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Ruchira M Jha, Jonathan Elmer, Benjamin E Zusman, Shashvat Desai, Ava M Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Seo Young Park, Lori A Shutter, Jessica S Wallisch, Yvette P Conley, Patrick M Kochanek
OBJECTIVES: Intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury is dynamic and influenced by factors like injury patterns, treatments, and genetics. Existing studies use time invariant summary intracranial pressure measures thus potentially losing critical information about temporal trends. We identified longitudinal intracranial pressure trajectories in severe traumatic brain injury and evaluated whether they predicted outcome. We further interrogated the model to explore whether ABCC8 polymorphisms (a known cerebraledema regulator) differed across trajectory groups...
August 16, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Mary Thompson, Lauralyn McIntyre, Brian Hutton, Alexandre Tran, Dianna Wolfe, Jamie Hutchison, Dean Fergusson, Alexis F Turgeon, Shane W English
BACKGROUND: Current guidelines identify the choice of fluid resuscitation as important in minimizing the incidence of secondary brain injury from cerebral edema. It is widely accepted that isotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluids, specifically normal saline (NS), are optimal for resuscitation and that other relatively hypotonic fluids, such as Ringer's lactate (RL), should be avoided in this patient population. The aim of this review is to systematically compare the use of relatively hypotonic versus isotonic crystalloid resuscitation fluids in clinical and pre-clinical models of acute brain injury and their effect on outcomes...
August 17, 2018: Systematic Reviews
Shishir Keekana Rao, Advait Mahulikar, Mohammad Ibrahim, Aashit Shah, Navid Seraji-Bozorgzad, Wazim Mohamed
Status epilepticus (SE) is defined as ongoing seizures lasting longer than five minutes or multiple seizures without recovery. Benzodiazepines (BZDs) are first-line agents for the management of SE. Our objective was to evaluate BZD dosing in SE patients and its effects on clinical/electrographic outcomes. A retrospective analysis was conducted from a prospective database of SE patients admitted to a university-based neurocritical care unit. The initial presentation and progression to refractory SE (RSE) and non-convulsive SE (NCSE) with coma was evaluated...
August 1, 2018: Epileptic Disorders: International Epilepsy Journal with Videotape
Antti Lindgren, Mervyn DI Vergouwen, Irene van der Schaaf, Ale Algra, Marieke Wermer, Mike J Clarke, Gabriel Je Rinkel
BACKGROUND: Around 30% of people who are admitted to hospital with aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) will rebleed in the initial month after the haemorrhage if the aneurysm is not treated. The two most commonly used methods to occlude the aneurysm for prevention of rebleeding are microsurgical clipping of the neck of the aneurysm and occlusion of the lumen of the aneurysm by means of endovascular coiling. This is an update of a systematic review that was previously published in 2005...
August 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Jelena Vulevic, George Tzortzis, Aleksandra Juric, Glenn R Gibson
BACKGROUND: Prebiotics exert beneficial effects upon gastrointestinal (GI) environment, but this is not always accompanied with a positive effect on GI symptoms. B-GOS® is a prebiotic with high selectivity toward bifidobacteria and a variety of other beneficial effects in humans. Here, we investigated its effect on GI symptoms in adults who suffer with bloating, abdominal pain, and flatulence. METHODS: In a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study, 83 subjects from the general population who presented with GI symptoms during screening period and had a predicted probability of functional bowel disorder of more than 75% were randomized to receive either a placebo or the B-GOS® treatment (2...
August 15, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Amélie Boutin, Suzanne Demers, Cédric Gasse, Yves Giguère, Amélie Tétu, Geneviève Laforest, Emmanuel Bujold
OBJECTIVE: This study sought to estimate the ability of first trimester maternal serum placental growth factor (PlGF) to identify fetal aneuploidies. METHODS: A prospective cohort study of singleton pregnancy at 11 to 13 weeks was conducted. Maternal serum PlGF concentration was measured using BRAHMS PlGF plus KRYPTOR automated assays (Thermo Scientific BRAHMS, Hennigsdorf, Germany). PlGF and nuchal translucency were log-transformed and reported as multiples of the median (MoM) adjusted for crown-rump length...
August 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology Canada: JOGC, Journal D'obstétrique et Gynécologie du Canada: JOGC
Tomoo Watanabe, Yasuyuki Kawai, Asami Iwamura, Naoki Maegawa, Hidetada Fukushima, Kazuo Okuchi
Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a leading cause of death and disability in trauma patients. Patients with TBI frequently sustain concomitant injuries in extracranial regions. The effect of severe extracranial injury (SEI) on the outcome of TBI is controversial. For 8 years, we retrospectively enrolled 485 patients with the blunt head injury with head abbreviated injury scale (AIS) ≧ 3. SEI was defined as AIS ≧ 3 injuries in the face, chest, abdomen, and pelvis/extremities. Vital signs and coagulation parameter values were also extracted from the database...
August 11, 2018: Neurologia Medico-chirurgica
Md Nazmul Haque, Il Soo Moon
BACKGROUND: The hippocampus is a vulnerable brain region that is implicated in learning and memory impairment by two pathophysiological features, that is, neurite regression and synaptic dysfunction, and stigmasterol (ST), a cholesterol-equivalent phytosterol, is known to facilitate neuromodulatory effects. PURPOSE: To investigate the neuromodulatory effects of ST on the development of central nervous system neurons and the molecular bases of these effects in primary hippocampal neurons...
July 15, 2018: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
Muhammad Hafeez, Liu Sisi, Saad Jan, Bahar Ali, Muhammad Shahid, G Mandela Fernández-Grandon, Muhammad Nawaz, Aqeel Ahmad, Mo Wang
BACKGROUND: In plant-insect interactions, phytotoxins such as gossypol, exert a defensive role on behalf of the plant by interfering with the essential metabolic, biochemical and physiological pathways of herbivorous insects. The beet armyworm, Spodoptera exigua (Hübner), is a key pest for many important crops including a range of vegetables, ornamentals, and cotton. For this study we investigated how resistance to deltamethrin relates to enzyme activity in gossypol-pretreated larvae of S...
August 9, 2018: Pest Management Science
Zhuqing Dai, Wanyong Lyu, Xiaoli Xiang, Yuhong Tang, Bing Hu, Shiyi Ou, Xiaoxiong Zeng
In this study, -galactooligosaccharides (-GOSs) were synthesized by using galactose as the substrate and -galactosidase from Aspergillus niger as the catalyst. In the reaction, synthesized products of U1, U2, U3 and U4 were detected by HPLC. By mass spectrometry, NMR and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-5-pyrazolone derivatization, U1 was the mixture of disaccharides of -D-Galp-(1→1)--D-Gal, -D-Galp-(1→2)--D-Gal, -D-Galp-(1→3)--D-Gal, -D-Galp-(1→4)--D-Gal; U2 was identified to be -D-Galp-(1→6)--D-Gal; U3 was the mixture of galacto-trisaccharides linked by one -(1→6)-glycosidic linkage and one other -glycosidic linkage; U4 was identified as -D-Galp-(1→6)--D-Galp-(1→6)--D-Gal...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
Filip Hasecke, Tatiana Miti, Carlos Perez, Jeremy Barton, Daniel Schölzel, Lothar Gremer, Clara S R Grüning, Garrett Matthews, Georg Meisl, Tuomas P J Knowles, Dieter Willbold, Philipp Neudecker, Henrike Heise, Ghanim Ullah, Wolfgang Hoyer, Martin Muschol
Assembly of rigid amyloid fibrils with their characteristic cross-β sheet structure is a molecular signature of numerous neurodegenerative and non-neuropathic disorders. Frequently large populations of small globular amyloid oligomers (gOs) and curvilinear fibrils (CFs) precede the formation of late-stage rigid fibrils (RFs), and have been implicated in amyloid toxicity. Yet our understanding of the origin of these metastable oligomers, their role as on-pathway precursors or off-pathway competitors, and their effects on the self-assembly of amyloid fibrils remains incomplete...
July 21, 2018: Chemical Science
Jantien Hoogmoed, Bert A Coert, René van den Berg, Yvo B W E M Roos, Janneke Horn, W Peter Vandertop, Dagmar Verbaan
BACKGROUND: Patients with WFNS grade V subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) mostly have a poor outcome. Correct identification of patients, who might benefit from treatment, remains challenging. We investigated which disease-related characteristics, present at admission, could identify patients with chance of good outcome. METHODS: 146 consecutive WFNS grade V SAH patients (2002 - 2013) were included. Demographic and disease-related characteristics were compared between patients with a good outcome (Glasgow outcome scale (GOS) 4 & 5) and a poor outcome (GOS 1-3)...
August 1, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Jay R Reichman, Paul T Rygiewicz, Mark G Johnson, Michael A Bollman, Bonnie M Smith, Q Todd Krantz, Charly J King, Christian Andersen
It is important to understand molecular effects on plants exposed to compounds released from use of products containing engineered nanomaterials. Here, we present mRNA sequencing data on transcriptome impacts to Douglas-fir following 2 weeks of sublethal exposure to 30:1 diluted airborne emissions released from combustion of diesel fuel containing engineered CeO2 nanoparticle catalysts (DECe). Our hypothesis was that chamber exposure to DECe would induce distinct transcriptome changes in seedling needles compared with responses to conventional diesel exhaust (DE) or filtered DECe Gas Phase...
August 3, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Jing Zhang, Min He, Yanlin Song, Jianguo Xu
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prognostic role of D-dimer level upon admission in patients with traumatic brain injury (TBI) through performing a meta-analysis. METHODS: PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and EMBASE were searched for potential eligible literature. The study characteristics and relevant data were extracted. Poor functional outcome was defined according to the Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS ≤3). Odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were pooled to estimate the predictive value of D-dimer for progressive hemorrhagic injury (PHI) and poor functional outcome at 3 months (3M GOS ≤3) in patients with TBI...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Jong Wha Lee, Jae Hee Woo, Hee Jung Baik, Dong Yeon Kim, Ji Seon Chae, Na Rae Yang, Eui Kyo Seo
Cerebral vasospasm is the most important cause of morbidity after an aneurysm clipping in the early postoperative period. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate whether the incidence of vasospasms differs when using propofol or desflurane for an emergent aneurysm clipping.The data from 102 patients (50 in the propofol group, 52 in the desflurane group) were analyzed. The occurrence of vasospasm based on daily transcranial Doppler, angiography, and cerebral infarction during 14 days after surgery were compared by anesthetic agents...
August 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Claudio Cavallo, Sam Safavi-Abbasi, M Yashar S Kalani, Sirin Gandhi, Hai Sun, Mark E Oppenlander, Joseph M Zabramski, Peter Nakaji, Michael T Lawton, Robert F Spetzler
OBJECTIVE: Because the clinical course of spontaneous aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (aSAH) can be compromised by pulmonary complications, we sought to review post-treatment outcomes of aSAH patients with and without pulmonary complications. METHODS: Patient demographic, clinical, and outcome data (March 2003-January 2007) were analyzed retrospectively. Patients underwent microsurgical or endovascular treatment for aSAH; pulmonary complications were reported...
July 31, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Ross C Puffer, John K Yue, Matthew Mesley, Julia B Billigen, Jane Sharpless, Anita L Fetzick, Ava Puccio, Ramon Diaz-Arrastia, David O Okonkwo
OBJECTIVE Following traumatic brain injury (TBI), midline shift of the brain at the level of the septum pellucidum is often caused by unilateral space-occupying lesions and is associated with increased intracranial pressure and worsened morbidity and mortality. While outcome has been studied in this population, the recovery trajectory has not been reported in a large cohort of patients with TBI. The authors sought to utilize the Citicoline Brain Injury Treatment (COBRIT) trial to analyze patient recovery over time depending on degree of midline shift at presentation...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Roberta Grimaldi, Glenn R Gibson, Jelena Vulevic, Natasa Giallourou, Josué L Castro-Mejía, Lars H Hansen, E Leigh Gibson, Dennis S Nielsen, Adele Costabile
BACKGROUND: Different dietary approaches, such as gluten and casein free diets, or the use of probiotics and prebiotics have been suggested in autistic spectrum disorders in order to reduce gastrointestinal (GI) disturbances. GI symptoms are of particular interest in this population due to prevalence and correlation with the severity of behavioural traits. Nowadays, there is lack of strong evidence about the effect of dietary interventions on these problems, particularly prebiotics. Therefore, we assessed the impact of exclusion diets and a 6-week Bimuno® galactooligosaccharide (B-GOS®) prebiotic intervention in 30 autistic children...
August 2, 2018: Microbiome
Alexa M Lans, Yael Vodovotz
Galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) can be produced with different purity levels that were hypothesized to alter water uptake and overall stability. Two purity GOS levels (55% and 90%) in commercially available mixtures were analyzed. Water was found to plasticize GOS (more effectively in the 55% compared to 90% GOS mixture), decreasing the glass transition temperature (Tg) causing the caking of powders and collapse of the amorphous structure. The critical aw for the 55% GOS mixture was between aw 0.23 and 0.33, corresponding to 3...
December 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Lu Zhao, Youzhi Zhou, Song Qin, Panpan Qin, Jianlin Chu, Bingfang He
β-Galactosidases can catalyze the hydrolysis of lactose and the synthesis of galacto-oligosaccharides (GOS) from lactose. The catalytic activity of β-galactosidases is usually inhibited by galactose and glucose, which hampers the complete hydrolysis of lactose in food products. In this report, a β-galactosidase (denoted as BMG) from Bacillus megaterium YZ08 without the inhibition by galactose and glucose is the first to our knowledge reported. Efficient secretory expression of BMG was successfully achieved in Bacillus subtilis WB800...
July 25, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
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