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High glucose concentration

Elżbieta Olczak, Alina Kuryłowicz, Zofia Wicik, Paulina Kolodziej, Marta Cakala-Jakimowicz, Olga Buyanovskaya, Przemyslaw Slusarczyk, Malgorzata Mossakowska, Monika Puzianowska-Kuznicka
INTRODUCTION: Polymorphism of the glucocorticoid receptor gene (NR3C1) may modify protein abundance or function and therefore disturb human homeostasis. METHODS: Variant frequencies of the three NR3C1 polymorphisms, rs2963154, rs10515522 and rs2918418, selected in silico as associated with longevity, was analyzed in 552 DNA samples from 95 to 106-year-old individuals and in 284 samples of cord blood DNA from newborns. RESULTS: Frequencies of the TT genotypes of rs2963154 and rs10515522, and of the rs291841 CC genotype, were higher in the long-lived study subjects (p = 0...
December 12, 2018: Experimental Gerontology
Peter Plomgaard, Jakob S Hansen, Bodil Ingerslev, Jens Otto Clemmesen, Niels H Secher, Gerrit van Hall, Andreas Fritsche, Cora Weigert, Rainer Lehmann, Hans-Ulrich Häring, Martin Heni
AIM: Pharmacologic administration of insulin as nasal spray in humans has demonstrated a modulation of endogenous glucose production via the brain when systemic insulin levels are high. Results are conflicting under fasting insulin concentrations. To evaluate effects of brain insulin on endogenous glucose production in fasting humans with focus on hepatic glucose release, we performed a randomized, placebo controlled, blinded, cross-over experiment. MATERIALS AND METHODS: On two separate days, 2 H2 -glucose was infused to nine healthy lean males and blood was sampled from the hepatic vein and a radial artery...
December 15, 2018: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
Zengjia Liu, Haiyang Wang, Guoliang Hou, Honglei Cao, Yan Zhao, Baofa Yang
Notoginsenoside R1 (NG-R1) is a major component of Panax notoginseng, which has been used clinically for the treatment of diabetic nephropathy for centuries in China. This study aimed to reveal the functional impacts and the underlying mechanisms of NG-R1 on oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD)-injured cardiomyocytes. Rat cardiomyocyte line H9c2 and primary cardiomyocytes were subjected to OGD with or without NG-R1 treatment. The expression levels of miR-21 and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) in the cell were altered by microRNA, vector or short-hairpin RNA transfections...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Katherine H M Cox, Andrew Scholey, Lisa Ryan, Maxine P Bonham
INTRODUCTION: Hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and chronic inflammation are risk factors for chronic diseases cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in marine algae with potential antihyperlipidaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anti-inflammatory effects. The modulation of these risk factors using bioactive polyphenols may represent a useful strategy for disease prevention and management; research in humans, however, remains limited. This trial aims to determine the impact of a polyphenol-rich brown seaweed extract on fasting hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and inflammation...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Vian Peshdary, AnneMarie Gagnon, Anne Landry, Loretta Ma, Alexander Sorisky
OBJECTIVES: Obesity and type 2 diabetes often coexist. The effect of hyperglycemia on adipose tissue is, therefore, of interest. Although studies have shown that high glucose (HG) concentrations do not inhibit adipocyte differentiation, the resulting adipocyte phenotype has not been investigated. In particular, the levels of the glucose-responsive transcription factor carbohydrate-responsive response element binding protein (ChREBP) isoforms have not been assessed. METHODS: Human preadipocytes were differentiated into adipocytes in either normal glucose (NG) or HG conditions...
October 9, 2018: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Yao-Wu Liu, Xiao-Li Liu, Li Kong, Meng-Ya Zhang, Ya-Jing Chen, Xia Zhu, Yun-Chao Hao
Although dietary flavonoid quercetin alleviates diabetes-associated cognitive decline in rodents, the mechanisms are not clearly clarified. This study was designed to investigate whether quercetin showed neuroprotection on central neurons against chronic high glucose through the enhancement of Nrf2/ARE/glyoxalase 1 (Glo-1) pathway. SH-SY5Y cells were divided into 8 groups: normal glucose, high glucose (HG), osmotic pressure control, solvent control, HG plus low, middle, high concentrations of quercetin, or Nrf2 activator (sulforaphane)...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jie Zhang, Hongmei Qiu, Jiajun Huang, Shumei Ding, Bo Huang, Ping Zhou, Qingsong Jiang
BACKGROUND: Cardiac hypertrophy is a key pathological process in the context of diabetic cardiomyopathy. Naringenin exhibits multiple pharmacological activities, but the effect of naringenin on cardiomyocyte hypertrophy under diabetic conditions is still far from clear. METHODS: Cardiomyocyte hypertrophy was induced by high glucose (HG, glucose at 25.5 mmol/L) in H9c2 cells, which was determined by cell surface area, protein content and atrial natriuretic factor (ANF) mRNA expression...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Josefa M Navarro, Asunción Morte
An experiment was conducted with seedlings of Citrus macrophylla Wester to study the effects of P nutrition on plants inoculated with a mixture (Rhizophagus irregularis and Funneliformis mosseae) of arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) fungi. The treatments consisted of factorial combinations of two factors: mycorrhization (-AM: non-inoculated plants, and +AM: inoculated plants) and P nutrition (0, 0.1, 1, and 5 mM P). After the P treatments had been applied for 165 days, the AM fungi showed an important effect on plant growth and P uptake, but this effect depended on the P fertilization...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Vlastimil Packa, Stefanie Maedler, Todd Howell, Vadim Bostan, Ngan Diep, Robert J Tooley, Vasile I Furdui
Trace-level phosphate analysis and phosphorus speciation in surface water remained challenging due to adsorption and phosphate uptake by microorganisms. In this study a two-dimensional ion chromatography separation coupled to electrospray ionization high-resolution mass spectrometry (2D-IC-ESI-MS) allowed isotope dilution quantitation of phosphate with simultaneous analysis of eleven phosphate-containing metabolites and two inorganic condensed phosphates. Samples were collected from Lake St. Clair, Lake Ontario and Georgian Bay (ON, Canada)...
December 14, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Essam A Assali, Dovi Shlomo, Jialiu Zeng, Evan P Taddeo, Kyle M Trudeau, Karel A Erion, Aaron H Colby, Mark W Grinstaff, Marc Liesa, Guy Las, Orian S Shirihai
Chronic exposure of pancreatic β cells to high concentrations of free fatty acids leads to lipotoxicity (LT)-mediated suppression of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion. This effect is in part caused by a decline in mitochondrial function as well as by a reduction in lysosomal acidification. Because both mitochondria and lysosomes can alter one another's function, it remains unclear which initiating dysfunction sets off the detrimental cascade of LT, ultimately leading to β-cell failure. Here, we investigated the effects of restoring lysosomal acidity on mitochondrial function under LT...
December 14, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Lili Chen, Bin Lu, Yehong Yang, Weiwei Zhang, Xuanchun Wang, Houguang Zhou, Jie Wen, Zhen Yang, Renming Hu
OBJECTIVE: Cathepsin S is highly expressed in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue. Cathepsin S correlates with central obesity and contributes to the formation and progression of atherosclerosis. Here, we sought to evaluate the association of serum cathepsin S with metabolic syndrome (MS) in overweight and obese Chinese adults. METHODS: We evaluated serum cathepsin S levels in a cross-sectional sample of 781 overweight and obese Chinese adults by ELISA. Glucose, insulin, lipid profile, inflammatory markers, and adipokines were also measured...
December 14, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Fábio de Souza Barbosa, Leonardo Capra Pezzi, Marisa Tsao, Tiago Franco de Oliveira, Sandra Manoela Dias Macedo, Elfrides E S Schapoval, Andreas S L Mendez
Carbapenems show recognized instability in aqueous solutions, therefore some care must be taken from its handling and preparation to its use in the hospital environment. Here, the stability and degradation products of imipenem were investigated from conditions that simulate its clinical use. For this, a simple stability-indicating method by HPLC-DAD was validated with focus on quantitation of drug concentration remaining from infusion solutions (sodium chloride 0.9% and glucose 5%). The degradation products formed were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry (ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS), being detected the ions [M + H]+ at m/z 318 (DP-1), m/z 599 (DP-2) and m/z 658 (DP-3)...
December 13, 2018: Biomedical Chromatography: BMC
Shangshang Sun, Xinlei Wei, Chun You
Laminaribiose is a reducing glucobiose linked by a β-1,3 glycosidic bond; it is also a precursor for building blocks in the pharmaceutical industry, a powerful germinating agent and antiseptic, as well as a potential prebiotic. In this study, an in vitro enzymatic biosystem composed of α-glucan phosphorylase, laminaribiose phosphorylase, isoamylase and 4-glucanotransferase was designed for the one-pot synthesis of laminaribiose from low-cost maltodextrin and glucose. Through condition optimization, 51 mM laminaribiose was produced from 10 g/L maltodextrin (55...
December 13, 2018: Biotechnology Journal
Mohammad Ojaghi, Fatemeh Soleimanifar, Alireza Kazemi, Marzieh Ghollasi, Masoud Soleimani, Nikoo Nasoohi, Seyed Ehsan Enderami
Combination of adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) and synthetic materials in terms of pancreatic tissue engineering can be considered as a treatment of diabetes. This study aimed to evaluate the differentiation of human ADSCs to pancreatic cells on poly-l-lactic acid/polyvinyl alcohol (PLLA/PVA) nanofibers as a three-dimensional (3D) scaffold. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) were characterized for mesenchymal surface markers by flow cytometry. Then ADSCs were seeded on 3D scaffolds and treated with pancreatic differentiation medium...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Nina Jendrike, Annette Baumstark, Stefan Pleus, Jochen Mende, Cornelia Haug, Guido Freckmann
BACKGROUND: Analytical quality of blood glucose monitoring systems (BGMS) is an important aspect for many diabetes patients. Sufficiently high analytical quality is required for adequate diabetes therapy. METHODS: In this study, system accuracy and measurement precision of a BGMS were assessed based on ISO 15197:2013. For system accuracy, this standard requires a specific glucose distribution and at least 95% of results obtained with the BGMS in capillary blood to fall within ±15 mg/dl or ±15% (at glucose concentrations <100 mg/dl or ≥100 mg/dl, respectively) of corresponding comparison method results, and at least 99% of results to be found within clinically acceptable consensus error grid (CEG) zones A and B...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Diabetes Science and Technology
Ghulam Nabi, Yujiang Hao, Richard William McLaughlin, Ding Wang
Background: Poyang is the largest freshwater lake in China, where the acoustic environment and space for the critically endangered Yangtze finless porpoises (YFPs) has been altered by heavy vessel traffic and dredging activities. The density of vessel and the rate of dredging increases annually, especially in the area with the highest density of YFPs. The heavy vessel traffic can cause an increase in the physical activities and direct physical injuries to the YFPs. Furthermore, noise is a potent stressor to all cetaceans irrespective of age and can compromise all their physiological functions...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
María Belén Acevedo, Ramiro Ferrando, Bruce W Patterson, J Christopher Eagon, Samuel Klein, Marta Yanina Pepino
BACKGROUND: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery (RYGB) increases the rate of alcohol absorption so that peak blood alcohol concentration is 2-fold higher after surgery compared with concentrations reached after consuming the same amount presurgery. Because high doses of alcohol can lead to hypoglycemia, patients may be at increased risk of developing hypoglycemia after alcohol ingestion. OBJECTIVES: We conducted 2 studies to test the hypothesis that the consumption of approximately 2 standard drinks of alcohol would decrease glycemia more after RYGB than before surgery...
November 2, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Yohsuke Ohkubo, Takashi Sekido, Shin-Ichi Nishio, Keiko Sekido, Junichiro Kitahara, Satoru Suzuki, Mitsuhisa Komatsu
The thyroid hormone-binding protein μ-crystallin (CRYM) mediates thyroid hormone action by sequestering triiodothyronine in the cytoplasm and regulating the intracellular concentration of thyroid hormone. As thyroid hormone action is closely associated with glycolipid metabolism, it has been proposed that CRYM may contribute to this process by reserving or releasing triiodothyronine in the cytoplasm. We aimed to clarify the relationship between CRYM and glycolipid metabolism by comparing wild-type and CRYM knockout mice fed a high-fat diet...
December 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Agnieszka U Blachnio-Zabielska, Hady Razak Hady, Adam R Markowski, Adam Kurianiuk, Alicja Karwowska, Jan Górski, Piotr Zabielski
Ceramide accumulation in muscle and in liver is implicated in the induction of insulin resistance. Much less in known about the role of ceramide in adipose tissue. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the role of ceramide in adipose tissue and to clarify whether lipids participate in the regulation of adipocytokine secretion. The experiments were performed on male Wistar rats divided into three groups: 1. Control, 2. fed high fat diet (HFD), and 3. fed HFD and treated with myriocin. Ceramide (Cer) and diacylglycerol (DAG) content were analyzed by LC/MS/MS...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Nelson Andrade, Cláudia Silva, Fátima Martel
The pathogenesis of various gastrointestinal diseases, including gastrointestinal cancers and inflammatory bowel disease, is associated with increased oxidative stress levels. We aimed to investigate the effect of oxidative stress induced by tert -butylhydroperoxide (TBH) on the uptake of 3 H-deoxy-d-glucose (3 H-DG) and 14 C-fructose by the human intestinal Caco-2 cell line. TBH (500 μM; 24 h) increased lipid peroxidation (TBARS) levels and was not cytotoxic. TBH (500 μM; 24 h) increased uptake of both low (SGLT1-mediated) and high concentrations (SGLT1- and GLUT2-mediated) of 3 H-DG, but did not affect absorption of 14 C-fructose (GLUT2- and GLUT5-mediated)...
November 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
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