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Milk Protein

Sonali Kumari, Dwaipayan Bhattacharya, Nandini Rangaraj, Sumana Chakarvarty, Anand K Kondapi, Nalam M Rao
AIM: To investigate the efficacy of lactoferrin nanoparticles (LfNPs) in delivering siRNA across the blood-brain barrier to treat glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) and with an additional objective of potentiation of conventional temozolomide (TMZ) chemotherapy. METHODS: Aurora Kinase B (AKB) siRNA-loaded nanoparticles (AKB-LfNPs) were prepared with milk protein, lactoferrin, by water in oil emulsion method. AKB-LfNPs were tested in cell lines and in GBM orthotopic mouse model with and without TMZ treatment...
October 18, 2018: Nanomedicine
Lingli Chen, Jingxuan Wang, Pingping Jiang, Fazheng Ren, Xingen Lei, Huiyuan Guo
BACKGROUND: Gestational hypothyroidism (G-HypoT) is one of the most common thyroid diseases in pregnant women. Human milk, which closely links the mother with infant, is an important factor to the infant health. Here, we analyzed the colostrum whey proteome of women with or without G-HypoT. METHODS AND RESULTS: Using high-mass accuracy and high-resolution liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), 1055 proteins were identified. Tandem Mass Tags (TMT) analysis identified differentially expressed proteins between G-HypoT and non-G-HypoT mothers...
2018: PloS One
Ha Youn Shin, Lothar Hennighausen, Kyung Hyun Yoo
The de novo formation of milk-secreting mammary epithelium during pregnancy is regulated by prolactin through activation of the transcription factor STAT5, which stimulates the expression of several hundred mammary-specific genes. In addition to its key role in activating gene expression in mammary tissue, STAT5, which is ubiquitously expressed in most cell types, implements T cell-specific programs controlled by interleukins. However, the mechanisms by which STAT5 controls cell-specific genetic programs activated by distinct cytokines remain relatively unknown...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Mammary Gland Biology and Neoplasia
Jakub Cieslak, Lukasz Wodas, Alicja Borowska, Piotr Pawlak, Grazyna Czyzak-Runowska, Jacek Wojtowski, Kamila Puppel, Beata Kuczynska, Mariusz Mackowski
Genes encoding casein proteins are important candidates for milk composition traits in mammals. In the case of the domestic horse, our knowledge of casein genes is limited mainly to coding sequence variants. This study involved screening for polymorphism in 5'-flanking regions of four genes encoding equine caseins (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3) and making a preliminary assessment of their effect on the gene expression (on the mRNA and protein levels) and milk composition traits in selected horse breeds. Altogether, 23 polymorphisms (21 described previously SNPs and two novel InDels) were found in the studied sequences, the majority of which are common in various horse breeds...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
Ishfaq A Sheikh, Essam H Jiffri, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Mohammad A Kamal
Lactoperoxodase (LPO) is a heme peroxidase enzyme present in mammalian milk. It is an antimicrobial protein with wide range of industrial applications. Although the three dimensional structure of LPO from various mammalian species has been reported, but its structure from camel source is still unknown. So far, the crystallization attempts have not been successful in determining camel LPO (cLPO) structure. Herein, we developed the three dimensional structure of cLPO by homology modeling approach using prime module available in Schrodinger suite...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Graphics & Modelling
Sara Moukarzel, Roger A Dyer, Cyrielle Garcia, Alejandra M Wiedeman, Guilaine Boyce, Joanne Weinberg, Bernd O Keller, Rajavel Elango, Sheila M Innis
Human milk contains nutritional, immunoprotective and developmental components that support optimal infant growth and development. The milk fat globule membrane (MFGM) is one unique component, comprised of a tri-layer of polar lipids, glycolipids, and proteins, that may be important for brain development. MFGM is not present in most infant formulas. We tested the effects of bovine MFGM supplementation on reflex development and on brain lipid and metabolite composition in rats using the "pup in a cup" model...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Amber M Milan, Alison J Hodgkinson, Sarah M Mitchell, Utpal K Prodhan, Colin G Prosser, Elizabeth A Carpenter, Karl Fraser, David Cameron-Smith
Fortified milk drinks are predominantly manufactured from bovine (cow) sources. Alternative formulations include those prepared with hydrolysed bovine milk proteins or from alternate bovidae species, such as caprine (goat) milk. Currently, there is little data on protein digestive and metabolic responses following ingestion of fortified milk drinks. To examine the digestive and metabolic responses to commercially-available fortified milks, young adults ( n = 15 males: 15 females), in a randomised sequence, ingested isonitrogenous quantities of whole cow-protein (WC), whole goat-protein (WG), or partially-hydrolysed whey cow-protein (HC), commercial fortified milks...
October 12, 2018: Nutrients
Juan J Díaz, Beatriz Espín, Oscar Segarra, Gloria Domínguez-Ortega, Javier Blasco-Alonso, Beatriz Cano, Ana Rayo, Ana Moreno
OBJECTIVE: To describe clinical, epidemiological and management characteristics of food protein-induced enterocolitis syndrome (FPIES) cases in Spain. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Multicenter observational retrospective study. FPIES cases diagnosed in specialized units in Spain over 12 months in 2017 (January to December) according to the recently published international diagnostic criteria were included. RESULTS: One hundred and twenty patients (53...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
Fauzia Shakeel, Melanie Newkirk, Taymeyah Altoubah, Denise Martinez, Ernest K Amankwah
BACKGROUND: We evaluated tolerance of hydrolyzed liquid protein (LP) supplement added to fortified human milk (HM) to optimize protein intake in preterm infants. METHODS: A prospective observational study of 31 subjects compared with 31 historic controls, receiving mothers own milk (MOM) and/or donor milk (DM) to assess LP tolerance, growth, and risk for morbidities was conducted. Milk was analyzed for nutrient content. Feeding intolerance, defined as cessation of feedings for ≥48 hours, abdominal distension and/or residuals, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC), and metabolic acidosis were used to assess safety, while weight and head circumference (HC) were used to evaluate growth...
October 15, 2018: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Elisa Mariani, Augusto Biasini, Lucia Marvulli, Silvia Martini, Arianna Aceti, Giacomo Faldella, Luigi Corvaglia, Alessandra Sansavini, Silvia Savini, Francesca Agostini, Marcello Stella, Erica Neri
Objective: The aim of this observational study was to evaluate the effects of two different protein intake regimes on feeding tolerance, in-hospital growth, anthropometric data and psychomotor outcome up to 24 months corrected age (CA) in extremely low birth-weight (ELBW; birth weight <1000 g) infants. Methods: During the period 2008-2013, 52 ELBW infants admitted at birth to two Neonatal Intensive Care Units of Emilia Romagna (Italy) were fed according to different protocols of protein fortification of human milk: an estimated protein intakes at maximum fortification levels of 3...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
Sharon A Huws, Christopher J Creevey, Linda B Oyama, Itzhak Mizrahi, Stuart E Denman, Milka Popova, Rafael Muñoz-Tamayo, Evelyne Forano, Sinead M Waters, Matthias Hess, Ilma Tapio, Hauke Smidt, Sophie J Krizsan, David R Yáñez-Ruiz, Alejandro Belanche, Leluo Guan, Robert J Gruninger, Tim A McAllister, C Jamie Newbold, Rainer Roehe, Richard J Dewhurst, Tim J Snelling, Mick Watson, Garret Suen, Elizabeth H Hart, Alison H Kingston-Smith, Nigel D Scollan, Rodolpho M do Prado, Eduardo J Pilau, Hilario C Mantovani, Graeme T Attwood, Joan E Edwards, Neil R McEwan, Steven Morrisson, Olga L Mayorga, Christopher Elliott, Diego P Morgavi
The rumen is a complex ecosystem composed of anaerobic bacteria, protozoa, fungi, methanogenic archaea and phages. These microbes interact closely to breakdown plant material that cannot be digested by humans, whilst providing metabolic energy to the host and, in the case of archaea, producing methane. Consequently, ruminants produce meat and milk, which are rich in high-quality protein, vitamins and minerals, and therefore contribute to food security. As the world population is predicted to reach approximately 9...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
A Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, M Rinne, M Lamminen, C Mapato, T Ampapon, M Wanapat, A Vanhatalo
Ruminant-based food production faces currently multiple challenges such as environmental emissions, climate change and accelerating food-feed-fuel competition for arable land. Therefore, more sustainable feed production is needed together with the exploitation of novel resources. In addition to numerous food industry (milling, sugar, starch, alcohol or plant oil) side streams already in use, new ones such as vegetable and fruit residues are explored, but their conservation is challenging and production often seasonal...
October 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
J Caballero-Villalobos, A Figueroa, K Xibrraku, E Angón, J M Perea, A Garzón
In Spain, ewe milk is mainly used for cheesemaking, and farming systems have traditionally been based on the use of autochthonous breeds. However, in recent years, the progressive introduction of highly productive foreign breeds in Spanish farms has led to an increasing interest in the characterization of dairy sheep breeds to evaluate whether genetic selection schemes should focus on productivity or milk technological aptitude. The purpose of this work was to explore milk composition and coagulation to classify 4 of the main dairy sheep breeds used in Spain...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Alessio Cecchinato, Tania Bobbo, Pamela L Ruegg, Luigi Gallo, Giovanni Bittante, Sara Pegolo
The aim of this study was to investigate in Holstein cows the genetic basis of blood serum metabolites [i.e., total protein, albumin, globulin, albumin:globulin ratio (A:G), and blood β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB)], a set of milk phenotypes related to udder health, milk quality technological characteristics, and genetic relationships among them. Samples of milk were collected from 498 Holstein cows belonging to 28 herds. All animal welfare and milk phenotypes were assessed using standard analytical methodology. A set of Bayesian univariate and bivariate animal models was implemented via Gibbs sampling, and statistical inference was based on the marginal posterior distributions of parameters of concern...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Hui Wang, Yujun Jiang, Yashuo Zhang, Ziwei Zhang, Xinyan Yang, Md Aslam Ali, Edward M Fox, Kari S Gobius, Chaoxin Man
Silver nanoparticles (AgNP) have been widely applied because of their broad spectrum of antimicrobial activities against bacteria, fungi, and viruses. However, little research has been done to evaluate their effects on Cronobacter sakazakii, an opportunistic pathogen usually infecting infants and having a high fatality rate. The aims of this work were to investigate the antibacterial property of novel, synthesized, positively charged silver nanoparticles against C. sakazakii and to discuss the potential antibacterial mechanisms involved...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Xiliang Du, Guowen Liu, Juan J Loor, Zhiyuan Fang, Ryan Bucktrout, Yuchen Yang, Qianqian Ye, Zhen Shi, Taiyu Shen, Xinghui Wang, Zhicheng Peng, Chenxu Zhao, Bin Lv, Dongmei Xing, Yiwei Zhu, Xiaobing Li, Xinwei Li
The ability of liver to respond to changes in nutrient availability is essential for the maintenance of metabolic homeostasis. Autophagy encompasses mechanisms of cell survival, including capturing, degrading, and recycling of intracellular proteins and organelles in lysosomes. During negative nutrient status, autophagy provides substrates to sustain cellular metabolism and hence, tissue function. Severe negative energy balance in dairy cows is associated with fatty liver. The aim of this study was to investigate the hepatic autophagy status in dairy cows with severe fatty liver and to determine associations with biomarkers of liver function and inflammation...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Y F Zhou, Z Zhou, F Batistel, I Martinez-Cortés, R T Pate, D L Luchini, J J Loor
Insufficient supply of Met and choline (Chol) around parturition could compromise hepatic metabolism and milk protein synthesis in dairy cows. Mechanistic responses associated with supply of Met or Chol in primary liver cells enriched with hepatocytes (PHEP) from cows have not been thoroughly ascertained. Objectives were to isolate and culture PHEP to examine abundance of genes and proteins related to transmethylation, transsulfuration, and cytidine 5'-diphosphocholine (CDP-choline) pathways in response to Met or Chol...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
K S Babu, J K Amamcharla
This study investigated the feasibility of front-face fluorescence spectroscopy (FFFS) to predict the solubility index and relative dissolution index (RDI) of milk protein concentrate (MPC) powders during storage. Twenty MPC powders with varying protein contents from 4 different commercial manufacturers were used in this study. The MPC powders were stored at 2 temperatures (25 and 40°C) for 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 wk. The front-face fluorescence spectra of tryptophan and Maillard products were recorded and analyzed with chemometrics to predict solubility of MPC powders...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
M Zinicola, H Korzec, A G V Teixeira, E K Ganda, L Bringhenti, A C C H Tomazi, R O Gilbert, R C Bicalho
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of treating Holstein cows with pegbovigrastim on periparturient diseases, milk production, and reproductive performance while exploring the mode of action of an immunomodulatory protein. Cows were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 treatments, untreated control (CTR, n = 423) and pegbovigrastim (PEG, n = 417). At 7 d from the anticipated calving date (d -7), cows allocated to PEG received a subcutaneous injection of 15 mg of pegylated recombinant bovine granulocyte colony stimulating factor (pegbovigrastim injection, Imrestor, Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN)...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Z Ozdemir, B Tras, K Uney
This study determined the distribution of drugs to different milk fractions according to their physicochemical properties. Hydrophilic drugs tend to concentrate in skim milk, whereas lipophilic drugs tend to concentrate in cream. The concentration of a drug in casein is related to its degree of binding to milk proteins. Thus, we aimed to determine whether withdrawal time in whole milk differs from that in cream, casein, and skim milk. Amoxicillin and tylosin were selected as prototype hydrophilic and lipophilic drugs, respectively...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
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