited the smallest PCL particles (d∼0...
January 10, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103508/the-mechanism-of-alopolysaccharide-protecting-ulceralive-colitis
#10
Hu Lin, Li Honglang, Li Weifeng, Chen Junmin, Yang Jiantao, Gu Junjing
The aim of this study is to explain the mechanism of alopolysaccharide protecting ulceralive colitis in cells and animal models. We divided this study into two parts: cell and animal research parts. In the cell research, HT-29 cells were divided into normal group, model group, aloe polysacchride group and positive drug group, the cell model was used by tumor necrosis factor- α (TNF-α) combine with LPS, detecting IL-6 concentration of difference groups by Elisa testing, Apoptosis of each group was detected by flow cytometry...
January 16, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103497/host-microbiota-interactions-epigenomic-regulation
#11
REVIEW
Vivienne Woo, Theresa Alenghat
The coevolution of mammalian hosts and their commensal microbiota has led to the development of complex symbiotic relationships between resident microbes and mammalian cells. Epigenomic modifications enable host cells to alter gene expression without modifying the genetic code, and therefore represent potent mechanisms by which mammalian cells can transcriptionally respond, transiently or stably, to environmental cues. Advances in genome-wide approaches are accelerating our appreciation of microbial influences on host physiology, and increasing evidence highlights that epigenomics represent a level of regulation by which the host integrates and responds to microbial signals...
January 16, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103487/a-turn-on-thiol-functionalized-fluorescent-carbon-quantum-dot-based-chemosensory-system-for-arsenite-detection
#12
Pooja D, Sonia Saini, Anupma Thakur, Baban Kumar, Sachin Tyagi, Manoj K Nayak
Carbon quantum dots (CQDs) have emerged out as promising fluorescent probes for hazardous heavy metals detection in recent past. In this study, water soluble CQDs were synthesized by facile microwave pyrolysis of citric acid & cysteamine, and functionalized with ditheritheritol to impart thiol functionalities at surface for selective detection of toxic arsenite in water. Microscopic analysis reveals that the synthesized CQDs are of uniform size (diameter ∼5nm) and confirmed to have surface SH groups by FT-IR...
January 12, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103440/carbon-nanotubes-mediate-fusion-of-lipid-vesicles
#13
Ramachandra Moorthy Bhaskara, Stephanie M Linker, Martin Vögele, Juergen Koefinger, Gerhard Hummer
The fusion of lipid membranes is opposed by high energetic barriers. In living organisms, complex protein machineries carry out this biologically essential process. Here we show that membrane-spanning carbon nanotubes (CNTs) can trigger spontaneous fusion of small lipid vesicles. In coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we find that a CNT bridging between two vesicles locally perturbs their lipid structure. Their outer leaflets merge as the CNT pulls lipids out of the membranes, creating an hourglass-shaped fusion intermediate with still intact inner leaflets...
January 19, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103434/analgesic-effect-of-quetiapine-in-a-mouse-model-of-cancer-induced-bone-pain
#14
Mi Hwa Heo, Jin Young Kim, Ilseon Hwang, Eunyoung Ha, Keon Uk Park
Background/Aims: Cancer-induced bone pain (CIBP) is one of the most common pains in patients with advanced neoplasms. Because of treatment-associated side effects, more than half of cancer patients are reported to have inadequate and undermanaged pain control. New mechanism-based therapies must be developed to reduce cancer pain. Quetiapine is a commonly used atypical antipsychotic drug. We report a study of the potential analgesic effects of quetiapine in a mouse model of CIBP and examine the mechanism of bone pain by analyzing the expression of various nociceptors...
January 20, 2017: Korean Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103388/climbazole-boosts-activity-of-retinoids-in-skin
#15
Jean Adamus, Li Feng, Stacy Hawkins, Kristopher Kalleberg, Jian-Ming Lee
OBJECTIVE: To explore if climbazole enhances retinoid-associated biological activities in vitro and in vivo. METHODS: Primary human dermal fibroblasts (HDFs) were treated from six to 48 hours with either retinoids (retinol, retinyl propionate, retinyl palmitate) alone or in combination with climbazole, then assessed for cellular retinoic acid-binding protein 2 (CRABP2) mRNA expression by RT-qPCR. Next, skin equivalent (SE) cultures were topically treated with a retinol or retinyl propionate, and with or without climbazole, then measured for biological changes in retinoid biomarkers...
January 19, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103327/isolation-characterization-and-evaluation-of-collagen-from-jellyfish-rhopilema-esculentum-kishinouye-for-use-in-hemostatic-applications
#16
Xiaochen Cheng, Ziyu Shao, Chengbo Li, Lejun Yu, Mazhar Ali Raja, Chenguang Liu
Hemostat has been a crucial focus since human body is unable to control massive blood loss, and collagen proves to be an effective hemostat in previous studies. In this study, collagen was isolated from the mesoglea of jellyfish Rhopilema esculentum Kishinouye and its hemostatic property was studied. The yields of acid-soluble collagen (ASC) and pepsin-soluble (PSC) were 0.12% and 0.28% respectively. The SDS-PAGE patterns indicated that the collagen extracted from jellyfish mesoglea was type I collagen. The lyophilized jellyfish collagen sponges were cross-linked with EDC and interconnected networks in the sponges were revealed by scanning electron microscope (SEM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103323/the-complete-genome-sequence-of-a-second-distinct-betabaculovirus-from-the-true-armyworm-mythimna-unipuncta
#17
Robert L Harrison, Daniel L Rowley, Joseph Mowery, Gary R Bauchan, David A Theilmann, George F Rohrmann, Martin A Erlandson
The betabaculovirus originally called Pseudaletia (Mythimna) sp. granulovirus #8 (MyspGV#8) was examined by electron microscopy, host barcoding PCR, and determination of the nucleotide sequence of its genome. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy revealed that the occlusion bodies of MyspGV#8 possessed the characteristic size range and morphology of betabaculovirus granules. Barcoding PCR using cytochrome oxidase I primers with DNA from the MyspGV#8 collection sample confirmed that it had been isolated from the true armyworm, Mythimna unipuncta (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) and therefore was renamed MyunGV#8...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103315/multiple-acid-sensors-control-helicobacter-pylori-colonization-of-the-stomach
#18
Julie Y Huang, Emily Goers Sweeney, Karen Guillemin, Manuel R Amieva
Helicobacter pylori's ability to respond to environmental cues in the stomach is integral to its survival. By directly visualizing H. pylori swimming behavior when encountering a microscopic gradient consisting of the repellent acid and attractant urea, we found that H. pylori is able to simultaneously detect both signals, and its response depends on the magnitudes of the individual signals. By testing for the bacteria's response to a pure acid gradient, we discovered that the chemoreceptors TlpA and TlpD are each independent acid sensors...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103313/mycobacterium-marinum-degrades-both-triacylglycerols-and-phospholipids-from-its-dictyostelium-host-to-synthesise-its-own-triacylglycerols-and-generate-lipid-inclusions
#19
Caroline Barisch, Thierry Soldati
During a tuberculosis infection and inside lipid-laden foamy macrophages, fatty acids (FAs) and sterols are the major energy and carbon source for Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Mycobacteria can be found both inside a vacuole and the cytosol, but how this impacts their access to lipids is not well appreciated. Lipid droplets (LDs) store FAs in form of triacylglycerols (TAGs) and are energy reservoirs of prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Using the Dictyostelium discoideum/Mycobacterium marinum infection model we showed that M...
January 2017: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103304/correction-the-fatty-acid-synthase-inhibitor-platensimycin-improves-insulin-resistance-without-inducing-liver-steatosis-in-mice-and-monkeys
#20
Sheo B Singh, Ling Kang, Andrea R Nawrocki, Dan Zhou, Margaret Wu, Stephen Previs, Corey Miller, Haiying Liu, Catherine D G Hines, Maria Madeira, Jin Cao, Kithsiri Herath, Larry D Spears, Clay F Semenkovich, Liangsu Wang, David E Kelley, Cai Li, Hong-Ping Guan
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0164133.].
2017: PloS One
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