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Injury of high strain rate

E David Bell, Matthew Converse, Haojie Mao, Ginu Unnikrishnan, Jaques Reifman, Kenneth L Monson
Traumatic brain injury (TBI), resulting from either impact- or non-impact blast-related mechanisms, is a devastating cause of death and disability. The cerebral blood vessels, which provide critical support for brain tissue in both health and disease, are commonly injured in TBI. However, little is known about how vessels respond to traumatic loading, particularly at rates relevant to blast. To better understand vessel responses to trauma, the objective of this project was to characterize the high-rate response of passive cerebral arteries...
March 19, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
Nicholas R Phillips, Derek E Kunz
While overall sports participation continues at high rates, chest injuries occur relatively infrequently. Many conditions of chest injury are benign, related to simple contusions and strains, but the more rare, severe injuries carry a much higher risk of morbidity and mortality than the typical issues encountered in athletic medicine. Missed or delayed diagnosis can prove to be catastrophic. Sports medicine providers must be prepared to encounter a wide range of traumatic conditions relating to the torso, varying from the benign chest wall contusion to the life-threatening tension pneumothorax...
March 2018: Current Sports Medicine Reports
Roger E Thomas, Kamran Zamanpour
OBJECTIVES: To identify all studies of injuries in wrestling, assess risk of bias and compute weighted average injury rates. METHODS: 17 online databases and nine grey literature resources were searched with no language/date limitations. Abstracts were assessed for inclusion and data abstracted independently by two reviewers. RESULTS: Eleven studies of competitions, 27 databases, four surveys (699 wrestlers) and seventeen case reports (604 cases) were included...
February 27, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Jonathan G Beckwith, Wei Zhao, Songbai Ji, Amaris G Ajamil, Richard P Bolander, Jeffrey J Chu, Thomas W McAllister, Joseph J Crisco, Stefan M Duma, Steven Rowson, Steven P Broglio, Kevin M Guskiewicz, Jason P Mihalik, Scott Anderson, Brock Schnebel, P Gunnar Brolinson, Michael W Collins, Richard M Greenwald
Kinematic measurements of head impacts are sensitive to sports concussion, but not highly specific. One potential reason is these measures reflect input conditions only and may have varying degrees of correlation to regional brain tissue deformation. In this study, previously reported head impact data recorded in the field from high school and collegiate football players were analyzed using two finite element head models (FEHM). Forty-five impacts associated with immediately diagnosed concussion were simulated along with 532 control impacts without identified concussion obtained from the same players...
February 22, 2018: Annals of Biomedical Engineering
Wei Zhao, Bryan Choate, Songbai Ji
Material properties of the brain have been extensively studied but remain poorly characterized. The vast variations in constitutive models and material constants are well documented. However, no study exists to translate the variations into disparities in impact-induced brain strains most relevant to brain injury. Here, we reviewed a subset of injury-relevant brain material properties either characterized in experiments or adopted in recent head injury models. To highlight how variations in measured brain material properties manifested in simulated brain strains, we selected six experiments that have provided a complete set of brain material model and constants to implement a common head injury model...
February 6, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Tasneem Mohammad, Aliaa Rehan Youssef
Background: Muscle strain is a common injury with a high recurrence rate. Due to the heterogeneity of strain injuries, experimental animals provide controlled and reproducible models to investigate such injuries. Sciatic Function Index (SFI) is a clinically feasible method to assess hind limb recovery in rodents after induced injuries. Objectives: To investigate time to recovery of SFI after induced-strain in tibialis anterior (TA) muscle in rats. Methods: Sixteen adult male Wister rats were randomly and equally divided to a normal control group that received no intervention, and TA induced muscle strain group...
July 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
Gustavo Gonçalves Arliani, Paulo Henrique Schmidt Lara, Diego Costa Astur, André Pedrinelli, Jorge Roberto Pagura, Moisés Cohen
Background: Football is a high-speed contact sport and the risk of injury is high. The objective of this study was to compare the two main divisions (A1 and A2) of the São Paulo Football Championship and to perform a correlation analysis of the variables studied. Methods: A prospective study was conducted using an electronic questionnaire previously developed by the Medical Committee of the São Paulo Football Federation. The questionnaire was sent to the doctors of the teams playing in the A1 and A2 divisions of the São Paulo Football Championship after each round...
July 2017: Muscles, Ligaments and Tendons Journal
Luciano Gattinoni, Tommaso Tonetti, Michael Quintel
The acute respiratory distress (ARDS) lung is usually characterized by a high degree of inhomogeneity. Indeed, the same lung may show a wide spectrum of aeration alterations, ranging from completely gasless regions, up to hyperinflated areas. This inhomogeneity is normally caused by the presence of lung edema and/or anatomical variations, and is deeply influenced by the gravitational forces.For any given airway pressure generated by the ventilator, the pressure acting directly on the lung (i.e., the transpulmonary pressure or lung stress) is determined by two main factors: 1) the ratio between lung elastance and the total elastance of the respiratory system (which has been shown to vary widely in ARDS patients, between 0...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Benno Cardini, Rupert Oberhuber, Sven R Hein, Rebecca Eiter, Martin Hermann, Markus Kofler, Stefan Schneeberger, Gerald Brandacher, Manuel Maglione
Mouse models have several advantages in transplantation research, including easy handling, a variety of genetically well-defined strains, and the availability of the widest range of molecular probes and reagents to perform in vivo as well as in vitro studies. Based on our experience with various murine transplantation models, we developed a heterotopic pancreas transplantation model in mice with the intent to analyze mechanisms underlying severe ischemia reperfusion injury-associated early graft damage. In contrast to previously described techniques using suture techniques, herein we describe a new procedure using a non-suture cuff technique...
December 16, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
K Bader, M Bernhard, A Gries, M Kaul, R Schröder, A Ramshorn-Zimmer
BACKGROUND: The annual number of physician-based emergency missions reported is continuously increasing. Data from large cities concerning this development over long periods is sparse. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In this retrospective study the charts of all ground-based physician-staffed emergency missions in the city of Leipzig for the first quarters of 2003 and 2013 were analyzed. Patient characteristics, injury and illness severities, mission location, hospital admission rate, as well as emergency interventions were collated...
March 2018: Der Anaesthesist
Niraj Asthana, Aditya Mantha, Eric H Yang, William Suh, Olcay Aksoy, Richard J Shemin, Gabriel Vorobiof, Peyman Benharash
BACKGROUND: Transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) has greatly expanded the treatment options available for patients with severe aortic stenosis at high surgical risk. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We compared changes in myocardial function in TAVR with a transfemoral (TF) versus a transapical (TA) approach at a major tertiary hospital from 2012-2016. Traditional echocardiographic measures of cardiac structure and function were tracked, alongside the use of two-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography to measure myocardial strain and strain rates...
January 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
K Krommes, J Petersen, M B Nielsen, P Aagaard, P Hölmich, K Thorborg
OBJECTIVE: The preseason Nordic Hamstring Protocol (NHP) reduces hamstring strain injuries in football players. Despite persisting injury rates, elite clubs are reluctant to apply the NHP often over concerns of negative impacts on performance. This pilot study investigated if sprint or jump-performance outcomes tended to increase or decrease following implementation of the NHP in elite male soccer-players. RESULTS: Nineteen male soccer players from the Danish 1st division were randomised to perform NHP (27 sessions) during pre-season, or to control group (CG)...
December 4, 2017: BMC Research Notes
W S Enns-Bray, H Bahaloo, I Fleps, O Ariza, S Gilchrist, R Widmer, P Guy, H Pálsson, S J Ferguson, P A Cripton, B Helgason
Sideways falls are largely responsible for the highly prevalent osteoporotic hip fractures in today's society. These injuries are dynamic events, therefore dynamic FE models validated with dynamic ex vivo experiments provide a more realistic simulation than simple quasi-static analysis. Drop tower experiments using cadaveric specimens were used to identify the material mapping strategy that provided the most realistic mechanical response under impact loading. The present study tested the addition of compression-tension asymmetry, tensile bone damage, and cortical-specific strain rate dependency to the material mapping strategy of fifteen dynamic FE models of the proximal femur, and found improved correlations and reduced error for whole bone stiffness (R2 = 0...
February 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
Toni Andreas Steinbüchel, Stephan Herpertz, Ina Külpmann, Aram Kehyayan, Jan Dieris-Hirche, Bert Theodor Te Wildt
Background Internet addiction (IA) is associated with a high rate of co-morbid mental disorders, especially depression, anxiety disorders, ADHD and personality disorders and a considerable level of psychological strain. In terms of risk assessment, the present work investigates the current research literature on suicidal behavior and non-suicidal self-injurious behavior (NSSI). Methods We performed a systematic literature search in 14 databases on title and abstract level for the most common keywords for IA, NSSI and suicidality...
November 23, 2017: Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, Medizinische Psychologie
Sergio Gabarre, Jorge Albareda, Luis Gracia, Sergio Puértolas, Elena Ibarz, Antonio Herrera
Femoral shaft fractures are among the most severe injuries of the skeleton. They are associated with high morbidity and mortality. The most appropriate treatment depending on the type of fracture and location level should be chosen. A finite element model of the femur has been developed, analyzing various types of fractures in the subtrochanteric and diaphyseal supracondylar area, with several gap sizes, being stabilized with a single combination of screws for the intramedullary nail. The mechanical strength of the nail against bending and compression efforts was studied comparing two materials for the nail: stainless steel and titanium alloy...
November 2017: Injury
Milo Engoren, Lauryn R Rochlen, Matthew V Diehl, Sarah S Sherman, Elizabeth Jewell, Mary Golinski, Paul Begeman, John M Cavanaugh
BACKGROUND: While most Direct laryngoscopy leads to dental injury in 25-39% of cases. Dental injury occurs when the forces and impacts applied to the teeth exceed the ability of the structures to dissipate energy and stress. The purpose of this study was to measure strain, (which is the change produced in the length of the tooth by a force applied to the tooth) strain rate, and strain-time integral to the maxillary incisors and determine if they varied by experience, type of blade, or use of an alcohol protective pad (APP)...
November 7, 2017: BMC Anesthesiology
Jing Jin, Shuo Chen, Dechuan Wang, Yuanjin Chen, Yuxu Wang, Min Guo, Changlin Zhou, Jie Dou
Because it is highly contagious, the influenza A virus (IAV) has the potential to cause pandemics in humans. The emergence of drug-resistant strains requires the development of new chemical therapeutics. Oroxylin A (OA) is a flavonoid which has been shown to have antioxidant and antitumor effects. However, intensive studies in which OA fights against different influenza virus strains and the underlying antiviral mechanisms have not been reported. In our study, the antiviral activities in cells and in mice, the preliminary mechanisms of OA were investigated...
October 27, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jack T Hickey, Peter F Hickey, Nirav Maniar, Ryan G Timmins, Morgan D Williams, Christian A Pitcher, David A Opar
Study Design Reliability and case-control injury study. Background Knee flexor strength is a key variable when dealing with hamstring strain injury (HSI), and methodologies of objective measurement of strength are often limited to single exercises. Objectives To establish test-retest reliability of a novel apparatus to measure knee flexor strength during various hamstring exercises, and to investigate whether the measure can detect between-leg differences in male participants with and without history of unilateral HSI...
February 2018: Journal of Orthopaedic and Sports Physical Therapy
David B MacManus, Baptiste Pierrat, Jeremiah G Murphy, Michael D Gilchrist
Traumatic brain injuries, the leading cause of death and disability in children and young adults, are the result of a rapid acceleration or impact of the head. In recent years, a global effort to better understand the biomechanics of TBI has been undertaken, with many laboratories creating detailed computational models of the head and brain. For these models to produce realistic results they require accurate regional constitutive data for brain tissue. However, there are large differences in the mechanical properties reported in the literature...
October 23, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jacob Herrmann, Merryn H Tawhai, David W Kaczka
High frequency oscillatory ventilation (HFOV) relies on low tidal volumes cycled at supraphysiologic rates, producing fundamentally different mechanisms for gas transport and exchange compared with conventional mechanical ventilation. Despite the appeal of using low tidal volumes to mitigate the risks of ventilator-induced lung injury (VILI), HFOV has not improved mortality for most clinical indications. This may be due to non-uniform and frequency-dependent distribution of flow throughout the lung. The goal of this study was to compare parenchymal strain heterogeneity during eucapnic HFOV when using oscillatory waveforms that consisted of either a single discrete frequency or two simultaneous frequencies...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Applied Physiology
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