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Medical Application

Wolfgang Geidl, Chelsea Gobster, René Streber, Klaus Pfeifer
OBJECTIVE: This paper aims to evaluate the quality of clinical guidelines (CGs) for MS and to critically appraise physical activity-related recommendations. DATA SOURCES: Medical databases (MEDLINE, TRIP), clearinghouses, and guideline developers. An expert was asked to confirm if the list of CGs was complete. STUDY SELECTION: Evidence-based CGs specific to MS with recommendations including aspects of rehabilitation or physical activity were included...
August 3, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Subir Ghosh, Sylvester Abanteriba, Sherman Wong, Shadi Houshyar
A significant number of hip replacements (HR) fail permanently despite the success of the medical procedure, due to wear and progressive loss of osseointegration of implants. An ideal model should consist of materials with a high resistance to wear and with good biocompatibility. This study aims to develop a new method of grafting the surface of selective laser melted (SLM) titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) with poly (2-methacryloyloxyethyl phosphorylcholine) (PMPC), to improve the surface properties and biocompatibility of the implant...
July 24, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Xin Wu, Hui Li, Ning Xiao
Medication obstruction of microscopic organisms has turned into a worldwide medical issue, as it makes the ordinary anti-toxins less effective. It is desperately expected to investigate novel antibacterial materials and create viable treatment techniques to defeat the medication obstruction of anti-infection agents. Herein, we effectively fabricated silver nanoparticles improved proline/graphene oxide nano-flakes (GO-Pro/n-Ag) as novel anti-pathogenic substance through simplistic technique. The property of the silver nanoparticles activated discharge gave amazing antibacterial and antifungal movement against the pathogenic microorganism...
July 18, 2018: Journal of Photochemistry and Photobiology. B, Biology
Yu Tian, Yong Shang, Dan-Yang Tong, Sheng-Qiang Chi, Jun Li, Xiang-Xing Kong, Ke-Feng Ding, Jing-Song Li
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Clinical prognosis prediction plays an important role in clinical research and practice. The construction of prediction models based on electronic health record data has recently become a research focus. Due to the lack of external validation, prediction models based on single-center, hospital-specific datasets may not perform well with datasets from other medical institutions. Therefore, research investigating prognosis prediction model construction based on a collaborative analysis of multi-center electronic health record data could increase the number and coverage of patients used for model training, enrich patient prognostic features and ultimately improve the accuracy and generalization of prognosis prediction...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Informatics
Yuan Hong, Marco Geraci, Margaret A Turk, Bryan L Love, Suzanne W McDermott
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the opioid prescription patterns for adults with longstanding physical disability and inflammatory conditions, compared to a mixed group of other opioid users, after excluding cancer patients. DESIGN: Nationally representative cross-sectional study, 2010-2014 SETTING: Medical Expenditure Panel Survey (MEPS) PARTICIPANTS: The subjects were adults who participated in MEPS and had at least one opioid prescription, did not have cancer, and were between 18 years and 64 years of age...
August 10, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
Dongmei Liu, Min Yang, Qingqing Wu
The morbidity of cesarean scar pregnancy (CSP) has shown an obvious ascending tendency with the increase of cesarean delivery in China and other countries. The timely diagnosis and treatment of CSP currently relies on medical imaging technology. In this article, we analyzed and compare the imaging methods in diagnosis of CSP. The imaging methods to diagnose CSP include traditional two-dimensional color/power Doppler ultrasound (2D-US), three-dimensional color/power Doppler ultrasound (3D-US), contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS), and Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI)...
August 10, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
Lena Alsabban, Felix Jose Amarista, Louis G Mercuri, Daniel Perez
PURPOSE: Idiopathic condylar resorption (ICR) is a relatively uncommon condition. Its diagnosis, etiology, and management options are controversial. Furthermore, it is difficult for 1 provider to collect a large cohort of ICR patients to develop a statistically significant study of these concerns. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to survey experienced temporomandibular joint (TMJ) surgeons who have managed ICR cases relative to these concerns, as well as review the management outcome literature...
July 19, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Sebastião van Uden, Valentina Catto, Giovanni Perotto, Athanassia Athanassiou, Alberto C L Redaelli, Francesco G Greco, Stefania A Riboldi
Several attempts made so far to combine silk fibroin and polyurethane, in order to prepare scaffolds encompassing the bioactivity of the former with the elasticity of the latter, suffer from critical drawbacks concerning industrial and clinical applicability (e.g., separation of phases upon processing, use of solvents unaddressed by the European Pharmacopoeia, and use of degradable polyurethanes). Overcoming these limitations, in this study, we report the successful blending of regenerated silk fibroin with a medical-grade, non-degradable polyurethane using formic acid and dichloromethane, and the manufacturing of hybrid, semi-degradable electrospun tubular meshes with different ratios of the two materials...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Jeffrey Kaye, Christina Reynolds, Molly Bowman, Nicole Sharma, Thomas Riley, Ona Golonka, Jonathan Lee, Charlie Quinn, Zachary Beattie, Johanna Austin, Adriana Seelye, Katherine Wild, Nora Mattek
An end-to-end suite of technologies has been established for the unobtrusive and continuous monitoring of health and activity changes occurring in the daily life of older adults over extended periods of time. The technology is aggregated into a system that incorporates the principles of being minimally obtrusive, while generating secure, privacy protected, continuous objective data in real-world (home-based) settings for months to years. The system includes passive infrared presence sensors placed throughout the home, door contact sensors installed on exterior doors, connected physiological monitoring devices (such as scales), medication boxes, and wearable actigraphs...
July 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
B B Bruijns, R M Tiggelaar, J G E Gardeniers
DNA sequencing, starting with Sanger chain termination in 1977 and evolving into the next generation sequencing (NGS) techniques of today that employ massively parallel sequencing (MPS), has become essential in application areas such as biotechnology, virology and medical diagnostics. Also in the forensic field these techniques have gained attention, reflected by the growing number of articles published over the last 2-3 years. This review contains a brief description of first, second and third generation sequencing techniques, and focuses on the recent developments in human DNA analysis applicable in the forensic field...
August 13, 2018: Electrophoresis
Benjamin C K Tee, Jianyong Ouyang
Flexible/stretchable electronic devices and systems are attracting great attention because they can have important applications in many areas, such as artificial intelligent (AI) robotics, brain-machine interfaces, medical devices, structural and environmental monitoring, and healthcare. In addition to the electronic performance, the electronic devices and systems should be mechanically flexible or even stretchable. Traditional electronic materials including metals and semiconductors usually have poor mechanical flexibility and very limited elasticity...
August 13, 2018: Advanced Materials
Ahmet Ulu, Samir Abbas Ali Noma, Suleyman Koytepe, Burhan Ates
This paper describes a new support that permits to efficient immobilization of L-asparaginase (L-ASNase). For this purpose, Fe3 O4 magnetic nanoparticles were synthesized and coated by MCM-41. 3-chloropropyltrimethoxysilane (CPTMS) was used as a surface modifying agent for covalent immobilization of L-ASNase on the magnetic nanoparticles. The chemical structure; thermal, morphological, and magnetic properties; chemical composition; and zeta potential value of Fe3 O4 @MCM-41-Cl were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential thermal analysis (DTA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM), scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray (EDX), X-ray diffraction patterns (XRD), and zeta-potential measurement...
August 13, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Timothy J Bauler, Shanna Cole, Tyler Gibb, Richard Van Enk, Larry Lutwick, Bonny L Dickinson
In medical and healthcare-related education, case-based learning (CBL) is a teaching strategy that uses clinical cases to engage students in active learning using course concepts to solve important problems. Here we describe the design and implementation of a CBL module to teach first year medical students about the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), acute retroviral syndrome, clinical progression to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome, HIV diagnostics, assays used to assess stage of disease and response to antiretroviral treatment, and highly active antiretroviral therapy...
2018: Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education: JMBE
Jie-Qiong Liu, Guang-Yan Cai, Si-Yang Wang, Yu-Huan Song, Yuan-Yuan Xia, Shuang Liang, Wen-Ling Wang, Sa-Sa Nie, Zhe Feng, Xiang-Mei Chen
Objectives: The most serious adverse reaction of cisplatin is acute kidney injury (AKI). Cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (CIA) has no specific preventive measures. This study aims to explore the characteristics and risk factors for CIA in the elderly and to identify potential methods to reduce CIA. Materials and methods: Patients ≥18 years old, with primary tumors, who received initial cisplatin chemotherapy and whose serum creatinine (SCr) values were measured within 2 weeks pre- and postcisplatin treatment and who had complete medical records, were selected from a single center from January 1, 2013 to December 31, 2015...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
Lingyue Sun, Wendy Smith, Abhijit Ghose, Charles Kirkby
Target dose uniformity has been historically an aim of volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) planning. However, for some sites, this may not be strictly necessary and removing this constraint could theoretically improve organ-at-risk (OAR) sparing and tumor control probability (TCP). This study systematically investigates the consequences of PTV dose uniformity that results from the application or removal of an upper dose constraint (UDC) in the inverse planning process for prostate VMAT treatments. OAR sparing, target coverage, hotspots, and plan complexity were compared between prostate VMAT plans with and without the PTV UDC optimized using the progressive resolution optimizer (PRO, Varian Medical Systems, Palo Alto, CA)...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Applied Clinical Medical Physics
Roisin M O'Cearbhaill, Timothy E Murray, Michael J Lee
INTRODUCTION: Trends in medical technology patents provide an objective comparison of research and development between countries and over time. An analysis of these trends can benchmark innovation within Ireland in a worldwide context. By identifying and examining leading countries, domestic educational, infrastructural, regulatory and fiscal planning may be optimised. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Published data filing and granting reports from the two major patent offices (United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and European Patent Office (EPO)) were analysed...
August 11, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Roeland Eppenga, Koert Kuhlmann, Theo Ruers, Jasper Nijkamp
PURPOSE: To evaluate the applicability of the Calypso® wireless transponder tracking system (Varian Medical Systems Inc., USA) for real-time tumor motion tracking during surgical procedures on tumors in non-rigid target areas. An accuracy assessment was performed for an extended electromagnetic field of view (FoV) of 27.5 × 27.5 × 22.5 cm (which included the standard FoV of 14 × 14 × 19 cm) in which 5DOF wireless Beacon® transponders can be tracked. METHODS: Using a custom-made measurement setup, we assessed single transponder relative accuracy, absolute accuracy and jitter throughout the extended FoV at 1440 locations interspaced with 2...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Judy E Stern, Chia-Ling Liu, Howard J Cabral, Elliott G Richards, Charles C Coddington, Stacey A Missmer, Hafsatou Diop
OBJECTIVE: To quantify the effect of medical and obstetrical factors on the odds of cesarean delivery, comparing assisted reproductive technology (ART)-treated women and women with subfertility not treated with ART versus fertile women. DESIGN: Retrospective cohort. SETTING: Not applicable. PATIENT(S): Singleton deliveries to primiparous women; with the source of this data being the Massachusetts vital and hospital records linked to the Society for Assisted Reproductive Technology Clinic Outcome Reporting System data (2004-2010)...
August 2018: Fertility and Sterility
Christoph Gayer, Jessica Abert, Martin Bullemer, Stefanie Grom, Lucas Jauer, Wilhelm Meiners, Frank Reinauer, Marijan Vučak, Konrad Wissenbach, Reinhart Poprawe, Johannes Henrich Schleifenbaum, Horst Fischer
Complex 3D scaffolds with interconnected pores are a promising tool for bone regeneration. Such 3D scaffolds can be manufactured by selective laser sintering (SLS) from biodegradable composite powders. However, the mechanical strength of these scaffolds is often too low for medical application. We propose that the mechanical strength of laser-sintered scaffolds can be improved through composite powders with tailored properties (e.g., suitable powder particle size and melt viscosity for SLS). To prove this, two batches of a poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA)/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) composite powder with 50 wt% PDLLA and 50 wt% β-TCP were synthesized...
July 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Yasemin Budama-Kilinc, Rabia Cakir-Koc, Serda Kecel-Gunduz, Tolga Zorlu, Yagmur Kokcu, Bilge Bicak, Zeynep Karavelioglu, Aysen E Ozel
Papain is a protease enzyme with therapeutic properties that are very valuable for medical applications. Poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) is an ideal polymeric carrier for controlled drug delivery systems due to its low biodegradability and its high biocompatibility. In this study, the three-dimensional structure and action mechanism of papain were investigated by in vitro and in silico experiments using molecular dynamics (MD) and molecular docking methods to elucidate biological functions. The results showed that the size of papain-loaded PCL nanoparticles (NPs) and the polydispersity index (PDI) of the NPs were 242...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Fluorescence
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