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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352769/resolvin-e1-resolvin-d1-and-resolvin-d2-inhibit-constriction-of-rat-thoracic-aorta-and-human-pulmonary-artery-induced-by-the-thromboxane-mimetic-u46619
#1
Melanie Jannaway, Christopher Torrens, Jane A Warner, Anthony P Sampson
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Omega-6 fatty acid-derived lipid mediators such as prostanoids, thromboxane and leukotrienes have well-established roles in regulating both inflammation and smooth muscle contractility. Resolvins are derived from omega-3 fatty acids and have important roles in promoting the resolution of inflammation, but their activity on smooth muscle contractility is unknown. We investigated whether resolvin E1 (RvE1), resolvin D1 (RvD1) and resolvin D2 (RvD2) can modulate contractions of isolated segments of rat thoracic aorta (RTA) or human pulmonary artery (HPA) induced by the α1 -adrenoceptor agonist phenylephrine or the stable thromboxane A2 mimetic U46619...
January 20, 2018: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352749/tips-for-optimizing-organ-preservation-solutions
#2
Aneta Ostróżka-Cieślik, Barbara Dolińska, Florian Ryszka
Organ injury during ischemia is one of the clinical problems of today's transplantation. It occurs during warm ischemia time (WIT) when the blood flow is cut off and during cold ischemia when a graft is chilled in situ until the circulation is restored to the recipient organism. Fast cooling of the organ slows down metabolism and activates intracellular enzymes, which minimizes the effects of warm ischemia. Unfortunately, hypothermia also results in inhibition of ATP synthesis, cell swelling and intracellular acidity...
January 20, 2018: Acta Biochimica Polonica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352745/negative-supercoiling-of-dna-by-gyrase-is-inhibited-in-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-during-adaptation-to-acid-stress
#3
Aoife M Colgan, Heather J Quinn, Stefani C Kary, Lesley A Mitchenall, Anthony Maxwell, Andrew Ds Cameron, Charles J Dorman
DNA in intracellular Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium relaxes during growth in the acidified (pH 4 to 5) macrophage vacuole and DNA relaxation correlates with upregulation of Salmonella genes involved in adaptation to the macrophage environment. Bacterial ATP levels did not increase during adaptation to acid pH unless the bacterium was deficient in MgtC, a cytoplasmic-membrane-located inhibitor of proton-driven F1 F0 ATP synthase activity. Inhibiting ATP binding by DNA gyrase and topo IV with novobiocin enhanced the effect of low pH on DNA relaxation...
January 20, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352709/analysis-of-gut-microbiota-diversity-and-auxiliary-diagnosis-as-a-biomarker-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-cross-sectional-study
#4
Yang Shen, Jintian Xu, Zhiyong Li, Yichen Huang, Ye Yuan, Jixiang Wang, Meng Zhang, Songnian Hu, Ying Liang
With the advent of sequencing technology, characterization of schizophrenia with underlying probing of gut microbiome can provide abundant clues for diagnosis and prognosis of schizophrenia. In this study, we first compared the difference of gut microbiota between schizophrenia patients and healthy controls by 16S rRNA sequencing. We further explored whether gut microbiota can be used as a biomarker to assist in the diagnosis of schizophrenia. We restricted inclusion criteria strictly to control confounding bias...
January 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352661/mechanistic-insights-into-the-genetics-of-affective-psychosis-from-prader-willi-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Lucie C S Aman, Katherine E Manning, Joyce E Whittington, Anthony J Holland
Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are common, severe, and disabling psychotic disorders, which are difficult to research. We argue that the genetically determined neurodevelopmental disorder Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS), which is associated with a high risk of affective psychotic illness, can provide a window into genetic mechanisms and associated neural pathways. People with PWS can all show non-psychotic psychopathology and problem behaviours, but the prevalence of psychotic illness differs markedly by genetic subtype; people with PWS due to chromosome 15 maternal uniparental disomy have higher prevalence of psychotic illness compared with patients with PWS due to 15q11-13 deletions of paternal origin...
January 15, 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352654/resistance-training-during-a-12-week-protein-supplemented-vlcd-treatment-enhances-weight-loss-outcomes-in-obese-patients
#6
Edward Jo, Phillip R Worts, Marcus L Elam, Ann Frost Brown, Andy V Khamoui, Do-Houn Kim, Ming-Chia Yeh, Michael J Ormsbee, Carla M Prado, Angelina Cain, Katie Snyder, Jeong-Su Kim
BACKGROUND: This investigation evaluated the efficacy by which resistance training enhances body composition, metabolic, and functional outcomes for obese patients undergoing a 12-week medically supervised hypocaloric treatment. METHODS: This was a single-blind, randomized, parallel-group prospective trial. Morbidly obese patients were prescribed a 12-week proprietary very low calorie diet (VLCD) treatment (Optifast®) with supplemental protein (1120 kcals/day) and were placed in one of two groups for 14 weeks: 1) Standard Treatment Control (CON) (n = 5) or 2) Resistance Training (RT) (n = 6)...
December 23, 2017: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352651/catheter-injected-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-induce-efficacious-occlusion-of-arteriovenous-nidus-in-a-swine-model
#7
Joseph Touma, Jianping Dai, Andre Gaston, Marianne Gervais, Eric Allaire
OBJECTIVES: Arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are complex vascular lesions. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice, but is often not achievable. Embolo-sclerotherapy alone is associated with high recurrence rates. This study tested the hypothesis that seeding hydrogel conditioned bone marrow derived mesenchymatous stem cells (BM-MSCs) in an AVM nidus model induces solid microvascular occlusion through endoluminal tissue growth. METHODS: AVMs were modelled as arteriovenous microvascular nidus, using swine rete mirabile, a plexiform intracranial structure composed of arterial microvessels that extensively anastomose...
January 15, 2018: European Journal of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352645/diversity-oriented-synthesis-of-chromene-xanthene-hybrids-as-anti-breast-cancer-agents
#8
M Srinivas Lavanya Kumar, Jyotsana Singh, Sudipta Kumar Manna, Saroj Maji, Rituraj Konwar, Gautam Panda
A diverse library of chromene-xanthene hybrids were synthesized through intramolecular Friedel-Crafts reaction of the arenoxy carbinols. Examples include first incorporation of amino acid tyrosine into xanthene skeletons with polar functionalities. A careful structural evaluation revealed that tyrosine crafted chromene-xanthene hybrids exhibited good activities against breast cancer cell lines MCF-7, MDA-MB-231. The lead compound 16 displays significant cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and induces apoptosis in MDA-MB-231 cells...
January 6, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352513/morbid-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes-alter-intestinal-fatty-acid-uptake-and-blood-flow
#9
Jukka Koffert, Mia Ståhle, Henry Karlsson, Patricia Iozzo, Paulina Salminen, Anne Roivainen, Pirjo Nuutila
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Bariatric surgery is the most effective treatment to tackle morbid obesity and type 2 diabetes, but the mechanisms of action are still unclear. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of bariatric surgery on intestinal fatty acid (FA) uptake and blood flow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We recruited 27 morbidly obese subjects of which 10 had type 2 diabetes and 15 healthy age-matched controls. Intestinal blood flow and fatty acid uptake from circulation were measured during fasting state using positron emission tomography (PET)...
January 20, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352497/redox-potential-an-intrinsic-parameter-of-the-rumen-environment
#10
REVIEW
Y Huang, J P Marden, C Julien, C Bayourthe
The ruminal ecosystem is a fermentative milieu which is interesting to discuss in terms of its redox status as a reflection of an intense bacterial activity. The objective of this systematic literature review is to quantitatively analyze data collected on redox potential (Eh) in the rumen and to explore relationship between ruminal Eh, nature of the diet fed to ruminants, and ruminal fermentation parameters. Data obtained from 15 studies comprising 24 different diets was used in the analysis. Studies included in the data file were selected based on the criteria of: (i) the nature of the reference electrode was specified, (ii) the ruminal Eh was recorded simultaneously to pH, (iii) animal body weight (BW) and dry matter intake (DMI) were reported and (iv) the composition of the diet was precisely described...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352469/amoxicillin-current-use-in-swine-medicine
#11
REVIEW
D G S Burch, D Sperling
Amoxicillin has become a major antimicrobial substance in pig medicine for the treatment and control of severe, systemic infections such as Streptococcus suis. The minimum inhibitory concentration 90% (MIC 90) is 0.06 μg amoxicillin/ml, and the proposed epidemiological cut-off value (ECOFF) is 0.5 μg/ml, giving only 0.7% of isolates above the ECOFF or of reduced susceptibility. Clinical breakpoints have not been set for amoxicillin against porcine pathogens yet, hence the use of ECOFFs. It has also been successfully used for bacterial respiratory infections caused by Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae and Pasteurella multocida...
January 19, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Pharmacology and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352462/effect-of-methyl-salicylate-in-combination-with-1-methylcyclopropene-on-postharvest-quality-and-decay-caused-by-botrytis-cinerea-in-tomato-fruit
#12
Dedong Min, Fujun Li, Xinhua Zhang, Pan Shu, Xixi Cui, Lulu Dong, Chuntao Ren, Demei Meng, Jian Li
BACKGROUND: Postharvest diseases result in major losses in fruits. Tomato is susceptible to postharvest rot caused by B. cinerea and is regarded as a good model system to study postharvest disease and quality deterioration in fruit. To develop a safe and effective technique to alleviate disease and maintain fruit quality, the effects of methyl salicylate (MeSA) or 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) either separately or combined on quality and gray mold caused by B. cinerea in tomato fruit were investigated...
January 20, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352428/hnf4%C3%AE-is-involved-in-the-regulation-of-vertebrate-lc-pufa-biosynthesis-insights-into-the-regulatory-role-of-hnf4%C3%AE-on-expression-of-liver-fatty-acyl-desaturases-in-the-marine-teleost-siganus-canaliculatus
#13
Shuqi Wang, Junliang Chen, Danli Jiang, Qinghao Zhang, Cuihong You, Douglas R Tocher, Óscar Monroig, Yewei Dong, Yuanyou Li
Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LC-PUFA) biosynthesis is an important metabolic pathway in vertebrates, especially fish, considering they are the major source of n-3 LC-PUFA in the human diet. However, most fish have only limited capability for biosynthesis of LC-PUFA. The rabbitfish (Siganus canaliculatus) is able to synthesize LC-PUFA as it has all the key enzyme activities required including Δ6Δ5 Fads2, Δ4 Fads2, Elovl5, and Elovl4. We previously reported a direct interaction between the transcription factor Hnf4α and the promoter regions of Δ4 and Δ6Δ5 Fads2, which suggested that Hnf4α was involved in the transcriptional regulation of fads2 in rabbitfish...
January 19, 2018: Fish Physiology and Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352398/efficient-biosynthesis-of-l-phenylglycine-by-an-engineered-escherichia-coli-with-a-tunable-multi-enzyme-coordinate-expression-system
#14
Qiaoli Liu, Junping Zhou, Taowei Yang, Xian Zhang, Meijuan Xu, Zhiming Rao
Whole-cell catalysis with co-expression of two or more enzymes in a single host as a simple low-cost biosynthesis method has been widely studied and applied but hardly with regulation of multi-enzyme expression. Here we developed an efficient whole-cell catalyst for biosynthesis of L-phenylglycine (L-Phg) from benzoylformic acid through co-expression of leucine dehydrogenase from Bacillus cereus (BcLeuDH) and NAD+-dependent mutant formate dehydrogenase from Candida boidinii (CbFDHA10C) in Escherichia coli with tunable multi-enzyme-coordinate expression system...
January 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352397/bio-prospectus-of-cadmium-bioadsorption-by-lactic-acid-bacteria-to-mitigate-health-and-environmental-impacts
#15
REVIEW
Narendra Kumar, Vandna Kumari, Chand Ram, Kiran Thakur, Sudhir Kumar Tomar
Foodstuffs and water are the key sources of cadmium biomagnifiaction. The available strategies to mitigate this problem are unproductive and expensive for practical large-scale use. Biological decontamination of metals through environmental microbes has been known since long time, whereas lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have not been extensively studied for this purpose. The LAB are known for maintaining homeostasis and suppression of pathogens in humans and animals. They also play a vital role in bioremediation of certain heavy metals...
January 19, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352387/current-perspectives-on-erythema-multiforme
#16
REVIEW
Marianne Lerch, Carlo Mainetti, Benedetta Terziroli Beretta-Piccoli, Thomas Harr
Recognition and timely adequate treatment of erythema multiforme remain a major challenge. In this review, current diagnostic guidelines, potential pitfalls, and modern/novel treatment options are summarized with the aim to help clinicians with diagnostic and therapeutic decision-making. The diagnosis of erythema multiforme, that has an acute, self-limiting course, is based on its typical clinical picture of targetoid erythematous lesions with predominant acral localization as well as histological findings...
January 19, 2018: Clinical Reviews in Allergy & Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352348/metarhizium-anisopliae-s-l-modulation-of-lipid-metabolism-during-tick-infection-is-independent-of-ampk-and-erk-pathways
#17
Fillipe A Sá, Caio Junior B Coutinho-Rodrigues, Isabele C Angelo, Jéssica P Fiorotti, Georgia C Atella, Vânia Rita E P Bittencourt, Mário Alberto C Silva-Neto
Despite the importance of fat body in metabolism of arthropods, studies in ticks are scarce. This study evaluated the lipid composition and activation of extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) enzymes in Rhipicephalus microplus fat body after infection with different isolates of the fungus Metarhizium anisopliae sensu lato (Metschnikoff, 1879) Sorokin, 1883. The isolates CG 32, GC 112, GC 148, GC 347, and GC 629 were inoculated as viable or non-viable conidia in the ticks...
January 19, 2018: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352320/high-level-production-and-purification-in-a-functional-state-of-an-extrasynaptic-gamma-aminobutyric-acid-type-a-receptor-containing-%C3%AE-4%C3%AE-3%C3%AE-subunits
#18
Xiaojuan Zhou, Rooma Desai, Yinghui Zhang, Wojciech J Stec, Keith W Miller, Youssef Jounaidi
The inhibitory γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptors are implicated in numerous physiological processes, including cognition and inhibition of neurotransmission, rendering them important molecular targets for many classes of drugs. Functionally, the entire GABAAR family of receptors can be subdivided into phasic, fast acting synaptic receptors, composed of α-, β- and γ-subunits, and tonic extrasynaptic receptors, many of which contain the δ-subunit in addition to α- and β-subunits. Whereas the subunit arrangement of the former group is agreed upon, that of the αβδ GABAARs remains unresolved by electrophysiological and pharmacological research...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352319/activation-of-pi3k-akt-and-erk-during-early-rotavirus-infection-leads-to-v-atpase-dependent-endosomal-acidification-required-for-uncoating
#19
Mahmoud Soliman, Ja-Young Seo, Deok-Song Kim, Ji-Yun Kim, Jun-Gyu Park, Mia Madel Alfajaro, Yeong-Bin Baek, Eun-Hyo Cho, Joseph Kwon, Jong-Soon Choi, Mun-Il Kang, Sang-Ik Park, Kyoung-Oh Cho
The cellular PI3K/Akt and/or MEK/ERK signaling pathways mediate the entry process or endosomal acidification during infection of many viruses. However, their roles in the early infection events of group A rotaviruses (RVAs) have remained elusive. Here, we show that late-penetration (L-P) human DS-1 and bovine NCDV RVA strains stimulate these signaling pathways very early in the infection. Inhibition of both signaling pathways significantly reduced production of viral progeny due to blockage of virus particles in the late endosome, indicating that neither of the two signaling pathways is involved in virus trafficking...
January 19, 2018: PLoS Pathogens
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352300/5-aminosalicylic-acid-improves-lipid-profile-in-mice-fed-a-high-fat-cholesterol-diet-through-its-dual-effects-on-intestinal-ppar%C3%AE-and-ppar%C3%AE
#20
Zheng Wang, Debby Koonen, Marten Hofker, Zhijun Bao
Obesity is associated with a series of metabolic complications, including dyslipidemia and insulin resistance (IR) that lack effective therapies. In recent years, intestinal inflammation has been suggested to contribute to obesity related metabolic syndrome and targeting gut inflammation with 5-ASA improves diet induced IR, however, its role in dyslipidemia is unknown and has never been explored. In the present study, we reported for the first time that administration of 5-ASA for 12 weeks significantly improved lipid profile by repressing plasma triglycerides and free cholesterol levels in mice fed high-fat cholesterol diet (HFC)...
2018: PloS One
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