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Medical Application

E M Dogan-Guner, H Mohamed, N Orbey, N Goodyear
AIMS: Hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ) disinfection applications are limited by its rapid inactivation. The aims of this study were to 1) microencapsulate H2 O2 in silica hydrogels to obtain controlled release up to 72 hours, 2) test hydrogel antimicrobial activity against four common pathogens, and 3) assess H2 O2 release kinetics and antimicrobial activity in 35 - 65% relative humidity and 37°C to approximate bandaged wound conditions. METHODS AND RESULTS: Hydrogels were characterized using scanning electron microscopy, nitrogen sorption porosimetry, Brunauer Emmet Teller analysis, and the Barret - Joyner - Halenda method...
December 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Microbiology
Takerra Johnson, Lina Zhao, Gygeria Manuel, Herman Taylor, Dong Liu
Ischemic heart disease (IHD) is caused by the narrowing of arteries that work to provide blood, nutrients, and oxygen to the myocardial tissue. The worldwide epidemic of IHD urgently requires innovative treatments despite the significant advances in medical, interventional, and surgical therapies for this disease. Angiogenesis is a physiological and pathophysiological process that initiates vascular growth from pre-existing blood vessels in response to a lack of oxygen. This process occurs naturally over time and has encouraged researchers and clinicians to investigate the outcomes of accelerating or enhancing this angiogenic response as an alternative IHD therapy...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Molecular Medicine: Official Organ of the "Gesellschaft Deutscher Naturforscher und Ärzte"
B Mazzariol, M Karaboue, A Di Luca, N M Di Luca
Enactment of law n. 24, 8th March 2017, (so-called "Gelli-Bianco" law), has given rise to substantial innovations in the realm of medical liability: on the one hand, an attempt has been made towards redefining the boundaries of professional liability, for the purpose of curbing the use of "defensive medicine"; on the other hand, there is the effort to delineate good medical conduct by means of "institutionalization" and a greater degree of consistency of guidelines and good clinical health care practices...
November 2018: La Clinica Terapeutica
Majid Sharifi, Mohammad Reza Avadi, Farnoosh Attar, Fariba Dashtestani, Hedayatollah Ghorchian, Seyed Mahdi Rezayat, Ali Akbar Saboury, Mojtaba Falahati
Cancer is one of the most important causes of mortality in the world, which can be severely reduced by early detection to avoid future problems in the field of economics and mental health. Hence, electrochemical nanobiosensors as portable devices for rapid detection of  cancer biomarkers, have found an important place in clinical medicine for diagnosis, managements or cancer screening. Although, these biosensors have been receiving attention in the recent years, their principles are unchanged. By progress in nanotechnology, a great potential has been giving to nanobiosensors...
November 19, 2018: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Manu Gill, Elizabeth Andersen, Norma Hilsmann
OBJECTIVE: In this systematic review we describe best practices for teaching pharmacology to undergraduate baccalaureate nursing students based on the available evidence. Numerous teaching strategies employed in undergraduate pharmacology courses for nursing students have been summarized and compared for their impact on pharmacology knowledge retention, application of pharmacology theory to practice, and student satisfaction. Future directions for research are discussed. DESIGN: The review was performed using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines for systematic reviews and meta-analyses...
December 7, 2018: Nurse Education Today
Bo Zhi Chen, Yuan Yang, Bei Bei Wang, Mohammad Ashfaq, Xin Dong Guo
Controlled drug-delivery systems have potential as substitutes for traditional medication systems due to the advantages in safety, efficacy, and patient compliance that these long-acting dosage forms provide. In this context, the present study focus on the development of self-implanted hyaluronicacid (HA) tiny needles that encapsulate ivermectin (IVM)-poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles for controlled transdermal IVM release to treat parasitic diseases. The fabricated tiny needles involved matching portable applicator have potentially able for self-administration by patients without intense pain or complexity of current controlled-release devices...
December 13, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Bruna Dos Santos Ramalho, Fernanda Marques Pestana, Caio Andrade Prins, Fellipe Soares Dos Santos Cardoso, Danilo Rufino Cavalcante, Sérgio Augusto Lopes de Souza, Bianca Gutfilen, Fernanda Martins de Almeida, Ana Maria Blanco Martinez
Despite advances in technology and rehabilitation, no effective therapies are available for patients with SCI, which remains a major medical challenge. This study compared the efficacy of 3 different doses of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) administered by intraperitoneal injection as a therapeutic strategy for compressive SCI. We used adult female C57BL/6 mice that underwent laminectomy at the T9 level, followed by spinal-cord compression for 1 minute with a 30 g vascular clip. The animals received an intraperitoneal (i...
December 13, 2018: Neuroscience
Alexander Selvikvåg Lundervold, Arvid Lundervold
What has happened in machine learning lately, and what does it mean for the future of medical image analysis? Machine learning has witnessed a tremendous amount of attention over the last few years. The current boom started around 2009 when so-called deep artificial neural networks began outperforming other established models on a number of important benchmarks. Deep neural networks are now the state-of-the-art machine learning models across a variety of areas, from image analysis to natural language processing, and widely deployed in academia and industry...
December 12, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVES: SUPPORT-HF 2 tests the hypothesis that home monitoring with information technology-supported specialist management is more effective in optimizing medical therapy than is home monitoring alone for patients with heart failure. METHODS AND RESULTS: The study was designed as a 2-armed partially blinded parallel randomized controlled trial. Seven sites in the United Kingdom (UK) recruited a total of 202 adults with heart failure at high risk of adverse outcomes and with potential to benefit from remote management (mean age 73 years, 28% female, median left ventricular ejection fraction 37%)...
September 25, 2018: American Heart Journal
Yun-Yan Hsu, Kuan-Lin Liu, Hsun-Hua Yeh, Hong-Ru Lin, Hua-Lin Wu, Jui-Chen Tsai
Thrombomodulin (TM) is a type-I transmembrane glycoprotein expressed on the surfaces of endothelial cells and epidermal keratinocytes. It is known to regulate blood coagulation, inflammation, and cell-cell adhesion. A recombinant TM, which contains an epidermal growth factor - like domain and serine/threonine-riches domain, has been demonstrated to stimulate cell proliferation and migration of keratinocytes and wound healing. In this study, we developed the biodegradable hydrogels and evaluated the efficacy of sustained release of rhTM from the hydrogel for the treatment of diabetic wounds...
December 12, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Fatemeh Saberi Hosnijeh, Sita M Bierma-Zeinstra, Anne C Bay-Jensen
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this narrative review is to summarize important findings from biochemical marker studies relevant to osteoarthritis (OA) in the context of new discoveries and clinical and scientific need. DESIGN: We conducted a systematic search of electronic medical databases (Embase, Medline, Web of Science, Cochrane central) between 01-03-2017 and 31-03-2018. The search was restricted to human studies, English language and full text available publications while reviews were excluded...
December 12, 2018: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Martin Brutsche, Frank Rassouli, Harald Gallion, Sanjay Kalra, Veronique L Roger, Florent Baty
AIM: Our aim was to estimate the diagnostic performance of institutions and healthcare regions from a nationwide hospitalisation database. METHODS: The Shannon diversity index was used as an indicator of diagnostic performance based on the International Classification of Disease, 10th revision, German Modification (ICD-10-GM codes). The dataset included a total of 9,325,326 hospitalisation cases from 2009 to 2015 and was provided by the Swiss Federal Office for Statistics...
December 3, 2018: Swiss Medical Weekly
Leslie Casas, Nassir Navab, Stefanie Demirci
PURPOSE: In-bed motion monitoring has become of great interest for a variety of clinical applications. Image-based approaches could be seen as a natural non-intrusive approach for this purpose; however, video devices require special challenging settings for a clinical environment. We propose to estimate the patient's posture from pressure sensors' data mapped to images. METHODS: We introduce a deep learning method to retrieve human poses from pressure sensors data...
December 14, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
Brian Lawrence Boland, Sheng Xu, Bradford Wood, Zion Tsz Ho Tse
Presented in this paper is an exploration into the efficacy of a plastic, four-cylinder piston pneumatic motor designed for driving medical instruments inside magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) systems. Because of the increasing use of MRI for diagnostic and interventional purposes and the benefits that could be realized by operating with real-time MR image guidance, there exists a significant need for MRI compliant surgical devices. Some type of actuation mechanism is necessary to drive such devices. The motor can be controlled to operate in a "step" type motion by using pneumatic valves to sequentially apply air pressure to push the piston surfaces, meaning the motor is metal-free and does not use electricity...
December 14, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Jenny Chen, Ross Swofford, Jeremy Johnson, Beryl B Cummings, Noga Rogel, Kerstin Lindblad-Toh, Wilfried Haerty, Federica di Palma, Aviv Regev
The evolutionary history of a gene helps predict its function and relationship to phenotypic traits. Although sequence conservation is commonly used to decipher gene function and assess medical relevance, methods for functional inference from comparative expression data are lacking. Here, we use RNA-seq across seven tissues from 17 mammalian species to show that expression evolution across mammals is accurately modeled by the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck process, a commonly proposed model of continuous trait evolution...
December 14, 2018: Genome Research
Tsuyoshi Kenri, Yoshito Kawakita, Hisashi Kudo, U Matsumoto, Shigetarou Mori, Yukio Furukawa, Yuhei O Tahara, Keigo Shibayama, Yuuki Hayashi, Munehito Arai, Makoto Miyata
Mycoplasma pneumoniae forms an attachment organelle at one cell pole, binds to the host cell surface, and glides via a unique mechanism. A 170-kDa protein, P1 adhesin, present on the organelle surface plays a critical role in the binding and gliding process. In this study, we obtained a recombinant P1 adhesin comprising 1476 amino acid residues, excluding the C-terminal domain of 109 amino acids that carried the transmembrane segment, that were fused to additional 17 amino acid residues carrying a hexa-histidine (6 × His) tag using an Escherichia coli expression system...
December 11, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Hongcheng Huang, Wei Xiang, Yang Tao, Biao Liu, Min Hu
Relay-assisted Device-to-Device (D2D) communication, one of the important transmission modes in mobile health systems, can provide high transmission quality for servicing users at the edge of system coverage. However, the quality of the D2D relay communication is largely limited by the relay nodes. When a poor node is selected to assist the source node in the data transmission, it is likely to result in the loss of medical data and inaccurate transmission. Therefore, this paper focuses on how to select relay modes and relay nodes to improve the reliability of medical data transmission...
December 13, 2018: Sensors
Giuseppe Tardiolo, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
N -acetylcysteine (NAC), which is an acetylated cysteine compound, has aroused scientific interest for decades due to its important medical applications. It also represents a nutritional supplement in the human diet. NAC is a glutathione precursor and shows antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition to the uses quoted in the literature, NAC may be considered helpful in therapies to counteract neurodegenerative and mental health diseases. Furthermore, this compound has been evaluated for its neuroprotective potential in the prevention of cognitive aging dementia...
December 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Khalid El Bairi, Atanas G Atanasov, Mariam Amrani, Said Afqir
Intrinsic or acquired drug resistance, adverse drug reactions and tumor heterogeneity between and within cancer patients limit the efficacy of clinical management of advanced cancers. To overcome these barriers, predictive biomarkers have recently emerged to guide medical oncologists in the selection of cancer patients who will respond to various anticancer treatments and to improve the toxicity to benefit ratio. Notably, targeted therapy has significantly benefited from these advances, but the application of predictive biomarkers have been a bit slower with some drugs derived from natural sources such as trabectedin, cabazitaxel and alvocidib...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
G D Sagaradze, N A Basalova, V I Kirpatovsky, D A Ohobotov, O A Grigorieva, V Yu Balabanyan, A A Kamalov, A Yu Efimenko
Male infertility represents a severe social and medical challenge. In recent years the progress in regenerative medicine promoted the development of novel options to overcome this medical condition. We are elaborating a promising approach to restore spermatogenesis using mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) secretome components as a novel class of cell-free cell therapy medicinal products for regenerative medicine. However, the choice of the representative in vivo model of spermatogenesis failure to evaluate the effectiveness of regenerative drugs remains challenging...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
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