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Danuta Raj-Koziak, Elżbieta Gos, Weronika Świerniak, Lucyna Karpiesz, Iwona Niedziałek, Elżbieta Włodarczyk, Henryk Skarżyński, Piotr H Skarżyński
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to assess the relationship between psychoacoustic matches of tinnitus loudness and tinnitus loudness measured with a visual analogue scale (VAS) in patients with normal hearing and patients with hearing loss. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. PATIENTS: A clinical group of 140 adult patients (46.4% women, 53.6% men) aged from 19 to 81 years old who had had tinnitus for at least 6 months were included in the study...
January 2019: Otology & Neurotology
Dawei Wu, Angela L Nocera, Sarina K Mueller, Kristen Finn, Towia A Libermann, Benjamin S Bleier
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The overlying inflammatory mucosa plays a crucial role in the initiation of osteitis; however, the molecular mechanism is unclear. The objective of this study was to explore the bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) pathway and to correlate the expression of key signaling molecules with the degree of osteitis in patients with chronic rhinosinusitis with nasal polyps (CRSwNP). STUDY DESIGN: Prospective experimental analysis. METHODS: This was an institutional review board-approved study in which mucosal samples were obtained from sites of osteitis in CRSwNP and compared to nonosteitic healthy controls (n = 10/group)...
December 11, 2018: Laryngoscope
Shafqat Rasul Chaudhry, Stilla Frede, Gerald Seifert, Thomas Mehari Kinfe, Mika Niemelä, Alf Lamprecht, Sajjad Muhammad
Aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) is a highly complex disease. Majority of aSAH survivors confront post-SAH complications including cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and delayed cerebral ischemia (DCI) that mainly influence the clinical outcome. Tissue damage during early brain injury may lead to release of damage associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) that may initiate and sustain inflammation during the course of aSAH through activation of pattern recognition receptors. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) due to unmethylated CpG motifs acts as a DAMP via binding to toll-like receptor-9...
December 5, 2018: Mitochondrion
Marloes van Splunter, Olaf Perdijk, Henriëtte Fick-Brinkhof, Anouk L Feitsma, Esther G Floris-Vollenbroek, Ben Meijer, Sylvia Brugman, Huub F J Savelkoul, Els van Hoffen, R J Joost van Neerven
During aging the immune system is dysregulated. Especially plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) and myeloid DCs (mDCs) have reduced Toll like receptor (TLR)-mediated responses resulting in increased susceptibility to infections. Consumption of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) has been shown to reduce infections with viruses. Galacto-oligosacharides (GOS) and vitamin D are associated with reduced pro-inflammatory cytokine levels in serum, and increased TLR7/8 responses, respectively. A double-blind placebo-controlled nutritional intervention study in elderly women was performed, to investigate the potential of bLF, GOS, and vitamin D to restore TLR responsiveness of pDCs and mDCs and to reduce inflammatory markers in serum...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Luana Billeri, Antonino Naro, Antonino Leo, Bruno Galletti, Provvidenza Tomasello, Alfredo Manuli, Veronica Andronaco, Paola Lauria, Alessia Bramanti, Rocco Salvatore Calabrò
PRIMARY OBJECTIVE: Only a few objective prognostic markers are available for patients with disorders of consciousness (DoC). We assessed whether the magnitude of short-latency afferent inhibition (SAI) might be a useful predictor of responsiveness recovery and functional outcome in patients with DoC. RESEARCH DESIGN: We enrolled 40 patients with prolonged Minimally Conscious State (MCS) and Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS) in a longitudinal, observational study...
December 2, 2018: Brain Injury: [BI]
Guangyong Chen, Meiling Xu, Long Ma, Yufei Gao, Chengyan He, Jinnan Zhang
BACKGROUND: The majority of ruptured intracranial aneurysms are combined with subarachnoid hemorrhage, but patients with only intracerebral hematoma without any subarachnoid hemorrhage are extremely rare. CASE PRESENTATION: The patient was hospitalized due to sudden dizziness combined with slurred speech. The patient showed considerable decreased physical activity without any nuchal rigidity. Head CT showed hematoma in the left temporal lobe, and the shape of hematoma was extremely irregular...
November 29, 2018: BMC Neurology
Xu-Dong Yang, Li-Kuan Wang, Hai-Yin Wu, Liang Jiao
BACKGROUND: Surgery-induced neuroinflammation plays an important role in postoperative cognitive dysfunction (POCD). Gut microbiota is a key regulator of neurological inflammation. Nurturing with prebiotics is an effective microbiota manipulation that can regulate host immunity and cognition. The aim of the present study was to test whether administration of the prebiotic Bimuno® (galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS) mixture) could ameliorate POCD and attenuate surgery-induced neuroinflammation through the microbiota-brain-axis...
November 30, 2018: BMC Anesthesiology
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVETraumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Clinical outcomes in TBI are determined by the severity of injury, which is dependent on the primary and secondary brain injury processes. Whereas primary brain injury lesions are related to the site of impact, secondary brain injury results from physiological changes caused by oxidative stress and inflammatory responses that occur after the primary insult. The aim of this study was to identify important clinical and biomarker profiles that were predictive of recovery after moderate to severe TBI...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Peter E Grant, Maria Pampaka, Katherine Payne, Angus Clarke, Marion McAllister
The Genetic Counselling Outcome Scale (GCOS-24) is a 24-item patient reported outcome measure for use in evaluations of genetic counselling and testing services. The aim of this study was to develop a short form of GCOS-24. The study comprised three phases. Phase I: Cognitive interviews were used to explore interpretability of GCOS-24 items and which GCOS-24 items were most valued by the target population. Phase II: The Graded Response Model was used to analyse an existing set of GCOS-24 responses (n = 395) to examine item discrimination...
November 26, 2018: European Journal of Medical Genetics
R K Talukder, M J Uddin, M Battacharjee, H Akhter, H Pandit, P Pandit, M A Rouf, M S Islam, A M Khan, R N Chowdhury, S U Ahammed, M B Hossain, K M Rahman, A B Kamrul-Hasan, M M Faysal, G Saha, M M Khan
Stroke is leading cause of death world wide, after coronary artery disease and cancer. A high proportion of patients suffering from an acute stress such as stroke or myocardial infarction may develop hyperglycemia, even in the absence of a preexisting diagnosis of diabetes. An observational comparative study was carried out at the Department of Neurology and Medicine, Mymensingh Medical College, Mymensingh, Bangladesh from July 2011 to June 2013 among purposively selected ninety-three patients with a view to assess the outcome of stress hyperglycemia on acute stroke...
October 2018: Mymensingh Medical Journal: MMJ
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEGray matter (GM) and white matter (WM) are vulnerable to ischemic-edematous insults after traumatic brain injury (TBI). The extent of secondary insult after brain injury is quantifiable using quantitative CT analysis. One conventional quantitative CT measure, the gray-white matter ratio (GWR), and a more recently proposed densitometric analysis are used to assess the extent of these insults. However, the prognostic capacity of the GWR in patients with TBI has not yet been validated. This study aims to test the prognostic value of the GWR and evaluate the alternative parameters derived from the densitometric analysis acquired during the acute phase of TBI...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Ruchira M Jha, Shashvat M Desai, Benjamin E Zusman, Theresa A Koleck, Ava M Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Seo-Young Park, Lori Shutter, Patrick M Kochanek, Yvette P Conley
Sulfonylurea-receptor-1(SUR1) and its associated Transient-Receptor-Potential cation channel subfamily-M(TRPM4) channel are key contributors to cerebral edema and intracranial hypertension in traumatic brain injury (TBI) and other neurological disorders. Channel inhibition by glyburide is clinically promising. ABCC8 (encoding SUR1) single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are reported as predictors of raised intracranial-pressure (ICP). This project evaluated whether TRPM4 SNPs predicted ICP and TBI outcome. DNA was extracted from 435 consecutively enrolled severe-TBI patients...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Fan Zhang, Si Zhang, Chuanyuan Tao, Zijia Yang, Chao You, Mu Yang
OBJECTIVES: It is well known that early hematoma expansion is associated with short-term prognosis of patients with intracranial hemorrhage (ICH). And spot sign is recognized as a reliable computed tomography angiography (CTA) predictor for early hematoma expansion. Recently, island sign is also reported as a novel computed tomography (CT) predictor for early hematoma growth. Here, we compared the predictive abilities of these two signs for short-term outcomes of ICH patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: All the ICH patients were retrospectively identified...
November 17, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Young Jun Kim, Bongjin Jeong
Recently graphene has been drawing tremendous attention mainly due to its potential contributions to applications in biology, information technology and energy. Among these applications graphene-based biosensors have been particularly progressed caused in part by development of diverse derivatives of graphene such as graphene oxides (GOs) and graphene quantum dots (GQDs). In this chapter preparation and functionalization of the graphene and GOQs are described together with their optoelectronic properties. Recent progresses in graphene and GQD-based biosensors are also highlighted with emphasis on immunoassay which utilizes unique interaction between antigen and antibody, and oligonucleotide assay which utilizes hybridization process...
2018: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Altaf Ali Laghari, Muhammad Ehsan Bari, Muhammad Waqas, Syed Ijlal Ahmed, Karim Rizwan Nathani, Wardah Moazzam
Objective: The aim of the current study was to observe functional outcomes of patients undergoing decompressive craniectomy (DC) for raised intracranial pressure (ICP) after blunt head injury and to assess possible predictive factors. Methodology: This study was a prospective cohort study which was conducted at Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi over a period of 2 years (January 2015-December 2016). Adult patients, aged between 15 and 65 years of both genders undergoing DC during the study period were selected...
October 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
(no author information available yet)
OBJECTIVEModern surgical planning and prognostication requires the most accurate outcomes data to practice evidence-based medicine. For clinicians treating children following traumatic brain injury (TBI) these data are severely lacking. The first aim of this study was to assess published CT classification systems in the authors' pediatric cohort. A pediatric-specific machine-learning algorithm called an artificial neural network (ANN) was then created that robustly outperformed traditional CT classification systems in predicting TBI outcomes in children...
November 1, 2018: Neurosurgical Focus
Min Zhou, Shigang Zheng, Rong Liu, Jing Lu, Lu Lu, Chihong Zhang, Zehou Liu, Congpei Luo, Lei Zhang, Yu Wu
Wheat, one of the most broadly cultivated and consumed food crops worldwide, can accumulate high Cd contents in their edible parts, which poses a major hazard to human health. Cd accumulation ability differs among varieties in wheat, but the underlying molecular mechanism is largely unknown. Here, key genes responsible for Cd accumulation between two contrasting wheat genotypes (low-Cd accumulation one L17, high-Cd accumulation one H17) were investigated. Total 1269 were differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in L17 after Cd treatment, whereas, 399 Cd-induced DEGs were found in H17...
November 15, 2018: Functional & Integrative Genomics
N Svoboda, T Tyll, V Beneš, D Netuka
INTRODUCTION: Epidural hematoma (EDH) is generally considered to be a condition with a good prognosis. However, postoperative results of numerous studies have shown that mortality and morbidity remain relatively high. The aim of our article is to evaluate surgical outcomes in patients undergoing EDH evacuation over the last five years. METHODS: Data were analysed retrospectively. Pre-operative GCS was assessed. Location and incidence of associated head injuries were recorded...
2018: Rozhledy V Chirurgii: Měsíčník Československé Chirurgické Společnosti
Danuta Raj-Koziak, Elzbieta Gos, Weronika Swierniak, Joanna J Rajchel, Lucyna Karpiesz, Iwona Niedzialek, Elzbieta Wlodarczyk, Henryk Skarzynski, Piotr H Skarzynski
The aim of this study was to evaluate the psychometric properties of patient-reported visual analogue scale (VAS) ratings. All of the participants (100 Polish-speaking adults) completed a Tinnitus Functional Index (TFI) once and a 4-component VAS twice over a period of 3 days. Spearman's correlation coefficients between the VAS score and global TFI ranged from ρ = 0.52 for VAS-coping (VAS-C) to ρ = 0.81 for VAS-annoyance (VAS-A). Using the Bland-Altman method, the agreement ranged from 93% for VAS-A to 96% for VAS-distress (VAS-D)...
November 15, 2018: Audiology & Neuro-otology
C Lindsay, M Bazalova-Carter, A Wang, D Shedlock, M Wu, M Newson, L Xing, W Ansbacher, R Fahrig, J Star-Lack
PURPOSE: Combined kV-MV CBCT imaging has been proposed for two potentially important image-guided radiotherapy applications: 1) scan time reduction (STR) and 2) metal artifact reduction (MAR). However, the feasibility of these techniques has been in question due to the low detective quantum efficiencies (DQEs) of commercially available electronic portal imagers (EPIDs). The goal of the work was to test whether a prototype high DQE MV detector can be used to generate acceptable quality pre-treatment CBCT images at acceptable dose levels...
November 14, 2018: Medical Physics
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