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cell and molecular and development

Qin Luo, Hongrui Guo, Ping Kuang, Hengmin Cui, Huidan Deng, Huan Liu, Yujiao Lu, Qin Wei, Linlin Chen, Jing Fang, Zhicai Zuo, Junliang Deng, Yinglun Li, Xun Wang, Ling Zhao
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Excessive fluoride intake can induce cytotoxicity, DNA damage and cell-cycle changes in many tissues and organs, including the kidney. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms of fluoride-induced renal cell-cycle changes are not well understood at present. In this study, we used a mouse model to investigate how sodium fluoride (NaF) induces cell-cycle changes in renal cells. METHODS: Two hundred forty ICR mice were randomly assigned to four equal groups for intragastric administration of NaF (0, 12, 24 and 48 mg/kg body weight/day) for 42 days...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Joshua W Russo, Steven P Balk
In this issue of Cancer Cell, Gerhauser et al. analyze early-onset prostate cancers, showing roles for androgen receptor-driven rearrangements, an early APOBEC-driven mutational mechanism, and ESRP1 gene duplication. Through integration of whole-genome, transcriptome, and methylome data, they identify high-risk subgroups and develop an algorithm that may predict molecular evolution.
December 10, 2018: Cancer Cell
Paolo Manca, Luis E Raez, Matthew Salzberg, Jorge Sanchez, Brian Hunis, Christian Rolfo
Head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) previously had limited treatment options once patients had progressed on systemic chemotherapy. With recent advances, immunotherapy now plays an important role in the treatment of advanced disease with improved outcomes as compared to cytotoxic chemotherapy. Areas covered: This article reviews the effects of the immune system and how it influences the development and response to HNSCC therapy. We additionally provide a summary of immunotherapy treatments available as well as their applicable clinical trials that led to their approval...
December 11, 2018: Expert Opinion on Biological Therapy
Anat Vivante, Eugene Brozgol, Irena Bronshtein, Vered Levi, Yuval Garini
During the past three decades, the study of nuclear and chromatin organization has become of great interest. The organization and dynamics of chromatin are directly responsible for many functions including gene regulation, genome replication, and maintenance. In order to better understand the details of these mechanisms, we need to understand the role of specific proteins that take part in these processes. The genome in the nucleus is organized in different length scales, ranging from the bead-like nucleosomes through topological associated domains (TADs) up to chromosome territories...
December 9, 2018: Genes, Chromosomes & Cancer
Zahra Asadzadeh, Behzad Mansoori, Ali Mohammadi, Marjan Aghajani, Khalil Haji-Asgarzadeh, Elham Safarzadeh, Ahad Mokhtarzadeh, Pascal H G Duijf, Behzad Baradaran
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are a small subpopulation of tumor cells that have been identified in most types of cancer. Features that distinguish them from the bulk of tumor cells include their pluripotency, self-renewal capacity, low proliferation rate, and tumor-initiating ability. CSCs are highly malignant, as they confer drug resistance and facilitate tumor progression, relapse, and metastasis. The molecular mechanisms underlying CSC biology are now beginning to be understood. In this context, microRNAs (miRNAs) occupy a prominent place...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xiaojing Xia, Xin Wang, Yi Zheng, Jinqing Jiang, Jianhe Hu
Pyroptosis, a type of programmed cell death mediated by gasdermin, is characterized by the swelling and rupture of cells, release of cellular contents and a strong inflammatory response, which is critical for controlling microbial infection. Pattern recognition receptors recognize the intracellular and extracellular pathogenic microbial components and stimulate the organism's inflammatory response by activating the pyroptosis signaling pathway and releasing interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-18, and other inflammatory factors to promote pathogen clearance and prevent infection...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
David J Orlicky, Andrew E Libby, Elise S Bales, Rachel H McMahan, Jenifer Monks, Francisco G La Rosa, James L McManaman
KEY POINTS: Wild type mice as well as mice with hepatocyte-specific or whole-body deletions of perilipin-2 (Plin2) were used to define hepatocyte and extra-hepatocyte effects of altered cellular lipid storage on obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathophysiology in a western-diet (WD) model of these disorders. Extra-hepatocyte actions of Plin2 are responsible for obesity, adipose inflammation, and glucose clearance abnormalities in WD-fed mice. Hepatocyte and extra-hepatic actions of Plin2 mediate fatty liver formation in WD-fed mice through distinct mechanisms...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Qing Zhao, Xin Wang, Qiaosheng Hu, Ridong Zhang, Yong Yin
OBJECTIVES: Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) contributed to the development and progression of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D), while TLR4 is reported to mediate the LPS-induced inflammation in macrophages. However, the potential molecular mechanisms for TLR4-mediated macrophages activation in T2D have not yet to be fully clarified. METHODS: Type 2 diabetes models in C57BL/6J mice were generated by a combination administration of streptozotocin (STZ) and a high-fat diet (HFD)...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Véronique Delmas, Lionel Larue
Vitiligo is a chronic skin disease characterized by the appearance of zones of depigmentation. It is mostly described as an autoimmune disease in which the immune system destroys the melanocytes. Consistent with this origin, genetic studies have implicated genes encoding proteins mediating the immune response targeting melanocytes in the etiology of this disease, together with proteins specific to these cells. However, the destruction of melanocytes by the immune system is neither global nor complete, because the patients do not display total depigmentation...
December 10, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Cheng Zhou, Mahmoud R Moustafa, Liji Cao, Mark Kriegsmann, Martin Winter, Christian Schwager, Bleddyn Jones, Shijun Wang, Tobias Bäuerle, Ping-Kun Zhou, Martina Schnölzer, Wilko Weichert, Juergen Debus, Amir Abdollahi
Pulmonary fibrosis represents a leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Therapy induced lung fibrosis constitutes a pivotal dose-limiting side effect of radiotherapy and other anticancer agents. We aimed to develop objective criteria for assessment of fibrosis and discover pathophysiological and molecular correlates of lung fibrosis as a function of fractionated whole thoracic irradiation. Dose-response series of fractionated irradiation was utilized to develop a non-invasive and quantitative measure for the degree of fibrosis - the fibrosis index (FI)...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Animesh Pardanani
OVERVIEW: Systemic mastocytosis (SM) results from a clonal proliferation of abnormal mast cells (MC) in extra-cutaneous organs. DIAGNOSIS: The major criterion is presence of multifocal clusters of abnormal MC in the bone marrow. Minor diagnostic criteria include elevated serum tryptase level, abnormal MC CD25 expression, and presence of KITD816V mutation. RISK STRATIFICATION: Establishing SM subtype as per the World Health Organization classification system is an important first step...
December 8, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Xiao-Dong Geng, Wei-Wei Wang, Zhe Feng, Ran Liu, Xiao-Long Cheng, Wan-Jun Shen, Zhe-Yi Dong, Guang-Yan Cai, Xiang-Mei Chen, Quan Hong, Di Wu
AIMS: The aim of the study is to identify candidate differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and pathways using bioinformatics analysis and improve our understanding of the cause and potential molecular events of diabetic nephropathy (DN). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Two cohort profile datasets (GSE30528 and GSE33744) were integrated and used for deep analysis. We sorted DEGs and analyzed differential pathway enrichment. DEG-associated ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) was performed...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
C Gimenez, F Zafra, C Aragon
INTRODUCTION: The amino acids glutamate and glycine, apart from their role in protein synthesis, are two fundamental neurotransmitters in the central nervous system of mammals. The first one is ubiquitous and is involved in excitatory pathways of the neocortex, the retina and the cerebellum, and the second is involved in inhibitory pathways of brain caudal areas. However, both share their way of acting by integrating into the functioning of glutamate receptors of the NMDA type fundamentals in the regulation of motor, sensory and cognitive systems...
December 16, 2018: Revista de Neurologia
L-L Wang, M Zhang
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs (miRNAs) play important roles in tumor development and progression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of miR-582-5p in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and to determine the molecular mechanisms underlying its action. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Using quantitative RT-PCR, we detected miR-582-5p expression in NSCLC cell lines and primary tumor tissues. The association of miR-582-5p expression with clinicopathological factors and prognosis was statistically analyzed...
November 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Pedro Bullon, Luis E Pavillard, Rafael de la Torre-Torres
One of the main steps in the development of the life in the earth is multicellularity. It enables cell differentiation and the development of morphological structures within an organism and is an essential factor in how to recognize friendly cells that are part of the multicellular organism and which foreign organisms can be harmful. Recognition includes devices such as the major histocompatibility complex (MHC), and the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs). PRRs are a group of proteins expressed by cells of the innate immune system that identify two classes of products: pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs), related to microbial pathogens, and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs), associated with cell components that are released during cell damage or death...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Eduardo A Albornoz, Trent M Woodruff, Richard Gordon
Neuroinflammation is a common pathological feature in almost all neurological diseases and is a response triggered as a consequence of the chronic activation of the innate immune response in the CNS against a variety of stimuli, including infection, traumatic brain injury, toxic metabolites, aggregated proteins, or autoimmunity. Crucial mediators of this neurinflammatory process are the intracellular protein complexes known as inflammasomes which can be triggered by pathogens as well as pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) and damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
2018: Experientia. Supplementum
Naoki Tanimizu
Liver stem/progenitor cells (LPCs) are defined as bipotential cells differentiating into both hepatocytes and cholangiocytes. The Notch, TGFβ, and Hippo pathways have been implicated in lineage determination of LPCs during development and regeneration. However, the molecular mechanisms governing the lineage specification have not been fully elucidated, yet. Epithelial adhesion molecule (EpCAM) is a marker of cholangiocytes and of LPCs. We found that EpCAM+ cells isolated from neonatal liver contain LPCs that clonally proliferate and are bipotential in vitro and in vivo...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Junfei Zhu, Lianqin Tao, Litong Jin
Epidermal growth factor receptor‑tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib, have been found to be clinically effective in the treatment of patients with non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). However, the therapeutic effect of gefitinib is often limited by the development of gefitinib resistance. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a group of small non‑coding RNAs, have been demonstrated to be frequently dysregulated in human malignancies. For instance, the downregulation of miR‑506‑3p has been reported in NSCLC patients...
November 29, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
Feng Zhang, Hua Cao
MicroRNAs (miRNAs or miRs) have been identified as an important regulator in carcinogenesis and other pathological processes. However, the molecular mechanism underlying the function of miRNAs in the progression and development of laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC) remains to be fully elucidated. In the present study, the miRNA expression pattern in LSCC tissues was profiled using miRNA microarray analysis. It was found that a large set of miRNAs are aberrantly expressed in LSCC tissues and that miR‑143‑3p was the most markedly downregulated compared with normal tissues...
December 6, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Tao Chen, Shu-Jun Li, Bin Chen, Qiong Huang, Xiang-Ying Kong, Chen Shen, Hai-Tao Gu, Xiao-Wei Wang
Our previous studies identified that the expression of microRNA‑29c (miR‑29c‑3p) was significantly increased in the serum of pregnant women carrying fetuses with congenital heart disease (CHD) compared with in that of normal pregnant women. However, the mechanism by which miR‑29c‑3p affects development of the embryonic heart remained unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect and potential molecular mechanism of miR‑29c‑3p overexpression on P19 cell proliferation, apoptosis and differentiation...
November 30, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
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