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High glucose concentration

Xiaolan Jiang, Yufeng Shi, Xinlong Dai, Juhua Zhuang, Zhouping Fu, Xianqian Zhao, Yajun Liu, Liping Gao, Tao Xia
Tea possesses a distinctive flavor profile and can have health benefits owing to the high levels of flavonoids in its leaves. However, the mechanism of the flavonoid glycosylation hasn't been well studied in tea plants, especially glycosylation at the 7-OH site has rarely been reported. In this study, four UGT genes CsUGT73A20, CsUGT75L12, CsUGT78A14 and CsUGT78A15 were isolated from tea leaves and overexpressed in the model plants Arabidopsis thaliana and Nicotiana tabacum for the functional identification of genes in vivo...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Xiaowei Cheng, Le Huang, Xuanyu Yang, Ahmed A Elzatahry, Abdulaziz Alghamdi, Yonghui Deng
Owing to the high costs and instability of natural enzymes, the development of enzyme mimics based on inorganic nanomaterials has attracted a wide concern in recent years. In this work, a stable nanocomposite composed of highly dispersed CeO2 nanoparticles decorated on zeolite Y as support (CeO2 /Y) was synthesized by a facile wet impregnation method, and the CeO2 /Y nanocomposite was firstly proposed as an efficient peroxidase-mimicking nanozyme for accurate detection of H2 O2 and glucose. The best catalyst was the nanocomposite with CeO2 to zeolite Y mass ratio of 0...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
H Berends, M Vidal, M Terré, L N Leal, J Martín-Tereso, A Bach
The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of inclusion of an extruded high-fat pellet mixed with a conventional pelleted calf starter on energy intake and performance around weaning in calves. To this end, 75 female Holstein newborn calves (41.0 ± 4.98 kg) were randomly assigned to 1 of 5 iso-nitrogenous solid feed treatments consisting of 4 levels of fat inclusion by mixing a low-fat highly fermentable control pellet with 3 different levels of inclusion of an extruded high-fat pellet [control (100:0), 90:10, 80:20, and 70:30], and a high-fat single pellet (HFSP)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jésica Flores-Martín, Luciana Reyna, Mariano Cruz Del Puerto, María L Rojas, Graciela M Panzetta-Dutari, Susana Genti-Raimondi
StarD7 is a lipid binding protein involved in the delivery of phosphatidylcholine to the mitochondria whose promoter is activated by Wnt/β-catenin signaling. Although the majority of glucose enters glycolysis, ~ 2-5% of it can be metabolized via the hexosamine biosynthetic pathway (HBP). Considering that HBP has been implicated in the regulation of β-catenin we explored if changes in glucose levels modulate StarD7 expression by the HBP in trophoblast cells. We found an increase in StarD7 as well as in β-catenin expression following high-glucose (25 mM) treatment in JEG-3 cells; these effects were abolished in the presence of HBP inhibitors...
October 12, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Qin Hu, Tao Li, Lu Gao, Xiaojuan Gong, Shengqi Rao, Weiming Fang, Ruixia Gu, Zhenquan Yang
In this work, it is presented for the first time that nitrogen and chlorine co-doped carbon nanodots ( N , Cl -CDs) were synthesized by simply mixing glucose, concentrated hydrochloric acid (HCl), and 1,2-ethylenediamine (EDA). No external heat was employed; the neutralization reaction served as the heat source. The glucose served as the carbon source while EDA and HCl were the N and Cl dopants, respectively. The fluorescence of N , Cl -CDs was adequately quenched by hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) based on a combination of dynamic quenching and inner filter effect (IFE)...
October 11, 2018: Sensors
Takele Feyera, Pan Zhou, Morakot Nuntapaitoon, Kristina Ulrich Sørensen, Uffe Krogh, Thomas Sønderby Bruun, Stig Purup, Henry Jørgensen, Hanne Damgaard Poulsen, Peter Kappel Theil
The aims of this study were to investigate 1) the effect of high dietary fiber (DF; 19.3 to 21.7%) supplemented to late gestating sows on mammary uptake and metabolism of energy substrates as well as colostrum production and 2) the ontogeny of colostral fat and lactose synthesis using mammary carbon balance, and colostral protein using IgG as a biomarker. Sows were fed either a control diet (CON) consisting of a standard gestation diet (14.6% DF) until d 108 of gestation and a transition diet (16.8% DF) from d 109 of gestation until farrowing or a high DF treatment where part of the daily ration was replaced with a high DF supplement (FIB)...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
D T Widayati, S Bintara, I Natawihardja, D Maharani
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Repeat breeding is a major problem in beef cows. The objective of the present study was to determine the blood biochemical levels in repeat breeder and fertile Ongole cross breed cows. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study compared the blood biochemical profiles from 30 repeat breeders and 30 fertile Ongole cross breed cows. Plasma glucose, total cholesterol, total protein and urea nitrogen concentrations were examined in repeat breeder cows and compared with those of fertile cows...
January 2018: Pakistan Journal of Biological Sciences: PJBS
Colin P Hawkes, Juan J Lado, Stephanie Givler, Diva D De Leon
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Continuous intravenous glucagon is frequently used in the management of severe congenital hyperinsulinism (HI), but its efficacy in these patients has not been systematically evaluated. The aim of this study was to describe the use of continuous intravenous glucagon and to evaluate its effect on the glucose infusion rate (GIR) requirement in infants with HI. METHODS: Retrospective chart review of children with HI who received continuous intravenous glucagon for prevention of hypoglycemia at the Children's Hospital of Philadelphia between 2003 and 2013...
October 12, 2018: JIMD Reports
Wen Min, Mingjie Wu, Penghua Fang, Mei Yu, Mingyi Shi, Zhenwen Zhang, Ping Bo
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Although baicalein has been shown to increase insulin sensitivity in liver of mice, there is no literature available about the effect of baicalein on glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) translocation from intracellular membrane pools to plasma membranes in adipocytes of diet-induced obese mice. METHODS: In the present study, the obese model was induced in mice fed a high fat diet (20% carbohydrates, 21% protein and 59% fat) for 16 weeks. The diet-induced obese mice were given 20mg/kg baicalein intraperitoneally (i...
October 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Amit Ganguly, Sherin U Devaskar
We examined the effect of a high-fat diet (HFD) vs. control diet (CD) upon pregestational and gestational wild-type (wt) and glucose transporter (glut)3 heterozygous (glut3+/- ) female mice and observed an increase in pregestational body weights, white adiposity (wt > glut3+/- ), circulating cholesterol, and high-density lipoproteins, with glucose intolerance in both genotypes. The HFD-exposed offspring displayed reduced birth weight with catch up to CD-fed in wt vs. an increased birth weight persisting as such at weaning by day 21 in glut3+/- mice...
September 13, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Vanesa de Oliveira Pateis, Lívia Bracht, Lorena Dos Santos Castro, Gabriela Bueno Franco Salla, Jurandir Fernando Comar, Angela Valderrama Parisotto, Rosane Marina Peralta, Adelar Bracht
A study of the effects of butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) on the hepatic metabolism was conducted with emphasis on parameters linked to energy metabolism and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production. The experimental systems were the isolated perfused rat liver and isolated mitochondria. It was found that BHA inhibits biosynthetic pathways (gluconeogenesis) and ammonia detoxification, which are dependent on ATP generated within the mitochondria. Conversely, the compound stimulated glycolysis and fructolysis, which are compensatory phenomena for an inhibited mitochondrial ATP generation...
October 8, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Marta Navarro, Bruna de Falco, Francisco J Morales, Despoina Daliani, Alberto Fiore
The formation of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in biological systems is increased during hyperglycaemia due to higher levels of circulating glucose and carbonyl reactive species. AGEs are causative factors of common chronic diseases. Since synthetic AGE-inhibitors exert unwanted side effects and polyphenols act as potent antiglycative agents, vegetables (fruits, seeds and related by-products) are good candidates when searching for natural inhibitors. The aim of this research is to explore the suitability of a polyphenol-rich rapeseed cake extract (RCext) to decrease the formation of AGEs in an in vitro model...
October 11, 2018: Food & Function
Seong Keat Cheah, David Halsall, Peter Barker, John Grant, Abraham Mathews, Shyam Seshadri, Singhan Krishnan
A frail 79-year-old lady with dementia presented with a 2-year history of frequent falls. Recurrent hypoglycaemic episodes were diagnosed and treated with continuous glucose infusion in multiple hospital admissions. Hypoadrenalism and hypothyroidism were ruled out. Whilst hypoglycaemic (blood glucose 1.6 mmol/L), both plasma C-peptide and proinsulin concentrations, were inappropriately elevated at 4210 pmol/L (174–960) and >200 pmol/L (0–7) respectively with plasma insulin suppressed at 12 pmol/L (0–180)...
September 24, 2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Sebastian Hörber, Sarah Hudak, Martin Kächele, Dietrich Overkamp, Andreas Fritsche, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Andreas Peter, Martin Heni
Diabetic ketoacidosis is a life-threatening complication of diabetes mellitus. It usually occurs in patients with type 1 diabetes where it is typically associated with only moderately increased blood glucose. Here, we report the case of a 52-year-old female patient who was admitted to the emergency unit with severely altered mental status but stable vital signs. Laboratory results on admission revealed very high blood glucose (1687 mg/dL/93.6 mmol/L) and severe acidosis (pH <7) with proof of ketone bodies in serum and urine...
September 25, 2018: Endocrinology, Diabetes & Metabolism Case Reports
Jonathan W Nyce
The activation of TP53 is well known to exert tumor suppressive effects. We have detected a primate-specific adrenal androgen-mediated tumor suppression system in which circulating DHEAS is converted to DHEA specifically in cells in which TP53 has been inactivated. DHEA is an uncompetitive inhibitor of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD), an enzyme indispensable for maintaining reactive oxygen species within limits survivable by the cell. Uncompetitive inhibition is otherwise unknown in natural systems because it becomes irreversible in the presence of high concentrations of substrate and inhibitor...
November 1, 2018: Endocrine-related Cancer
Jun Li, Megan S Rice, Tianyi Huang, Susan E Hankinson, Charles V Clevenger, Frank B Hu, Shelley S Tworoger
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Prolactin, a multifunctional hormone, is involved in regulating insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis in experimental studies. However, whether circulating concentrations of prolactin are associated with risk of type 2 diabetes remains uncertain. METHODS: We analysed the prospective relationship between circulating prolactin concentrations and type 2 diabetes risk in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS) and NHSII with up to 22 years of follow-up...
October 11, 2018: Diabetologia
Chang Su, Xue-Jun Liang, Wen-Jing Li, Di Wu, Min Liu, Bing-Yan Cao, Jia-Jia Chen, Miao Qin, Xi Meng, Chun-Xiu Gong
Objective: To characterize the genotype and phenotype of Chinese patients with congenital hyperinsulinism (CHI) caused by activating mutations in GLUD1 , the gene that encodes mitochondrial enzyme glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH). Methods: The clinical data of glutamate dehydrogenase hyperinsulinism (GDH-HI) patients were reviewed, and gene mutations were confirmed by whole exome sequencing (WES) and Sanger DNA sequencing. Results: Twenty-six patients with GDH-HI heterozygous missense mutations were identified from 240 patients diagnosed as congenital hyperinsulinism over past 15 years...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
You Cheol Hwang, Wilfred Y Fujimoto, Steven E Kahn, Donna L Leonetti, Edward J Boyko
BACKGROUND: Recent studies have suggested that high density lipoprotein (HDL) cholesterol is inversely associated with the development of hypertension. We aimed to determine the association between different HDL cholesterol subclasses and risk of future hypertension. METHODS: A total of 270 Japanese Americans (130 men, 140 women) without hypertension between the ages of 34 to 75 years were enrolled. Blood pressure was measured with a mercury sphygmomanometer, and average blood pressure was calculated...
September 28, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Qiuyu Wang, Chunlin Zhao, Lili Jin, Hanyu Zhang, Qifan Miao, Hongsheng Liu, Dianbao Zhang
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder leading to many complications. The treatment of diabetes mainly depends on hypoglycemic drugs, often with side effects, which drive us to develop novel agents. AWRK6 was a peptide developed from the antimicrobial peptide Dybowskin-2CDYa in our previous study, and the availability of AWRK6 on diabetes intervention was unknown. Here, in vivo and in vitro experiments were carried out to investigate the effects of AWRK6 against diabetes. In diabetic mice, induced by high-fat diet followed by streptozocin (STZ) administration, the daily administration of AWRK6 presented acute and sustained hypoglycemic effects...
October 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anjana Radhakutty, Morton G Burt
Glucocorticoids are frequently prescribed to patients with a wide range of inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. The semi-synthetic glucocorticoid prednisolone is most commonly prescribed and in two main patterns. Prednisolone is prescribed short term at medium-high doses to treat an acute inflammatory illness or long term at lower doses to attenuate chronic inflammatory disease progression. In hospitalized patients with acute prednisolone-induced hyperglycaemia, there is a distinct circadian pattern of glucose elevation, which occurs predominantly in the afternoon and evening...
October 1, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
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