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A2 Milk

Xiaotian Xu, Aiwu Zhang, Yingting Zhu, Wen He, Wei Di, Yannan Fang, Xiaolei Shi
Recent evidence have suggested that neuroinflammation and ischemia induce the activation of two different types of reactive astrocytes, termed A1 and A2. Additionally, A1 astrocytes contribute to the death of neurons and oligodendrocytes in neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD). In the current study, we constructed an Aβ42-activated microglia-conditioned medium to induce A1 astrocytic activation via secretion of interleukin 1α, tumor necrosis factor, and complement component 1q in vitro, and indicated the regulatory role of milk fat globule epidermal growth factor 8 (MFG-E8) on A1/A2 astrocytic alteration through the downregulation of nuclear factor-κB and the upregulation of PI3K-Akt...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Jitka Kyselová, Kateřina Ječmínková, Jitka Matějíčková, Oto Hanuš, Tomáš Kott, Miloslava Štípková, Michaela Krejčová
Objective: The aim of the study was to find a possible association between the β- and κ-casein and β-lactoglobulin genotypes and important milk physiochemical and technological characteristics such as acidity, alcohol stability, the contents of some minerals and the parameters of acid fermentation ability (FEA) in Czech Fleckvieh Cattle. Methods: Milk and blood samples were collected from 338 primiparous Czech Fleckvieh cows at the same stage of lactation. The genotypes of individual cows for κ-casein (alleles A, B and E) and β-lactoglobulin (alleles A and B) were ascertained by PCR-RFLP, while their β-casein (alleles A1, A2, A3 and B) genotype was determined using melting curve genotyping analysis...
July 26, 2018: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
N Misra, T F Wines, C L Knopp, R Hermann, L Bond, B Mitchell, M A McGuire, J K Tinker
Staphylococcus aureus causes a chronic, contagious disease of the udder, or mastitis, in dairy cows. This infection is often refractory to antibiotic treatment, and has a significant economic impact on milk production worldwide. An effective vaccine to prevent S. aureus mastitis would improve animal health, reduce antibiotic dependence and inform human vaccine approaches. The iron-regulated surface determinant A (IsdA) and clumping factor A (ClfA) are conserved S. aureus extracellular-matrix adhesins and target vaccine antigens...
June 7, 2018: Vaccine
P G Eusebi, O Cortés, C Carleos, S Dunner, J Cañon
The identification of genomic regions including signatures of selection produced by domestication and its subsequent artificial selection processes allows the understanding of the evolution of bovine breeds. Although several studies describe the genomic variability among meat or milk production cattle breeds, there are limited studies orientated towards bovine behavioural features. This study is focused on mapping genomic signatures of selection which may provide insights of differentiation between neutral and selected polymorphisms...
June 2018: Journal of Animal Breeding and Genetics, Zeitschrift Für Tierzüchtung und Züchtungsbiologie
Miguel Angel Duarte-Vázquez, Carlos Raúl García-Ugalde, Blanca Erika Álvarez, Laura Mariana Villegas, Blanca Estela García-Almendárez, Jorge Luis Rosado, Carlos Regalado
Beta-casein (BC) in cow's milk occurs in several genetic variants, where BC A1 (BCA1) and BC A2 (BCA2) are the most frequent. This work deals with a method based on modified polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis using urea PAGE to discriminate BCA1 and BCA2 variants from Holstein Friesian (HF) and genetically selected Jersey A2/A2 (JA2) cow's milk. Two well defined bands were obtained from BC fraction of HF milk, while that of JA2 showed a single band. Proteins from these bands were sequenced by HPLC-quadrupole linear ion trap/mass spectrometry, resulting in BCA1 and BCA2 separation from the BC fraction of HF milk, whereas BCA2 was the only constituent of JA2 fraction...
May 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Hanh T H Nguyen, Lydia Ong, Christelle Lopez, Sandra E Kentish, Sally L Gras
Mozzarella cheese is a classical dairy product but most research to date has focused on low moisture products. In this study, the microstructure and physicochemical properties of both laboratory and commercially produced high moisture buffalo Mozzarella cheeses were investigated and compared to high moisture bovine products. Buffalo and bovine Mozzarella cheeses were found to significantly differ in their microstructure, chemical composition, organic acid and proteolytic profiles but had similar hardness and meltability...
December 2017: Food Research International
Elisa Massella, Silvia Piva, Federica Giacometti, Gaetano Liuzzo, Angelo Vittorio Zambrini, Andrea Serraino
Bovine beta casein A1 is one of the most common variants in dairy cattle breeds; it is considered a risk factor in milk intolerance and in other important human diseases, because of the bioactive peptide beta casomorphin-7 (BCM7) produced by raw or processed A1-milk, but not by A2-milk, during digestion. The aim of this study was to perform a cheap and rapid method to investigate beta casein polymorphism in copious animals. The study included 2 dairy farms with a totally of 1230 cows. Beta casein genotypes were estimated evaluating Exon 7 region of bovine beta casein gene (CSN2) by sequences analysis...
August 16, 2017: Italian Journal of Food Safety
Mei He, Jianqin Sun, Zhuo Qin Jiang, Yue Xin Yang
BACKGROUND: A major protein component of cow's milk is β-casein. The most frequent variants in dairy herds are A1 and A2. Recent studies showed that milk containing A1 β-casein promoted intestinal inflammation and exacerbated gastrointestinal symptoms. However, the acute gastrointestinal effects of A1 β-casein have not been investigated. This study compared the gastrointestinal effects of milk containing A1 and A2 β-casein versus A2 β-casein alone in Chinese adults with self-reported lactose intolerance...
October 25, 2017: Nutrition Journal
Simon Brooke-Taylor, Karen Dwyer, Keith Woodford, Natalya Kost
This is the first systematic review, to our knowledge, of published studies investigating the gastrointestinal effects of A1-type bovine β-casein (A1) compared with A2-type bovine β-casein (A2). The review is relevant to nutrition practice given the increasing availability and promotion in a range of countries of dairy products free of A1 for both infant and adult nutrition. In vitro and in vivo studies (all species) were included. In vivo studies were limited to oral consumption. Inclusion criteria encompassed all English-language primary research studies, but not reviews, involving milk, fresh-milk products, β-casein, and β-casomorphins published through 12 April 2017...
September 2017: Advances in Nutrition
Michal Bijak, Joanna Saluk-Bijak
BACKGROUND: Arachidonic acid metabolism by cyclooxygenase (COX) is a major pathway for blood platelets' activation, which is associated with pro-thrombotic platelet activity and the production of pro-inflammatory mediators. Inhibition of COX activity is one of the major means of anti-platelet pharmacotherapy preventing arterial thrombosis and reducing the incidence of cardiovascular events. Recent studies have presented that a silymarin (standardized extract of Milk thistle (Silybum marianum)) can inhibit the COX pathway...
August 10, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Minghui Zhang, Dongying Chen, Zhen Zhen, Jinxia Ao, Xiaohan Yuan, Xuejun Gao
Annexin A2 (AnxA2) has been shown to play multiple roles in growth, development, and metabolism, but the functions of AnxA2 and the signaling pathways associated with AnxA2 are still not fully understood. In this study, we aim to reveal whether and how AnxA2 could be involved in milk synthesis and proliferation of bovine mammary epithelial cells (BMECs). Using gene function study approaches, we found that AnxA2 positively regulates PIP3 level, phosphorylation of mTOR, and protein levels of SREBP-1c and Cyclin D1 leading to milk synthesis and cell proliferation...
March 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Miguel Á Duarte-Vázquez, Carlos García-Ugalde, Laura M Villegas-Gutiérrez, Blanca E García-Almendárez, Jorge L Rosado
Beta-casein (BC) is frequently expressed as BC A2 and BC A1 in cow's milk. Gastrointestinal digestion of BC A1 results in the release of the opioid peptide beta-casomorphin 7 (BCM7) which is less likely to occur from BC A2. This work was aimed to produce milk containing BC A2 with no BC A1 (BC A2 milk) using genetically selected CSN2 A2A2 Jersey cows. Additionally, we aimed to develop an infant formula (IF) suitable for healthy full-term infants during the first six months of life based on BC A2 milk. The concentration of BCM7 released from BC A2 IF, from commercially available IFs as well as from human milk and raw cow's milk was evaluated after simulated gastrointestinal digestion (SGID)...
July 12, 2017: Foods (Basel, Switzerland)
Jérémie Bruno, Aurélie Nicolas, Sandra Pesenti, Jessica Schwarz, Jean-Luc Simon, Joëlle Léonil, Pascale Plaisancié
β-Casofensin is a bioactive milk peptide that modulates the intestinal barrier, particularly through its action on goblet cells. β-Casofensin corresponds to fragment (f) 94-123 of the bovine β-casein (β-CN) A2 variant. Fifteen genetic variants of bovine β-CN (A1-3, B-G, H1-2, I-L) are known, of which the A2, A1, and B forms are the most common. These variants differ from each other by the substitution of one or more amino acids, some of which are localized in f94 to 123. The aim of our study was to compare the intestinal effects of β-casofensin A2 and its 3 main variants: A1, A3, and B...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Nicolas Bedere, Henk Bovenhuis
BACKGROUND: Milk β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) content is of interest as it is associated with nutritional and manufacturing properties. It is known that milk β-LG content is strongly affected by genetic factors. In cattle, most of the genetic differences are associated with a chromosomal region on BTA11, which contains the β-LG gene. The aim of this study was to characterize this region using 777 k SNP data (BovineHDbeadChip) and perform a haplotype-based association study. A statistical approach was developed to build haplotypes that capture the genetic variation associated with this genomic region...
February 22, 2017: BMC Genetics
Ben Kirk, Jade Mitchell, Matthew Jackson, Farzad Amirabdollahian, Omid Alizadehkhaiyat, Tom Clifford
Hyperaminoacidemia following ingestion of cows-milk may stimulate muscle anabolism and attenuate exercise-induced muscle damage (EIMD). However, as dairy-intolerant athletes do not obtain the reported benefits from milk-based products, A2 milk may offer a suitable alternative as it lacks the A1-protein. This study aimed to determine the effect of A2 milk on recovery from a sports-specific muscle damage model. Twenty-one male team sport players were allocated to three independent groups: A2 milk ( n = 7), regular milk ( n = 7), and placebo (PLA) ( n = 7)...
January 28, 2017: Nutrients
M Gholami, S H Hafezian, G Rahimi, A Farhadi, Z Rahimi, D Kahrizi, S Kiani, H Karim, S Vaziri, S Muhammadi, F Veisi, K Ghadiri, H Shetabi, J Zargooshi
There are two allelic forms of A1 and A2 of β-casein gene in dairy cattle. Proteolytic digestion of bovine β-casein A1 type produces bioactive peptide of β-casomorphin-7 known as milk devil. β-casomorphin-7 causes many diseases, including type 1 diabetes, cardiovascular disease syndrome, sudden death and madness. The aim of the present study was to determine the different allelic forms of β-casein gene in Iranian Holstein, Simmental and native cattle in order to identify A1 and A2 variants. The blood samples were collected randomly and DNA was extracted using modified salting out method...
October 31, 2016: Cellular and Molecular Biology
Richard Deth, Andrew Clarke, Jiayi Ni, Malav Trivedi
This study reports the plasma glutathione concentrations in a double-blind, randomized, controlled, 2 × 2 cross-over study in which healthy participants consumed conventional milk (2 × 250 mL per day) containing both A1 and A2 types of β-casein, or milk containing only A2 type β-casein. Beta-casomorphin-7 (BCM-7), a peptide uniquely derived from the A1 type of β-casein, was previously reported to downregulate glutathione expression in human gut epithelial and neuronal cell lines by limiting cysteine uptake...
September 29, 2016: Nutrition Journal
Ronghua Dai, Yu Fang, Wenjing Zhao, Shuyun Liu, Jinmei Ding, Ke Xu, Lingyu Yang, Chuan He, Fangmei Ding, He Meng
The study reported in this Regional Research Communication aimed to analyse the genetic polymorphisms of β-casein in Chinese Holstein cows. β-casein has received considerable research interest in the dairy industry and animal breeding in recent years as a source not only of high quality protein, but also of bioactive peptides that may be linked to health effects. Morever, the polymorphic nature of β-casein and its association with milk production traits, composition, and quality also attracted several efforts in evaluating the allelic distribution of β-casein locus as a potential dairy trait marker...
August 2016: Journal of Dairy Research
Sun Jianqin, Xu Leiming, Xia Lu, Gregory W Yelland, Jiayi Ni, Andrew J Clarke
BACKGROUND: Cows' milk generally contains two types of β-casein, A1 and A2 types. Digestion of A1 type can yield the peptide β-casomorphin-7, which is implicated in adverse gastrointestinal effects of milk consumption, some of which resemble those in lactose intolerance. This study aimed to compare the effects of milk containing A1 β-casein with those of milk containing only A2 β-casein on inflammation, symptoms of post-dairy digestive discomfort (PD3), and cognitive processing in subjects with self-reported lactose intolerance...
April 2, 2016: Nutrition Journal
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