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High glucose concentration

D Szukiewicz, Grzegorz Szewczyk, Michal Pyzlak, Aleksandra Stangret, Michal Bachanek, Seweryn Trojanowski, Habib Alkhalayla, Jaroslaw Wejman
Upregulation of chemokine CX3CL1 and its receptor CX3CR1 occurs in the diabetic human placenta. Metformin, an insulin-sensitizing biguanide, is used in the therapy of diabetic pregnancy. By preventing the activation of NF-κB, metformin exhibits anti-inflammatory properties. We examined the influence of hyperglycemia (25 mmol/L glucose; HG group; N = 36) on metformin-mediated effects on CX3CL1 and TNF-α production by placental lobules perfused extracorporeally. Additionally, CX3CR1 expression and contents of CX3CR1, TNF-α receptor 1 (TNFR1), and NF-κB proteins in the placental tissue were evaluated...
August 10, 2018: Inflammation
Marzieh Zeinvand-Lorestani, Heibatullah Kalantari, Mohammad Javad Khodayar, Ali Teimoori, Najmaldin Saki, Akram Ahangarpour, Fakher Rahim, Soheila Alboghobeish
The key features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) caused by high fat diet (HFD) in combination with arsenic (As) exposure (pronounced glucose intolerance despite a significant decrease in insulin resistance) are different from those expected for T2DM. Autophagy has been considered as a possible link between insulin resistance and obesity. Therefore in this study, we utilized autophagy gene expression profiling via real-time RT-PCR array analysis in livers of NMRI mice exposed to an environmentally relevant and minimally cytotoxic concentration of arsenite (50 ppm) in drinking water while being fed with a HFD for 20 weeks...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Catherine M Phillips, Nitin Shivappa, James R Hébert, Ivan J Perry
Accumulating evidence identifies diet and inflammation as potential mechanisms contributing to cardiometabolic risk. However, inconsistent reports regarding dietary inflammatory potential, biomarkers of cardiometabolic health and metabolic syndrome (MetS) risk exist. Our objective was to examine the relationships between a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ)-derived dietary inflammatory index (DII® ), biomarkers of lipoprotein metabolism, inflammation and glucose homeostasis and MetS risk in a cross-sectional sample of 1992 adults...
August 8, 2018: Nutrients
Xiaojin Song, Jie Wang, Yanchao Wang, Yingang Feng, Qiu Cui, Yandu Lu
To improve the economic viability of Chlorella as feedstock for food commodities, a serial of concentrations of low-cost sweet sorghum juice (SSJ), alternative to glucose, were used for the fermentation of Chlorella pyrenoidosa. A high biomass and protein production (8.91 g L-1 biomass and 4.52 g L-1 protein) was revealed with 20% SSJ. To further increase productivity, heavy-ion irradiation-mediated mutagenesis was employed to create mutants where a strain K05, with desired phenotypes (increased biomass and protein production in pilot-scale fermentation), was screened...
August 4, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Evrim Acar, Gözde Gürdeniz, Bekzod Khakimov, Francesco Savorani, Sanne Kellebjerg Korndal, Thomas Meinert Larsen, Søren Balling Engelsen, Arne Astrup, Lars O Dragsted
SCOPE: Self-reported dietary intake does not represent an objective unbiased assessment. We investigate the effect of the New Nordic Diet (NND) versus Average Danish Diet (ADD) on plasma metabolic profiles to identify biomarkers of compliance and metabolic effects. METHODS AND RESULTS: In a 26-week controlled dietary intervention study, 146 subjects followed either NND, a predominantly organic diet high in fruit, vegetables, whole grains, and fish, or ADD, a diet higher in imported and processed foods...
August 9, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
Yong-Gyun Jung, Young-Ran Yun, Suk-Heung Song, Wook Park
Background: Pen-based devices have emerged as useful tools for measuring pH and glucose, and for fabricating microchannels and microarrays. Pen-based devices take advantage of flexible patterning, inexpensive costs, and small volumes, thereby saving time and increasing efficiency. We have developed a gradient nib marker pen device that generated simultaneously different antibiotic concentrations in bacteria antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST). Methods: The device can deposit on the target surface with the antibiotic gradient...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
Girish Talakatta, Mohsen Sarikhani, Jaseer Muhamed, K Dhanya, Bagganahalli S Somashekar, Padukudru Anand Mahesh, Nagalingam Sundaresan, P V Ravindra
In the long term, diabetes profoundly affects multiple organs, such as the kidney, heart, brain, liver, and eyes. The gradual loss of function in these vital organs contributes to mortality. Nonetheless, the effects of diabetes on the lung tissue are not well understood. Clinical and experimental data from our studies revealed that diabetes induces inflammatory and fibrotic changes in the lung. These changes were mediated by TGF-β-activated epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) signaling pathways. Our studies also found that glucose restriction promoted mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET) and substantially reversed inflammatory and fibrotic changes, suggesting that diabetes-induced EMT was mediated in part by the effects of hyperglycemia...
August 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
José Carlos Santos Salgado, Luana Parras Meleiro, Sibeli Carli, Richard John Ward
The β-glucosidases (β-D-glucoside glucohydrolase, EC hydrolyze glycosidic bonds of alkyl-, amino-, or aryl-β-D-glucosides, cyanogenic glucosides, disaccharides and short oligosaccharides and can also catalyze the synthesis of glycosyl-bonds between different molecules via transglycosylation. Due to their ubiquitous phylogenetic distribution, substrate diversity and ability to both hydrolyze and synthesize glycosidic bonds, the catalysis and regulation of β-glucosidases have been extensively studied...
July 27, 2018: Bioresource Technology
Tugba Ozgoren, Orkun Pinar, Gulnihal Bozdag, Aziz Akin Denizci, Oguzhan Gunduz, Pinar Cakir Hatir, Dilek Kazan
In this study, poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (PHB) production from a newly isolated obligate alkaliphilic Bacillus marmarensis DSM 21297 was investigated to evaluate the ability of obligate alkaliphilic strain to produce a biopolymer. Additionally, electrospun nanofibers from B. marmarensis PHB (Bm-PHB) were generated using Bm-PHB/polycaprolactone (PCL) blend to evaluate the applicability of Bm-PHB. According to the experimental results, the metabolic activity of B. marmarensis decreased the pH of the medium by generating H+ ions to initiate Bm-PHB production, which was achieved at pH below 9...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Prima Buranasin, Koji Mizutani, Kengo Iwasaki, Chantida Pawaputanon Na Mahasarakham, Daisuke Kido, Kohei Takeda, Yuichi Izumi
Delayed gingival wound healing is widely observed in periodontal patients with diabetes. However, the molecular mechanisms of the impaired function of gingival fibroblasts in diabetes remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to investigate changes in the properties of human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) under high-glucose conditions. Primary HGFs were isolated from healthy gingiva and cultured with 5.5, 25, 50, and 75 mM glucose for 72 h. In vitro wound healing, 5-ethynyl-2'-deoxyuridine (EdU), and water-soluble tetrazolium salt (WST-8) assays were performed to examine cell migration and proliferation...
2018: PloS One
Dorien Reijnders, Gijs H Goossens, Gerben D A Hermes, Hauke Smidt, Erwin G Zoetendal, Ellen E Blaak
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the impact of gut microbiota manipulation on fasting and postprandial skeletal muscle metabolism in humans. METHODS: 40 obese, insulin-resistant males were randomized to amoxicillin (broad-spectrum antibiotic), vancomycin (narrow-spectrum antibiotic), or placebo (7 days, 1,500 mg/day). Before and after treatment, forearm blood flow and metabolite fluxes across forearm muscle were measured under fasting and postprandial (high-fat mixed-meal) conditions...
August 9, 2018: Obesity Facts
Barbara Lewko, Anna Maryn, Elzbieta Latawiec, Agnieszka Daca, Apolonia Rybczynska
Podocytes play a central role in the maintenance of the glomerular filtration barrier and are cellular targets of angiotensin II (AngII). Non-hemodynamic pathways of AngII signaling regulate cellular function and mediate podocyte abnormalities that are associated with various glomerulopathies, including diabetic kidney disease. In this study we investigated the capacity of AngII to modulate glucose uptake in mouse podocytes expressing the human AT1 receptor (AT1R+) after 5 days of exposure to normal (NG, 5...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Fabiola Rabelo, Jose Tadeu Stefano, Ana Mercedes Cavaleiro, Rodrigo Vieira Costa Lima, Daniel Ferraz de Campos Mazo, Flair Jose Carrilho, Maria Lúcia Correa-Giannella, Claudia P Oliveira
BACKGROUND: Oxidative stress has been implicated in the progression of severe forms of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). NADPH oxidase produces reactive oxygen species. In the present study, we investigated for the first time two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the regulatory region of genes encoding NADPH oxidase 4 (NOX4) and p22phox (CYBA) in NAFLD. METHODS: A total of 207 biopsy-proven NAFLD patients [simple steatosis (n = 27); nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) (n = 180)] were evaluated...
July 9, 2018: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
Mathijs Drummen, Elke Dorenbos, Anita Ce Vreugdenhil, Anne Raben, Mikael Fogelholm, Margriet S Westerterp-Plantenga, Tanja Adam
AIMS: To assess the effects of a weight maintenance period comprising two diets differing in protein intake, after weight loss, on intrahepatic lipid content and implications for insulin sensitivity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 25 participants (BMI: 31.1±3.5 kg/m2; intrahepatic lipid (IHL): 8.7±8.3%; fasting glucose: 6.4±0.6 mmol/l; HOMA-IR: 3.7±1.6; Matsuda index: 3.4±2.9) started an 8-week low energy diet followed by a 2-year weight maintenance period with either high protein (HP) or medium protein (MP) dietary guidelines...
August 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Rávila Graziany Machado de Souza, Aline Corado Gomes, Inar Alves de Castro, João Felipe Mota
OBJECTIVES: Nut consumption is associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease. Baru almonds have a high protein content and high quantities of mono- and polyunsaturated fatty acids, phenolic compounds, and antioxidants. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of a baru almond-enriched diet on body composition and markers of lipid metabolism in overweight and obese women. METHODS: A randomized, placebo-controlled, 8-wk clinical trial of 46 overweight and obese women was conducted...
June 8, 2018: Nutrition
Masatoshi Murase, Yusuke Seino, Ryuya Maekawa, Atsushi Iida, Kaori Hosokawa, Tomohide Hayami, Shin Tsunekawa, Yoji Hamada, Norihide Yokoi, Susumu Seino, Yoshitaka Hayashi, Hiroshi Arima
AIM/INTRODUCTION: High carbohydrate diet is known to increase insulin secretion and induce obesity. However, whether or not high carbohydrate diet affects β-cell mass has been little investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Both wild-type (WT) mice and KATP channel deficient (Kir6.2KO) mice were fed normal chow (NC) or high-starch (ST) diets for 22 weeks. β-cell mass and the numbers of islets were analyzed by immunohistochemistry, and gene expression levels in islets were investigated by quantitative real-time RT-PCR...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Investigation
Pan Liu, Jia Song, He Liu, Fei Yan, Tianyi He, Lingshu Wang, Huying Shen, Xinguo Hou, Li Chen
PURPOSE: Proglucagon is expressed in both pancreatic alpha cells and intestinal epithelial L cells and is cleaved into glucagon and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) by different prohormone convertases (PCs). Recent studies have shown that α-cells can also secrete GLP-1, which may improve islet function. However, little is known about the factors influencing GLP-1 secretion by α cells. In this study, we investigated whether insulin promotes GLP-1 secretion by α cells, as well as the mechanisms underlying this phenomenon...
August 6, 2018: Endocrine
Claudia Morganti, Sonia Missiroli, Magdalena Lebiedzinska-Arciszewska, Letizia Ferroni, Lucia Morganti, Mariasole Perrone, Daniela Ramaccini, Savino Occhionorelli, Barbara Zavan, Mariusz R Wieckowski, Carlotta Giorgi
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Obesity is a complex disease characterized by the accumulation of excess body fat, which is caused by an increase in adipose cell size and number. The major source of adipocytes comes from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs), although their roles in obesity remain unclear. An understanding of the mechanisms, regulation, and outcomes of adipogenesis is crucial for the development of new treatments for obesity-related diseases. Recently an unexpected role for the tumor suppressor promyelocytic leukemia protein (PML) in hematopoietic stem cell biology and metabolism regulation has come to light, but its role in MSC biology remains unknown...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Revathy Sankaran, Sivakumar Manickam, Yee Jiun Yap, Tau Chuan Ling, Jo-Shu Chang, Pau Loke Show
In this study, a simple sugaring-out supported by liquid biphasic flotation technique combined with ultrasonication was introduced for the extraction of proteins from microalgae. Sugaring-out as a phase separation method is novel and has been used in the extraction of metal ions, biomolecules and drugs. But, its functioning in protein separation from microalgae is still unknown. In this work, the feasibility of sugaring-out coupled with ultrasound for the extraction of protein was investigated. Primary studies were carried out to examine the effect of sonication on the microalgae cell as well as the separation efficiency of the integrated method...
November 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
Yan Chen, Rui Liu, Zhexuan Chu, Bu Le, Hong Zeng, Xiao Zhang, Qi Wu, Guoqing Zhu, Yuxin Chen, Ya Liu, Fenyong Sun, Zhicheng Lu, Yongxia Qiao, Jiayi Wang
Although it is generally accepted that diabetes is one of the most important risk factors for liver cancer, the underlying mechanism is still not well understood. The purpose of the current study is to further investigate how high concentrations of glucose (HG), a major symptom of diabetes, stimulate the development of liver malignancy. Using data mining, gap junction protein gamma 1 (GJC1) was identified as a critical proto-oncoprotein that is essential for the HG stimulation of proliferative capacity in liver cancer cells...
August 5, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
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