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cocain toxicity treatment

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30066173/alterations-in-the-gut-microbiota-of-rats-chronically-exposed-to-volatilized-cocaine-and-its-active-adulterants-caffeine-and-phenacetin
#1
Cecilia Scorza, Claudia Piccini, Marcela Martínez Busi, Juan Andrés Abin Carriquiry, Pablo Zunino
A role of the gut microbiota in influencing brain function and emotional disorders has been suggested. However, only a few studies have investigated the gut microbiota in the context of drug addiction.Cocaine can be smoked (i.e., crack or coca paste) and its consumption is associated with a very high abuse liability and toxicity. We have recently reported that cocaine base seized samples contained caffeine and phenacetin as main active adulterants, which may potentiate its motivational, reinforcing, and toxic effects...
July 31, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29846769/ethanol-addictively-enhances-the-in-vitro-cardiotoxicity-of-cocaine-through-oxidative-damage-energetic-deregulation-and-apoptosis
#2
Maria João Martins, Rita Roque Bravo, Maria Enea, Helena Carmo, Félix Carvalho, Maria de Lourdes Bastos, Ricardo Jorge Dinis-Oliveira, Diana Dias da Silva
Cocaine (COC) is frequently consumed in polydrug abuse settings, and ethanol (EtOH) is the most prominent co-abused substance. Clinical data and experimental evidence suggest that the co-administration of COC with EtOH can be more cardiotoxic than EtOH or COC alone, but information on the molecular pathways involved is scarce. Since these data are crucial to potentiate the identification of therapeutic targets to treat intoxications, we sought to (i) elucidate the type of interaction that occurs between both substances, and (ii) assess the mechanisms implicated in the cardiotoxic effects elicited by COC combined with EtOH...
July 2018: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29807217/tv-1380-attenuates-cocaine-induced-changes-in-cardiodynamic-parameters-in-monkeys-and-reduces-the-formation-of-cocaethylene
#3
Liron Shemesh-Darvish, Doron Shinar, Hussein Hallak, Aviva Gross, Moti Rosenstock
BACKGROUND: TV-1380 is a rationally mutated, human BChE fused to human serum albumin that has high hydrolytic enzymatic activity against cocaine and as well as an extended elimination half-life. OBJECTIVE: The present studies examined the safety of TV-1380 and its protective effect when given to monkeys alone or concomitantly with cocaine and ethanol. METHODS: A set of studies was conducted in monkeys with TV-1380. The parameters tested included telemetric assessment of cardiovascular parameters, clinical pathology, plasma analysis of cardiac troponin I, ex-vivo analyses of cocaethylene and PK analysis of serum concentrations of TV-1380, cocaine and its metabolites, and histopathological examinations...
July 1, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29582960/-acute-kidney-injury-and-rhabdomyolysis-after-cocaine-overdose-case-report-and-literature-review
#4
Anna Mudoni, Francesco Caccetta, Maurizio Caroppo, Fernando Musio, Antonella Accogli, Maria Dolores Zacheo, Maria Domenica Burzo, Vitale Nuzzo
Cocaine, a natural alkaloid derived from the coca plant, is one of the most commonly used illicit drugs. Cocaine abuse causes systemic adverse effects like stroke, myocardic infarction, arterial dissection, vascular thrombosis and rhabdomyolysis. Cocaine use is, also, associated with renal complications such as acute kidney injury, vasculitis, acute interstitial nephritis, chronic kidney disease, malignant hypertension with thrombotic microangiopathy. Acute kidney injury may or may be not associated to rhabdomyolysis...
March 2018: Giornale Italiano di Nefrologia: Organo Ufficiale Della Società Italiana di Nefrologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577963/dopamine-d1-and-d3-receptor-polypharmacology-as-a-potential-treatment-approach-for-substance-use-disorder
#5
REVIEW
Ewa Galaj, Scott Ewing, Robert Ranaldi
In the search for efficacious pharmacotherapies to treat cocaine addiction much attention has been given to agents targeting dopamine D1 or D3 receptors because of the involvement of these receptors in drug-related behaviors. D1-like and D3 receptor partial agonists and antagonists have been shown to reduce drug reward, reinstatement of drug seeking and conditioned place preference in rodents and non-human primates. However, translation of these encouraging results to clinical settings has been limited due to a number of factors including toxicity, poor pharmacokinetic properties and extrapyramidal and sedative side effects...
June 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29475069/in-vitro-model-to-study-cocaine-and-its-contaminants
#6
Aline Steinmetz, Luiza Steffens, Ana Moira Morás, Flávia Prezzi, Elizandra Braganhol, Jenifer Saffi, Rafael Scorsatto Ortiz, Helena M T Barros, Dinara Jaqueline Moura
Cocaine is one of the most popular illicit drug worldwide. Due its great addictive potential, which leads to euphoria and hyperactivity, it is considered a public health concern. At the central nervous system, the drug acts inhibiting catecholamine re-uptake. It is now known that in addition to the toxicity of the drug itself, the contaminants present in the street drug have raised concern about the harmful effects on health. Toxicological in vivo and in vitro studies have demonstrated the toxic effects of cocaine correlated with the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which in turn lead to oxidative damage to the cells...
April 1, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427992/apple-condom-and-cocaine-body-stuffing-in-prison-a-case-report
#7
Benedicte Jalbert, Nguyen Toan Tran, Stephan von Düring, Pierre-Alexandre Poletti, Ian Fournier, Catherine Hafner, Celestine Dubost, Laurent Gétaz, Hans Wolff
BACKGROUND: Drug dealers and drug users resort to body stuffing to hastily conceal illicit drugs by ingesting their drug packets. This practice represents a medical challenge because rupture of the often insecure packaging can be toxic and even lethal. In an emergency setting, official guidelines are needed to help the medical team decide on the proper treatment. A preliminary observation period is generally accepted but its duration varies from hours to eventual packet expulsion. CASE PRESENTATION: This case involves a 20-year-old white man in detention who claimed to have ingested one cocaine packet wrapped in plastic food-wrap and a condom in anticipation of an impending cell search...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426863/identification-of-biochemical-and-cytotoxic-markers-in-cocaine-treated-pc12-cells
#8
Ramesh B Badisa, Chyree S Batton, Elizabeth Mazzio, Samuel C Grant, Carl B Goodman
Cocaine is one of the powerful addictive drugs, widely abused in most Western countries. Because of high lipophilic nature, cocaine easily reaches various domains of the central nervous system (CNS) and triggers different levels of cellular toxicity. The aim of this investigation was to reproduce cocaine toxicity in differentiated PC12 cells through quantitative knowledge on biochemical and cytotoxicity markers. We differentiated the cells with 0.1 μg/ml nerve growth factor (NGF) for 5 days, followed by treatment with cocaine for 48 h at in vivo and in vitro concentrations...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29381909/metoprolol-treatment-of-dual-cocaine-and-bupropion-cardiovascular-and-central-nervous-system-toxicity
#9
John R Richards, Jessica B Gould, Erik G Laurin, Timothy E Albertson
Cardiovascular and central nervous system (CNS) toxicity, including tachydysrhythmia, agitation, and seizures, may arise from cocaine or bupropion use. We report acute toxicity from the concomitant use of cocaine and bupropion in a 25-year-old female. She arrived agitated and uncooperative, with a history of possible antecedent cocaine use. Her electrocardiogram demonstrated tachycardia at 130 beats/min, with a corrected QT interval of 579 ms. Two doses of 5 mg intravenous metoprolol were administered, which resolved the agitation, tachydysrhythmia, and corrected QT interval prolongation...
January 31, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350320/ethical-implications-in-vaccine-pharmacotherapy-for-treatment-and-prevention-of-drug-of-abuse-dependence
#10
Anna Carfora, Paola Cassandro, Alessandro Feola, Francesco La Sala, Raffaella Petrella, Renata Borriello
Different immunotherapeutic approaches are in the pipeline for the treatment of drug dependence. "Drug vaccines" aim to induce the immune system to produce antibodies that bind to drugs and prevent them from inducing rewarding effects in the brain. Drugs of abuse currently being tested using these new approaches are opioids, nicotine, cocaine, and methamphetamine. In human clinical trials, "cocaine and nicotine vaccines" have been shown to induce sufficient antibody levels while producing few side effects...
March 2018: Journal of Bioethical Inquiry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315692/comprehensive-review-of-cardiovascular-toxicity-of-drugs-and-related-agents
#11
REVIEW
Přemysl Mladěnka, Lenka Applová, Jiří Patočka, Vera Marisa Costa, Fernando Remiao, Jana Pourová, Aleš Mladěnka, Jana Karlíčková, Luděk Jahodář, Marie Vopršalová, Kurt J Varner, Martin Štěrba
Cardiovascular diseases are a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in most developed countries of the world. Pharmaceuticals, illicit drugs, and toxins can significantly contribute to the overall cardiovascular burden and thus deserve attention. The present article is a systematic overview of drugs that may induce distinct cardiovascular toxicity. The compounds are classified into agents that have significant effects on the heart, blood vessels, or both. The mechanism(s) of toxic action are discussed and treatment modalities are briefly mentioned in relevant cases...
July 2018: Medicinal Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185916/drug-drug-interactions-in-cocaine-users-and-their-clinical-implications
#12
Luca Gallelli, Santo Gratteri, Antonio Siniscalchi, Erika Cione, Sabrina Sirico, Paolo Seminara, Maria Cristina Caroleo, Giovambattista De Sarro
BACKGROUND: Drug-Drug Interactions (DDIs) represent a common problem in clinical practice during drug treatments. DDIs can both induce the development of adverse drug reactions or reduce the clinical efficacy of each drug. OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this review was to analyze the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic DDIs in cocaine consumers, focusing the interest on their clinical implications. METHODS: The PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library databases were searched for articles published until January 10, 2017...
2017: Current Drug Abuse Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29181644/effectiveness-of-a-cocaine-hydrolase-for-cocaine-toxicity-treatment-in-male-and-female-rats
#13
Xirong Zheng, Ziyuan Zhou, Ting Zhang, Zhenyu Jin, Xiabin Chen, Jing Deng, Chang-Guo Zhan, Fang Zheng
Development of a truly effective medication for treatment of cocaine abuse has been a grand challenge. There is no FDA-approved therapeutic agent specific for cocaine addiction or overdose. An enzyme therapy using an efficient cocaine-metabolizing enzyme could be a promising treatment strategy for cocaine overdose and addiction. One of our previously designed cocaine hydrolases (CocHs), known as CocH1, was fused with human serum albumin (HSA) to prolong the biological half-life. The fusion protein CocH1-HSA is an investigational new drug (IND) approved by the FDA for clinical trials in cocaine addiction treatment, but not in cocaine overdose/toxicity treatment...
November 27, 2017: AAPS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29127295/clinical-potential-of-an-enzyme-based-novel-therapy-for-cocaine-overdose
#14
Ting Zhang, Xirong Zheng, Ziyuan Zhou, Xiabin Chen, Zhenyu Jin, Jing Deng, Chang-Guo Zhan, Fang Zheng
It is a grand challenge to develop a truly effective medication for treatment of cocaine overdose. The current available, practical emergence treatment for cocaine overdose includes administration of a benzodiazepine anticonvulsant agent (e.g. diazepam) and/or physical cooling with an aim to relieve the symptoms. The inherent difficulties of antagonizing physiological effects of drugs in the central nervous system have led to exploring protein-based pharmacokinetic approaches using biologics like vaccines, monoclonal antibodies, and enzymes...
November 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29123854/local-anesthetic-toxicity-acute-and-chronic-management
#15
REVIEW
Kenichi Sekimoto, Masaru Tobe, Shigeru Saito
Local anesthetics are commonly used medicines in clinical settings. They are used for pain management during minor interventional treatments, and for postoperative care after major surgeries. Cocaine is the well-known origin of local anesthetics, and the drug and related derivatives have long history of clinical usage for more than several centuries. Although illegal use of cocaine and its abuse are social problem in some countries, other local anesthetics are safely and effectively used in clinics and hospitals all over the world...
April 2017: Acute Medicine & Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038767/evaluation-of-plasma-cytokines-in-patients-with-cocaine-use-disorders-in-abstinence-identifies-transforming-growth-factor-alpha-tgf%C3%AE-as-a-potential-biomarker-of-consumption-and-dual-diagnosis
#16
Rosa Maza-Quiroga, Nuria García-Marchena, Pablo Romero-Sanchiz, Vicente Barrios, María Pedraz, Antonia Serrano, Raquel Nogueira-Arjona, Juan Jesus Ruiz, Maribel Soria, Rafael Campos, Julie Ann Chowen, Jesus Argente, Marta Torrens, Meritxell López-Gallardo, Eva María Marco, Fernando Rodríguez de Fonseca, Francisco Javier Pavón, Pedro Araos
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use disorder (CUD) is a complex health condition, especially when it is accompanied by comorbid psychiatric disorders (dual diagnosis). Dual diagnosis is associated with difficulties in the stratification and treatment of patients. One of the major challenges in clinical practice of addiction psychiatry is the lack of objective biological markers that indicate the degree of consumption, severity of addiction, level of toxicity and response to treatment in patients with CUD...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28958905/-uro-and-nephrotoxic-effects-of-drugs-of-abuse-literature-review-and-pharmaco-epidemiological-survey-in-france-and-in-the-marseille-area
#17
REVIEW
Marion Gully, Élisabeth Frauger, Michel Spadari, Liselotte Pochard, Vanessa Pauly, Fanny Romain, Bertrand Gondouin, Marion Sallée, Julie Moussi-Frances, Stéphane Burtey, Bertrand Dussol, Laurent Daniel, Joëlle Micallef, Noémie Jourde-Chiche
A great diversification of drugs of abuse has been observed in recent years, both in the populations using them and in the types of drugs. Although dependency and psychiatric disorders associated with the abuse of these substances is well known, somatic complications, uro-nephrotoxicity in particular, are less recognized. We propose here an overview of the products used by drugs abusers in France, through the analysis of the national pharmaco-epidemiological study Observation des produits psychotropes illicites ou détournés de leur utilisation médicamenteuse (OPPIDUM)...
November 2017: Néphrologie & Thérapeutique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28764226/cisplatin-induced-acute-myocardial-infarction-and-dyslipidemia
#18
Lalith Prabhakar Hanchate, Shimpa Rakesh Sharma, Sadhana Madyalkar
Myocardial infarction commonly occurs due to rupture of atherosclerotic plaque in the coronary arteries and is manifested on coronary angiography. Myocardial infarction with angiographically normal coronary arteries can occur due to hypercoagulable state, coronary spasm, embolism, arteritis, congenital condition and drugs. Illicit drugs such as cocaine, amphetamines and marijuana are known to cause myocardial infarction. Of the many medications that are associated with cardiovascular toxicity, chemotherapeutic agents form a large group with both acute and delayed cardiotoxicity...
June 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28593024/cardiovascular-mitochondrial-dysfunction-induced-by-cocaine-biomarkers-and-possible-beneficial-effects-of-modulators-of-oxidative-stress
#19
REVIEW
Manuela Graziani, Paolo Sarti, Marzia Arese, Maria Chiara Magnifico, Aldo Badiani, Luciano Saso
Cocaine abuse has long been known to cause morbidity and mortality due to its cardiovascular toxic effects. The pathogenesis of the cardiovascular toxicity of cocaine use has been largely reviewed, and the most recent data indicate a fundamental role of oxidative stress in cocaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity, indicating that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the mechanisms of oxidative stress. The comprehension of the mechanisms involving mitochondrial dysfunction could help in selecting the most appropriate mitochondria injury biological marker, such as superoxide dismutase-2 activity and glutathionylated hemoglobin...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399647/%C3%AE-blockers-cocaine-and-the-unopposed-%C3%AE-stimulation-phenomenon
#20
REVIEW
John R Richards, Judd E Hollander, Edward A Ramoska, Fareed N Fareed, I Charles Sand, María Manuela Izquierdo Gómez, Richard A Lange
Cocaine abuse remains a significant worldwide health problem. Patients with cardiovascular toxicity from cocaine abuse frequently present to the emergency department for treatment. These patients may be tachycardic, hypertensive, agitated, and have chest pain. Several pharmacological options exist for treatment of cocaine-induced cardiovascular toxicity. For the past 3 decades, the phenomenon of unopposed α-stimulation after β-blocker use in cocaine-positive patients has been cited as an absolute contraindication, despite limited and inconsistent clinical evidence...
May 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology and Therapeutics
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