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Atherosclerosis inflammation

Cem Ozisler, Hatice Kaplanoglu
Primary Sjögren's syndrome (pSS) is a chronic inflammatory autoimmune disease, and inflammation is highly associated with atherosclerosis and increased cardiovascular risk. Carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and arterial stiffness measurements are commonly used to detect subclinical atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to non-invasively demonstrate the presence of subclinical atherosclerosis in patients with pSS through these measurements, using ultrasound (US) radiofrequency (RF) data technology...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Rheumatology
Ebba Brakenhielm, Kari Alitalo
The lymphatic vasculature, which accompanies the blood vasculature in most organs, is indispensable in the maintenance of tissue fluid homeostasis, immune cell trafficking, and nutritional lipid uptake and transport, as well as in reverse cholesterol transport. In this Review, we discuss the physiological role of the lymphatic system in the heart in the maintenance of cardiac health and describe alterations in lymphatic structure and function that occur in cardiovascular pathology, including atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction...
October 17, 2018: Nature Reviews. Cardiology
Sara Paccosi, Astrid Parenti
Vascular remodeling is an alteration in the structure of vessels in response to injury or hemodynamic changes. Disturbance of the structural and functional integrity of the endothelial cell layer can be observed in vascular remodeling associated with inflammation. Chemokines have been implicated in a wide range of diseases with prominent inflammatory components, and also in vascular remodeling. Among them, CC-chemokines are of great interest. They act through conventional CC-chemokine receptors (CCRs), widely expressed by leucocytes and especially monocytes, which are attracted to sites of chronic inflammation...
October 17, 2018: Current Pharmaceutical Biotechnology
Shouyuan Ma, Shuxia Wang, Man Li, Yan Zhang, Ping Zhu
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death worldwide. Atherosclerosis is believed to be the major cause of CVD, characterized by atherosclerotic lesion formation and plaque disruption. Although remarkable advances in understanding the mechanisms of atherosclerosis have been made, the application of these theories is still limited in the prevention and treatment of atherosclerosis. Therefore, novel and effective strategies to treat high-risk patients with atherosclerosis require further development...
October 17, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Chun-Yang Wu, Zhao-Feng Zhou, Bin Wang, Zun-Ping Ke, Zhong-Chun Ge, Xian-Jin Zhang
Atherosclerosis has been recognized as a chronic inflammatory disease, which can harden the vessel wall and narrow the arteries. MicroRNAs exhibit crucial roles in various diseases including atherosclerosis. However, so far, the role of miR-328 in atherosclerosis remains barely explored. Therefore, our study concentrated on the potential role of miR-328 in vascular endothelial cell injury during atherosclerosis. In our current study, we observed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL)-induced human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) apoptosis and inhibited cell viability dose-dependently and time-dependently...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Mitchell Bijnen, Nicky Beelen, Suzan Wetzels, José van de Gaar, Maria Vroomen, Erwin Wijnands, Jean L Scheijen, Marjo P H van de Waarenburg, Marion J Gijbels, Jack P Cleutjens, Erik A L Biessen, Coen D A Stehouwer, Casper G Schalkwijk, Kristiaan Wouters
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease is a spectrum of liver diseases ranging from steatosis only to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). The latter is characterized by hepatic inflammation, which increases the risk of cardiovascular disease. It is poorly understood which factors contribute to the onset of hepatic inflammation characterizing the progression from steatosis to NASH. Previously, we demonstrated increased advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs) in the livers of NASH patients. We hypothesise that AGEs play a key role in NASH development by activating their proinflammatory receptor, RAGE...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mateen Moghbel, Abdullah Al-Zaghal, Thomas J Werner, Caius Mihail Constantinescu, Poul Flemming Høilund-Carlsen, Abass Alavi
Atherosclerosis is a common age-related disorder and is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in the developed countries. Structural imaging techniques, such as CT and MRI, have been of limited value in early detection of atherosclerotic plaques, and therefore, there is a dire need for techniques that are highly sensitive and specific for this purpose. Over the past decade, PET imaging with FDG and NaF has been tested for detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques in the major coronary arteries...
November 2018: Seminars in Nuclear Medicine
Peter L Thompson, S Mark Nidorf
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Inflammation has been shown to be central to the development and progression of atherosclerosis. Despite detailed understanding of its central role and the cellular dynamics, which contribute to atherosclerotic inflammation, there has been slow progress in finding suitable agents to treat it. The recent CANTOS trial showed that the interleukin-1β inhibitor canakinumab can improve outcomes after acute coronary syndromes. Being a monoclonal antibody, it is expensive and inconvenient to administer for long-term treatment...
October 12, 2018: Current Opinion in Lipidology
Xinbo Zhang, William C Sessa, Carlos Fernández-Hernando
Seminal studies from Nikolai Anichckov identified the accumulation of cholesterol in the arteries as the initial event that lead to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Further studies by Gofman and colleagues demonstrated that high levels of circulating low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) was responsible for the accelerated atherosclerosis observed in humans. These findings were confirmed by numerous epidemiological studies which identified elevated LDL-C levels as a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Luana G Leal, Magno A Lopes, Miguel L Batista
Physical exercise has beneficial effects on metabolic diseases, and a combined therapeutic regimen of regular exercise and pharmaceutical treatment is often recommended for their clinical management. However, the mechanisms by which exercise produces these beneficial effects are not fully understood. Myokines, a group of skeletal muscle (SkM) derived peptides may play an important part in this process. Myokines are produced, expressed and released by muscle fibers under contraction and exert both local and pleiotropic effects...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Dehui Zeng, Pingbo Yao, Hong Zhao
Abundant evidence indicted that P2X7 receptor show a essential role in human health and some human diseases including hypertension, atherosclerosis, pulmonary inflammation, tuberculosis infection, psychiatric disorders, and cancer. P2X7 receptor also has an important role in some central nervous system diseases such as neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, more research suggested that P2X7 receptor also plays a crucial role in bone and joint diseases. But the effect of P2X7 receptor on skeletal and joint diseases has not been systematically reviewed...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Julie Y Ji
Endothelial cells that line the lumen of blood vessels are at the interface between hemodynamic forces and vascular wall biology. Endothelial cells transduce mechanical and biological signals from blood flow into intracellular signaling cascades through a process called mechanotransduction. Mechanotransduction is an important part of normal cell functions, as well as endothelial dysfunction which leads to inflammation and pathological conditions. For example, atherosclerosis preferentially develops in regions of disturbed fluid flow and low shear stress...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Huimin Hu, Changyuan Wang, Yue Jin, Qiang Meng, Qi Liu, Zhihao Liu, Kexin Liu, Xiaoyu Liu, Huijun Sun
Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHCY) has been recognized as an independent risk factor for atherosclerosis and plays a vital role in the development of atherosclerosis. Catalpol, an iridoid glucoside extracted from the root of Rehmannia glutinosa, can produce anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, anti-tumor, and dopaminergic neurons protecting effects. This study aimed to determine the protecting effects of catalpol against homocysteine (HCY)-induced injuries in human aortic endothelial cells (HAECs) and uncover the underlying mechanisms: 1...
October 12, 2018: Inflammation
S Li, Y Sun, L Zhong, Z Xiao, M Yang, M Chen, C Wang, X Xie, X Chen
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease. Accumulating evidence suggests that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) and microRNAs have emerged as critical regulators of atherosclerosis; however, whether they have crosstalk on this issue remains elusive. Here, we investigated the potential associations between lncRNA-MALAT1 and miR-155 on the regulation of atherosclerosis. METHODS: Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to assess the expression of MALAT1, IL-6 and IL-8...
June 28, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Miguel Cainzos-Achirica, Cristina Enjuanes, Philip Greenland, John W McEvoy, Mary Cushman, Zeina Dardari, Khurram Nasir, Matthew J Budoff, Mouaz H Al-Mallah, Joseph Yeboah, Michael D Miedema, Roger S Blumenthal, Josep Comin-Colet, Michael J Blaha
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the associations and prognostic value of interleukin-6 (IL6) for the prediction of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) events, heart failure (HF), and other chronic diseases in a large, multi-ethnic, contemporary population. METHODS: We included 6617 participants from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (5640 non-users, 977 users of statins at baseline). Main outcomes were hard ASCVD events and HF; secondary outcomes included all-cause death, atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism and cancer...
October 4, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Jianyong Zhang, Rixin Liang, Lan Wang, Bin Yang
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The danshen (the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bge.)-shanzha (the fruit of Crataegus pinnatifida Bge. var. major N.E.Br.) (DS) herb combination is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine with cardiovascular disease (CVD) treatment potential. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we investigated the anti-atherosclerotic effects and mechanisms of DS by the integration of network pharmacology and polypharmacology. Eight main components were selected for target fishing by PharmMapper...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Savas Sipahi, Ahmed Bilal Genc, Seyyid Bilal Acikgoz, Mehmet Yildirim, Yakup Ersel Aksoy, Mehmet Bulent Vatan, Hamad Dheir, Mustafa Altındis
INTRODUCTION: In patients undergoing haemodialysis, cardiovascular mortality and morbidity, characterised by accelerated atherosclerosis and increased inflammation, are elevated. Salusins are newly defined molecules in the atherosclerotic processes, and while salusin-alpha (Sal-α) acts as an antiatherogenic factor, salusin-beta (Sal-β) has a proatherogenic role. Their roles are as yet undefined in patients undergoing haemodialysis. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, salusin levels, carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) from the common carotid artery and pulse wave velocity (PWV) were measured for 180 patients undergoing haemodialysis and 90 healthy controls...
October 10, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Alberto Lorenzatti, Maria Luz Servato
Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Despite notable advances in understanding the nature of atherosclerotic processes and the use of effective medications such as statins, there remains a significant residual risk. Even after optimal medical treatments and precise revascularisations, the recurrence of MI remains at approximately one-third for 5 years after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Over the past two decades, compelling data from animal and human studies has clearly identified atherosclerosis as an inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, but clinical applications related to this accumulated knowledge are still scarce...
August 2018: European Cardiology
Atsushi Sakamoto, Renu Virmani, Aloke V Finn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Prior investigations have shown the close association between coronary artery calcification (CAC) and total atherosclerotic plaque burden as well as the risk of cardiovascular and all-cause mortality. However, recent pathologic and imaging-based studies suggested that massive dense calcifications are usually associated with stable plaque; whereas, micro calcifications, especially in the thin fibrous cap, are related to vulnerable characteristics. Further, the molecular mechanisms for initiation/progression of vascular calcification are highly complex and still need to be elucidated...
November 2018: Current Opinion in Cardiology
Andrea Matos, Vanessa Moreira da Silveira Gonçalves, Gisele Souza, Suelem Pereira da Cruz, Sabrina Cruz, Andréa Ramalho
INTRODUCTION: the purpose of this study was to assess the vitamin A (VA) nutritional status of patients with coronary artery disease (CAD) and its correlation with the severity of the disease, taking into consideration zinc concentration and oxidative stress. METHODS: the patients were preoperative inpatients awaiting myocardial revascularization surgery. The serum concentrations of retinol, β-carotene, zinc, malondialdehyde (MDA) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were quantified...
October 8, 2018: Nutrición Hospitalaria: Organo Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Nutrición Parenteral y Enteral
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