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Atherosclerosis inflammation

Grégory Franck, Guillaume Even, Alexandre Gautier, Manuel Salinas, Alexia Loste, Emanuele Procopio, Anh-Thu Gaston, Marion Morvan, Sébastien Dupont, Catherine Deschildre, Sophie Berissi, Jamila Laschet, Patrick Nataf, Antonino Nicoletti, Jean-Baptiste Michel, Giuseppina Caligiuri
Aims: Inflammatory mediators, including blood cells and their products, contribute critically to atherogenesis, but the igniting triggers of inflammation remain elusive. Atherosclerosis develops at sites of flow perturbation, where the enhanced haemodynamic stress could initiate the atherogenic inflammatory process due to the occurrence of mechanic injury. We investigated the role of haemodynamic stress-induced breaches, allowing the entry of blood cells in the arterial intima, in triggering inflammation-driven atherogenesis...
December 11, 2018: European Heart Journal
Jing Ma, Dan Zhao, Xiaolin Wang, Chuanrui Ma, Ke Feng, Shuang Zhang, Yuanli Chen, Yan Zhu, Xiumei Gao, Buchang Zhao, Yong Wang, Ke Qian, Xiaoju Li, Yajun Duan, Jihong Han, Xiaoxiao Yang
Disorders of lipid metabolism and inflammation play an important role in atherosclerosis. LongShengZhi capsule (LSZ), a Chinese herbal medicine, has been used for treatment of patients with vascular diseases for many years. Herein, we determined the effect of LSZ on the progression of established atherosclerotic lesions in apoE deficient (apoE) mice. ApoE mice were pre-fed high-fat diet (HFD) for 8 weeks to induce atherosclerosis, then started with LSZ treatment contained in HFD for 10 weeks. Although LSZ had little effect on HFD-induced hypercholesterolemia, it substantially reduced en face and sinus aortic lesions...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
Roberto Mota, Matthew J Campen, Matthew E Cuellar, William S Garver, Jacob Hesterman, Mohammed Qutaish, Tamara Daniels, Monique Nysus, Carston R Wagner, Jeffrey P Norenberg
Atherosclerosis-related morbidity and mortality remain a global concern. Atherosclerotic disease follows a slow and silent progression, and the transition from early-stage lesions to vulnerable plaques remains difficult to diagnose. Inflammation is a key component of the development of atherosclerotic plaque and consequent life-threatening complications. This study assessed 111 In-DANBIRT as an in vivo , noninvasive SPECT/CT imaging probe targeting an inflammatory marker, Lymphocyte Function Associated Antigen-1 (LFA-1), in atherosclerotic plaques...
2018: Contrast Media & Molecular Imaging
Zhiyong Huang, Guangyong Tian, Saibo Cheng, Dandan Zhao, Yu Zhang, Yuhua Jia, Fenghua Zhou
Cholesterol metabolism becomes imbalanced during the formation of macrophage-derived foam cells. Pre-B-cell colony-enhancing factor (PBEF) has recently been found to affect lipid deposition and inflammation in atherosclerosis. Here, we aimed to study the effects and molecular mechanism of Polydatin on atherosclerosis in ApoE-knockout (ApoE <mml:math xmlns:mml=""> <mml:msup> <mml:mrow/> <mml:mrow> <mml:mo>-</mml:mo> <mml:mo>∕</mml:mo> <mml:mo>-</mml:mo> </mml:mrow> </mml:msup> </mml:math> ) mice...
December 11, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
Xiumei Chen, Jianzhong Lin, Tingting Hu, Zhiyun Ren, Linnan Li, Irbaz Hameed, Xiaoyu Zhang, Chen Men, Yan Guo, Di Xu, Yiyang Zhan
Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL)-induced endothelial cell injury plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis (AS). Plasma galectin-3 (Gal-3) is elevated inside and drives diverse systemic inflammatory disorders, including cardiovascular diseases. However, the exact role of Gal-3 in ox-LDL-mediated endothelial injury remains unclear. This study explores the effects of Gal-3 on ox-LDL-induced endothelial dysfunction and the underlying molecular mechanisms. In this study, Gal-3, integrin β1, and GTP-RhoA in the blood and plaques of AS patients were examined by ELISA and western blot respectively...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Gerardus P J van Hout, Lena Bosch
Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the number one cause of death worldwide. The pathogenesis of various disease entities that comprise the area of CVD is complex and multifactorial. Inflammation serves a central role in these complex aetiologies. The inflammasomes are intracellular protein complexes activated by danger-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs) present in CVD such as atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction (MI). After a two-step process of priming and activation, inflammasomes are responsible for the formation of pro-inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β and interleukin-18, inducing a signal transduction cascade resulting in a strong immune response that culminates in disease progression...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Christoph Edlinger, Michael Lichtenauer, Bernhard Wernly, Rudin Pistulli, Vera Paar, Christine Prodinger, Florian Krizanic, Marcus Thieme, Jürgen Kammler, Christian Jung, Uta C Hoppe, P Christian Schulze, Daniel Kretzschmar
Peripheral arterial disease (PAD) is one of the most common manifestations of systemic atherosclerosis. The prevalence of unrecognized PAD is high, leading to a lack of opportunity to detect subjects at a high risk for cardiovascular events. Inflammatory processes play an important role in the disease initiation as well as in the disease progression. Vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 (VCAM-1), a biomarker of endothelial dysfunction, appears to be an important mediator in inflammatory processes. Therefore, we hypothesized that in patients with PAD, circulating VCAM-1 might be elevated due to its function in mediating adhesion of immune cells to the vascular endothelium in the process of endothelial dysfunction and inflammation, and, therefore, applicable as a diagnostic biomarker...
December 7, 2018: Heart and Vessels
José Tuñón, Lina Badimón, Marie-Luce Bochaton-Piallat, Bertrand Cariou, Mat J Daemen, Jesus Egido, Paul C Evans, Imo E Hoefer, Daniel Fj Ketelhuth, Esther Lutgens, Christian M Matter, Claudia Monaco, Sabine Steffens, Erik Stroes, Cécile Vindis, Christian Weber, Magnus Bäck
Dysregulated lipid metabolism induces an inflammatory and immune response leading to atherosclerosis. Conversely, inflammation may alter lipid metabolism. Recent treatment strategies in secondary prevention of atherosclerosis support beneficial effects of both anti-inflammatory and lipid-lowering therapies beyond current targets. There is a controversy about the possibility that anti-inflammatory effects of lipid-lowering therapy may be either independent or not of a decrease in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol...
December 6, 2018: Cardiovascular Research
Michael Spartalis, Eleftherios Spartalis, Eleni Tzatzaki, Diamantis I Tsilimigras, Demetrios Moris, Christos Kontogiannis, Vaios Vasileios Kaminiotis, Stavroula A Paschou, Sofia Chatzidou, Gerasimos Siasos, Vassilis Voudris, Dimitrios C Iliopoulos
BACKGROUND: Lipid-lowering therapy and control of cardiovascular risk factors are the current recommendations of atherosclerotic disease management. Despite optimal treatment though the rate of acute coronary syndrome events remains high. Inflammation plays an essential role in the pathophysiology of atherosclerotic plaque formation, progression and rupture, which conclusively causes acute clinical episodes. OBJECTIVE: This review aims to give a conceptual description of the potential therapeutic benefits and effects of colchicine in inflammation-mediated atherosclerotic disease and hypertriglyceridemia...
December 10, 2018: Cardiovascular & Hematological Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Muhammad Ibrahim, Maryam Abimbola Mikail, Idris Adewale Ahmed, Radiah Abdul Ghani
Purpose: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading and the most critical type of chronic disease. Atherosclerosis is the most common cause of CVD. Inflammation has been progressively acknowledged as a vital and central player in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis. Baccaurea angulata is an underutilized fruit of the island of Borneo. It was obtained from Bau, Sarawak, Malaysia. In our previous studies, B. angulata did not only increase antioxidant enzyme activities, but also slowed the lipid peroxidation process in high-cholesterol-fed rabbits...
2018: Journal of Nutrition and Metabolism
Li Lu, Yating Qin, Chen Chen, Xiaomei Guo
Atherosclerosis, a chronic luminal stenosis disorder occurred in large and medium arteries, is the principle pathological basis of cardiovascular diseases with the highest morbidity and mortality worldwide. In oriental countries, traditional Chinese medicine Cortex Moutan has been widely used for the treatment of atherosclerosis-related illnesses for thousands of years. Paeonol, a bioactive monomer extracted from Cortex Moutan, is an important pharmacological component responsible for the antiatherosclerotic effects...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
R Swart, A E Schutte, J M van Rooyen, Catharina M C Mels
PURPOSE: Despite selenium's beneficial effects in counteracting oxidative stress, inflammation, and vascular endothelial dysfunction, controversial results exist regarding the long-term associations between selenium and atherosclerosis, arterial stiffness, and hypertension. We investigated in normal and selenium-deficient groups (and the total group), whether serum selenium relates to measures of large artery structure and function over 10 years. METHODS: This longitudinal study included black adults from rural and urban areas in South Africa...
December 6, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Lingpeng Shan, Abdus Sattar, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
Background: This study was conducted to explore the associations between serum albumin and markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. Methods: We conducted a nested study within in the SATURN-HIV trial in which 147 HIV+ adults on stable antiretroviral therapy were (1) virally suppressed, (2) had a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level <130 mg/dL, and (3) were randomized to 10 mg daily rosuvastatin or placebo...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Yarong Liu, Chao Li, Hongfei Wu, Xianmei Xie, Ying Sun, Min Dai
Introduction: Paeonol, an active compound isolated from the radix of Cortex Moutan , has been shown to have anti-atherosclerosis effects by regulating blood cells' function and protecting vascular cells injury. Besides, emerging evidences has proven that exosomes might play a pivotal role in intercellular communication by transmiting proteins and microRNAs from cell to cell. However, the relationship between monocytes-derived exosomal microRNA-223 and vascular inflammation injury along with paeonol' effects are still not clear...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Tommaso Gori
An impaired function of the coronary endothelium is an important determinant of all stages of atherosclerosis, from initiation, to mediation of functional phenomena-such as spasm and plaque erosion, to atherothrombotic complications. Endothelial function is modified by therapies, including stent implantation. Finally, endothelial function changes over time, in response to physical stimuli and pharmocotherapies, and its assessment might provide information on how individual patients respond to specific therapies...
December 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Max Kiugel, Sanna Hellberg, Meeri Käkelä, Heidi Liljenbäck, Tiina Saanijoki, Xiang-Guo Li, Johanna Tuomela, Juhani Knuuti, Antti Saraste, Anne Roivainen
Background : The expression of matrix metalloproteinases 2/9 (MMP-2/9) has been implicated in arterial remodeling and inflammation in atherosclerosis. We evaluated a gallium-68 labeled peptide for the detection of MMP-2/9 in atherosclerotic mouse aorta. Methods : We studied sixteen low-density lipoprotein receptor deficient mice (LDLR-/- ApoB100/100 ) kept on a Western-type diet. Distribution of intravenously-injected MMP-2/9-targeting peptide, [68 Ga]Ga-DOTA-TCTP-1, was studied by combined positron emission tomography (PET) and contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT)...
December 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Marta Cano-Megías, Hanane Bouarich, Pablo Guisado-Vasco, María Pérez Fernández, Gabriel de Arriba-de la Fuente, Concepción Álvarez-Sanz, Diego Rodríguez-Puyol
INTRODUCTION: Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes mellitus (DM) have high cardiovascular risk. Both conditions are related to systemic atherosclerosis and vascular calcification. The prevalence and severity of coronary artery calcification (CaC) is higher in patients with DM, regardless of their renal function. Data about the long-term prognostic role of CaC in diabetic patients with CKD are scarce. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We carried out a prospective longitudinal study enrolling 137 patients with advanced CKD...
November 30, 2018: Endocrinología, diabetes y nutrición
Oluremi Ajala, Yingze Zhang, Aman Gupta, Jessica Bon, Frank Sciurba, Divay Chandra
BACKGROUND: Smokers are highly susceptible to lung and cardiovascular disease that can reduce their survival. Tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL) is a protein in the circulation that may suppress vascular and pulmonary inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that diminished circulating TRAIL levels would be associated with poor survival in smokers with lung and cardiovascular disease. METHODS: Serum TRAIL level was measured by immunoassay in 474 smokers...
December 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Anatoly I Soloviev, Igor V Kizub
Ionizing radiation (IR) leads to a variety of the cardiovascular diseases, including the arterial hypertension. A number of studies have demonstrated that blood vessels represent important target for IR, and the endothelium is one of the most vulnerable components of the vascular wall. IR causes an inhibition of nitric oxide (NO)-mediated endothelium-dependent vasodilatation and generation of reactive oxygen (ROS) and nitrogen (RNS) species trigger this process. Inhibition of NO-mediated vasodilatation could be due to endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) down-regulation, inactivation of endothelium-derived NO, and abnormalities in diffusion of NO from the endothelial cells (ECs) leading to a decrease in NO bioavailability...
November 30, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Karl Walter Bock
Despite decades of intense research physiologic aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) functions have not been elucidated. Challenges include marked species differences and dependence on cell type and cellular context. A previous commentary on human AHR functions in skin and intestine has been extended to vascular tissue. Similar functions appear to be operating in vascular tissue including microbial defense, modulation of stem/progenitor cells as well as control of immunity and inflammation. However, AHR functions are Janus faced: Detrimental AHR functions in vascular tissue are well documented, e...
November 30, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
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