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M Jesús Pérez de Vega, Antonio Ferrer-Montiel, Rosario González-Muñiz
Pain is a prevalent complex medical problem, characterized by physically debilitating and mentally destabilizing conditions. Current pain therapeutics mainly include non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and narcotics (opioids), but they exhibit limitations in efficacy, unwanted side effects and the problem of drug abuse. To overcome these issues, the discovery of different molecular players within pain pathways could lead to new opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Among other strategies, peptides could be powerful pharmaceutical agents for effective opioid-free medications for pain treatment...
October 17, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Ge Gao, Yao-Wen Jiang, Hao-Ran Jia, Fu-Gen Wu
A near-infrared (NIR) light-triggerable thermo-sensitive hydrogel-based drug reservoir that can realize on-demand antibiotics release and hyperthermia-assisted bacterial inactivation was prepared to combat bacterial infection and promote wound healing. The drug reservoir was fabricated by mixing ciprofloxacin (Cip, a potent antibiotic)-loaded polydopamine (PDA) nanoparticles (NPs) and glycol chitosan (GC) to form an injectable hydrogel (PDA NP-Cip/GC hydrogel, abbreviated as Gel-Cip). On the one hand, the positive charge of GC and the adsorbability of PDA NPs made bacteria be readily trapped on the surface of Gel-Cip...
October 2, 2018: Biomaterials
Buce Hetharua, Derong Min, Hu Liao, Li'an Lin, Hong Xu, Yun Tian
A Gram-stain-negative Rhodobacterales strain, designated as FSX-11T , was isolated from surface seawater of Xiamen port in China. Strain FSX-11T showed less than 96.5 % 16S rRNA gene sequence similarity to the type strains of species with validly published names. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the novel isolate formed a distinct monophyletic clade within the family Rhodobacteriaceae and clustered distantly with the genera Thalassobius and Marivita. Cells of strain FSX-11T were non-motile, oval-shaped and facultative anaerobic...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Lars G Crabo
The genus Rhabdorthodes gen. n. is described for three previously unnamed noctuid moths from the mountains of south-western United States and Mexico. It is assigned to subfamily Noctuinae, tribe Eriopygini. Rhabdorthodespattersoni sp. n. from the United States and Rhabdorthodesdurango sp. n. and Rhabdorthodespetersoni sp. n. from Mexico are described. These moths are small, dull gray brown, and lack highly diagnostic wing markings, but are distinctive structurally. The adults and genitalia of both sexes are illustrated and distribution maps are presented...
2018: ZooKeys
Lindsey Butler, Chris Gennings, Marco Peli, Laura Borgese, Donatella Placidi, Neil Zimmerman, Hsiao-Hsien L Hsu, Brent A Coull, Robert O Wright, Donald R Smith, Roberto G Lucchini, Birgit Claus Henn
Residential proximity to ferroalloy production has been associated with increased manganese exposure, which can adversely affect health, particularly among children. Little is known, however, about which environmental samples contribute most to internal levels of manganese and other ferroalloy metals. We aimed to characterize sources of exposure to metals and evaluate the ability of internal biomarkers to reflect exposures from environmental media. In 717 Italian adolescents residing near ferromanganese industry, we examined associations between manganese, lead, chromium, and copper in environmental samples (airborne particles, surface soil, indoor/outdoor house dust) and biological samples (blood, hair, nails, saliva, urine)...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Exposure Science & Environmental Epidemiology
Molly Martony, Deborah Pouder, Roy Yanong, Yasunari Kiryu, Jan H Landsberg, Ramiro Isaza, Thomas Waltzek, Nicole I Stacy, Robson Giglio, Shirley Baker, Ruth Francis-Floyd
Coelomic fluid aspiration has been utilized in echinoderms in research and clinical settings. Detailed procedural descriptions for coelomic fluid sampling in sea urchins (class Echinoidea) are lacking, and samples are prone to contamination. The objectives of this study were to (1) standardize a technique for coelomic fluid collection in long-spined sea urchin Diadema antillarum that optimizes the diagnostic quality of the sample utilizing diagnostic imaging, (2) identify coelomic fluid bacterial isolates (using Biolog GEN III MicroLog and 16s rDNA sequencing), and (3) compare positive cultures to animal weight, holding time prior to sampling, water temperature, and gross fluid appearance...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Aquatic Animal Health
Hui Yu, Daniel J Caldwell, Rominder P Suri
Exposure to mixtures of endocrine disrupting compounds (EDCs) has been hypothesized to produce potential synergistic or antagonistic effects that can cause undesired effects that are not reflected by the individual compounds. In this study, the estrogenic activities of 11 EDCs of global environmental concern were systematically investigated using the yeast estrogen screen (YES). The contribution of the individual chemical to the total endocrine activity of environmentally relevant mixtures was evaluated. Compared to 17β-estradiol (E2) as a standard, estrone (E1), estriol (E3), ethinyl estradiol (EE2), bisphenol-A (BPA), and genistein (GEN) showed estrogenic effects, while dibutyl phthalate (DBP), n-butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP), Bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP), nonyl phenol (NP) and 4-tert-octyl phenol (OP) showed anti-estrogenic effects...
October 11, 2018: Chemosphere
Qing Yu, Maria Munawar, Jianfeng Gu, Weimin Ye
Three populations of neotylenchid nematodes were isolated in Ningbo, P. R. China, from white pine lumber (Pinus monticola) imported from the USA. The nematodes were morphologically intermediate between Hexatylus and Deladenus. The nematodes were molecularly characterized based on sequences of the rDNA small subunit 18S, large subunit 28S D2/D3, and internal transcribed spacer sequences. The phylogenetic inferences placed the nematodes with other neotylenchid nematodes, i.e., Fergusobia and Rubzovinema. Based on the morphology and phylogenetic analysis, this nematode is described herein as Delatylus andersoni n...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Nematology
Atsushi Takahashi, Tetsuya Ohira, Kanako Okazaki, Seiji Yasumura, Akira Sakai, Masaharu Maeda, Hirooki Yabe, Mitsuaki Hosoya, Akira Ohtsuru, Yukihiko Kawasaki, Hitoshi Suzuki, Michio Shimabukuro, Yoshihiro Sugiura, Hiroaki Shishido, Yoshimitsu Hayashi, Hironori Nakano, Gen Kobashi, Kenji Kamiya, Hiromasa Ohira
Dramatic lifestyle changes due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident increased the prevalence of hepatobiliary enzyme abnormalities (HEA). We aimed to evaluate associations of HEA with specific lifestyle- and disaster-related factors in residents who lived near the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant.This cross-sectional study included 22,246 residents who underwent a Comprehensive Health Check and the Mental Health and Lifestyle Survey from June 2011 to March 2012. Residents were divided into 2 groups based on residential area and housing status after the accident...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Xavier Berthelon, Guillaume Chenegros, Thomas Finateu, Siohoi Ieng, Ryad Benosman
Johnson-Nyquist noise is the electronic noise gen- erated by the thermal agitation of the charge carriers which increases when the sensor overheats. Current high speed cameras used in low light conditions are often cooled down to reduce thermal noise and increase their signal to noise ratio. These sensors however record hundreds of frames per second, which takes time, requires energy and heavy computing power due to the massive data load. Event-based sensors benefit from a high temporal resolution and record the information in a sparse manner...
October 17, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Biomedical Circuits and Systems
Li Li, Ke Zhang, Ji Zhang, Ya-Nan Zeng, Feng Lai, Gen Li, Na Ma, Ming-Jiang Hu, Feng-Mei Cui, Qiu Chen
This study aimed to examine the radioprotective effect of polydatin (PD) on crypt and endothelial cells of the small intestines of C57BL/6 mice that received abdominal irradiation. Mice were treated with 20 Gy X-ray (6 MeV) abdominal irradiation at a dose rate of 200 cGy/min. Thirty minutes before or after irradiation (IR), mice were intraperitoneally injected with PD. The rate of survival of the mice at 30 days after irradiation was determined. The duodenum (upper small intestine), jejunum (middle small intestine), and ileum (lower small intestine) were collected and subjected to hematoxylin and eosin staining...
October 17, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Ning Zhang, Baopeng Yang, Yuanqing He, Yulu He, Xiaohe Liu, Min Liu, Guoyong Song, Gen Chen, Anqiang Pan, Shuquan Liang, Renzhi Ma, Shishir Venkatesh, Vellaisamy A L Roy
Layered serpentine Ni3 Ge2 O5 (OH)4 is compositionally active and structurally favorable for adsorption and diffusion of reactants in oxygen evolution reactions (OER). However, one of the major problems for these materials is limited active sites and low efficiency for OER. In this regard, a new catalyst consisting of layered serpentine Ni3 Ge2 O5 (OH)4 nanosheets is introduced via a controlled one-step synthetic process where the morphology, size, and layers are well tailored. The theoretical calculations indicate that decreased layers and increased exposure of (100) facets in serpentine Ni3 Ge2 O5 (OH)4 lead to much lower Gibbs free energy in adsorption of reactive intermediates...
October 16, 2018: Small
Lauryn E DeGreeff, Christopher J Katilie, Michael Malito, Braden Giordano
While there is a large body of research on the properties and detection of traditional military high explosives and propellant low explosives, there is a dearth of research on homemade explosive (HME) materials, though they are prevalent today. The safety of working with these materials in the laboratory is the greatest limiting factor preventing HME research. A vapor delivery tool, the Mixed Vapor Generation Device (MV-Gen), was designed to safely contain the individual solid or liquid components that often compose homemade explosives vapor plumes and deliver the mixed component vapors for instrumental sampling and analysis...
December 21, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Ying Long, Liang Wu, Fusheng Pan, Zeyu Zhang, Manzhong Yang, Aitao Tang, Gen Zhang, Lei Liu, Andrej Atrens
A graphene coating, prepared via spin coating on the Mg alloy AZ31, was characterized using Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The Raman spectra indicated that the graphene spin coatings were uniform over the surface of AZ31. The SEM indicated the chemical composition of the graphene coating. The XPS analysis indicated that the carbon was mainly composed of conjugated double bonds. The corrosion behavior was evaluated from potentio-dynamic polarization curves and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS)...
January 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Gen Li, Kunlin Zhang, Li Wang, Chengqi Cao, Ruojiao Fang, Ping Liu, Shu Luo, Israel Liberzon
Orexigenic hormones are a group of hormones that can up-regulate appetite. Current studies have shown that orexigenic hormones also play important roles in stress responses and may be implicated in regulation of fear memory. However, these conclusions lack evidence from human studies. In this study, we examined associations between orexigenic hormone genes and fear-related mental disorders by investigating main, G × E, and G × G effects of ghrelin and orexin gene single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) on human posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 1134 Chinese earthquake survivors...
October 2, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Zhao Lyu, Jingbao Li, Erkang Zhu, Chen Shao
The living morphology, infraciliature and morphogenesis of a new urostylid ciliate, Caudiurostyla sinensis gen. nov., spec. nov., isolated from a soil habitat in China, was investigated. The new, monotypic genus is defined by having frontal cirri arranged in a bicorona, distinct transverse cirri, midventral pairs only, buccal cirrus, frontoterminal cirri, multiple marginal cirral rows that replicate independently via within row anlagen formation, more than three dorsal kineties, and caudal cirri. The main morphogenetic features of the new species are: (1) the posterior part of the parental adoral zone is renewed in situ; (2) the marginal cirral rows and dorsal kineties develop intrakinetally; (3) a caudal cirrus is formed at the posterior end of each dorsal kinety; and (4) macronuclear nodules fuse into a single mass during the middle stage...
October 4, 2018: European Journal of Protistology
Cong Sun, Lin Xu, Xiao-Yun Yu, Zhe Zhao, Yue-Hong Wu, Aharon Oren, Chun-Sheng Wang, Xue-Wei Xu
Two Gram-stain-negative, strictly aerobic, non-motile, non-spore-forming, rod-shaped bacteria, designated as SY3-15T and SY3-13, were isolated from a seawater sample of the South China Sea. Colonies were 0.5-1.0 mm in diameter, smooth, circular, convex and translucent after growth on marine agar at 37 °C for 3 days. The strains were found to grow at 20-50 °C (optimum, 42 °C), pH 6.0-8.5 (optimum, pH 6.5-7.5) and with 0.5-6.0 % (w/v) NaCl (optimum, 1.5-2.0 %). Chemotaxonomic analysis showed the sole respiratory quinone to be ubiquinone-10, the major fatty acids (>10 %) were C16 : 0 3-OH, C19 : 0cyclo ω9c, C18 : 1 3-OH and summed feature 8 (C18 : 1ω7c and/or C18 : 1ω6c), and the polar lipids were phosphatidylglycerol, two unidentified aminolipids and three unidentified lipids...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology
Premal H Thaker, Nicholas Borys, Jason Fewell, Khursheed Anwer
GEN-1 is a gene-based immunotherapy, comprising a human IL-12 gene expression plasmid and a synthetic plasmid delivery system, delivered intraperitoneally (ip.) to produce local and persistent levels of a pleiotropic immunocytokine, IL-12, at the tumor site in patients with advanced ovarian cancer. The goal of local and persistent IL-12 delivery is to remodel the highly immunosuppressive tumor microenvironment to favor immune stimulation while avoiding serious systemic toxicities, a major limitation of recombinant IL-12 therapy...
October 16, 2018: Future Oncology
Tsukasa Waki, Akina Hino, Kousuke Umeda
A new species of nematode, Angiostoma namekuji n. sp. (Angiostomatidae: Rhabditida), is described from the intestinal lumen of the terrestrial slug Philomycidae gen. sp. collected from Oshiba Island in the Seto Inland Sea, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan. The new species is recognized by the following characteristics: body length 2,782-3,599 (mean 3,240) μm (male); 4,666-5,532 (5,030) μm (female); lateral field present; pharyngeal corpus with valves in the bulb; male with short tail, c = 35-57 (48), with one denticle; and seven pairs of genital papillae arranged as 1+2/3+1; female with tail having small denticles on distal tip; uterus c...
October 15, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Cecilia Aristimuño Ficoseco, Flavia I Mansilla, Natalia C Maldonado, Hortencia Miranda, María E Fátima Nader-Macias, Graciela M Vignolo
In order to eliminate the widespread use of antibiotics in livestock production, the research for alternatives has increased lately. This study examined the safety of 40 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) isolated from bovine feedlot environment and previously selected as potential probiotics. A high sensitivity prevalence to ampicillin (AMP, 100%), gentamicin (GEN, 96.3%), kanamycin (KAN, 96.3%), clindamycin (CLI, 85.2%), chloramphenicol (CHL, 92.6%) and streptomycin (STR, 88.9%) while moderate and high resistance against erythromycin (ERY, 48%) and tetracycline (TET, 79%) respectively, were determined...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
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