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Streptococcus during pregnancy

Ryan S Doster, Jessica A Sutton, Lisa M Rogers, David M Aronoff, Jennifer A Gaddy
Streptococcus agalactiae , or group B Streptococcus (GBS), is a common perinatal pathogen. GBS colonization of the vaginal mucosa during pregnancy is a risk factor for invasive infection of the fetal membranes (chorioamnionitis) and its consequences such as membrane rupture, preterm labor, stillbirth, and neonatal sepsis. Placental macrophages, or Hofbauer cells, are fetally derived macrophages present within placental and fetal membrane tissues that perform vital functions for fetal and placental development, including supporting angiogenesis, tissue remodeling, and regulation of maternal-fetal tolerance...
November 20, 2018: MBio
A Frega, M Santomauro, F Sesti, J Di Giuseppe, C Colombrino, R Marziani, A Catalano, M Pavone, C Leone, M Mallozzi, E D'Adamo, A Ciavattini, D Caserta
OBJECTIVE: In the last years, the mean age of women who underwent cervical treatment for high-grade cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN 2-3) is similar to the age of women having their first pregnancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the risk of preterm birth in subsequent pregnancies after loop electrosurgical excision procedure (LEEP). PATIENTS AND METHODS: From January 2013 to January 2016 the study identified a total of 1435 women, nulliparous, who underwent LEEP for CIN 2-3, and who wished to have their first pregnancy...
October 2018: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
Alexis Panzer, Sarah Dotters-Katz, Marcela Smid, Kim Boggess, Tracy Manuck
OBJECTIVE:  To identify factors associated with previable delivery in second trimester preterm rupture of membranes (PROM). MATERIALS AND METHODS:  We conducted a single-center retrospective cohort study of women with pregnancies complicated by second trimester PROM (14.0-21.9 weeks' gestation) from 2000 to 2015 who elected expectant pregnancy management and achieved at least 24 hours latency. Maternal characteristics and clinical factors were compared among pregnancies that reached viability (≥ 23...
November 2, 2018: American Journal of Perinatology
Andrew P Brown, Fiona C Denison
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is the most common cause of early-onset neonatal sepsis in many countries and responsible for significant perinatal morbidity and mortality worldwide. Intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis has been the mainstay of efforts to prevent early-onset GBS disease in recent decades, however it is unclear if women should be targeted based on the presence of clinical risk factors or by screening for GBS colonisation during pregnancy. Universal bacteriological screening of women in late pregnancy has been widely adopted but questions remain regarding its benefits and potential harms...
November 2018: Early Human Development
Koichi Kyono, Tomoko Hashimoto, Yoko Nagai, Yoshiyuki Sakuraba
Purpose: The present study aimed to analyze the endometrial and vaginal microbiome among a Japanese infertile population by sequencing and the impact of the endometrial and vaginal environment on implantation. Methods: In total, 102 infertile (79 in vitro fertilization [IVF] and 23 non-IVF) patients and seven healthy volunteers were recruited from August to December, 2017. Endometrial fluid and vaginal discharge samples for sequencing were collected by using an intrauterine insemination catheter...
July 2018: Reproductive Medicine and Biology
J A Carrillo-Ávila, J Gutiérrez-Fernández, A I González-Espín, E García-Triviño, L G Giménez-Lirola
BACKGROUND: Streptococcus Group B (GBS) colonization in pregnant women is the most important risk factor for newborn disease due to vertical transmission during delivery. GBS colonization during pregnancy has been implicated as a leading cause of perinatal infections. Traditionally, pregnant women are screened for GBS between 35 and 37 weeks of gestation. However, antenatal culture-based screening yields no information on GBS colonization status and offers low predictive value for GBS colonization at delivery...
July 5, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
M Jaalama, O Palomäki, R Vuento, A Jokinen, J Uotila
Objectives: Little is known about the significance of Streptococcus G or C colonization in pregnant women. The objective of this study was to assess whether vaginal Streptococcus group G or C colonization detected in late pregnancy increases the infectious morbidity of the mother or newborn. Methods: A total of 15,114 rectovaginal cultures taken at 35-37 weeks of pregnancy were analyzed at Tampere University Hospital, Finland, between 2012 and 2014. From this laboratory data, all Streptococcus G or C-positive cultures were included to study maternal and neonatal infectious morbidity after delivery...
2018: Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology
Sara N Lundgren, Juliette C Madan, Jennifer A Emond, Hilary G Morrison, Brock C Christensen, Margaret R Karagas, Anne G Hoen
BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome has an important role in infant health and immune development and may be affected by early-life exposures. Maternal diet may influence the infant gut microbiome through vertical transfer of maternal microbes to infants during vaginal delivery and breastfeeding. We aimed to examine the association of maternal diet during pregnancy with the infant gut microbiome 6 weeks post-delivery in mother-infant dyads enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study...
July 5, 2018: Microbiome
Sonwabile Dzanibe, Shabir A Madhi
Vaccination against group B Streptococcus (GBS) during pregnancy could provide protection against disease in the mother, fetus, and newborn. Immunity through transplacental acquired antibodies in the newborns could persist through early infancy, reducing the risk of early-onset (<7 days age) and late-onset (7-89 days age) disease. We conducted a systematic review of clinical trials on GBS capsular polysaccharide (CPS) vaccine to assess its safety and immunogenicity in pregnant and nonpregnant adults. Areas covered: We searched literature databases PubMed (Medline), Scopus, and the Cochrane library and identified 25 unique records on GBS CPS vaccines with or without conjugant protein...
July 13, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Marcelly Milhomem Mendes, Camilla Beatriz da Silva, Denise Bertulucci Rocha Rodrigues, Barbara Rocha Rodrigues, Vinicius Rangel Geraldo-Martins, Virginia Paes Leme Ferriani, Virmondes Rodrigues, Ruchele Dias Nogueira
The aims of this study were to analyze the presence of Streptococcus mutans (SM)-DNA in cord blood (CB), maternal peripheral blood (PB), and maternal saliva (SA) and compare with data collected in health surveys. Sixty-four healthy women with pregnancies to term and without complications attending for elective cesarean section in the Clinical Hospital of Ribeirao Preto, Sao Paulo were included. Samples of PB and unstimulated SA were obtained on the day of hospitalization and samples of CB were collected after the delivery section...
June 22, 2018: Current Microbiology
Marie-Julie Allard, Marie-Elsa Brochu, Julie D Bergeron, Guillaume Sebire
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is one the most common bacterium responsible of maternal infections during pregnancy. Offspring in utero-exposed to GBS-induced placental inflammation displayed sex-specific forebrain injuries. Sex differences have been reported in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Hence, we hypothesized that female rats in utero-exposed to GBS may present sex-specific neurobehavioral impairments. Lewis rats were injected intraperitoneally every 12 h from gestational day (G) 19 to G22 with either saline (controls) or inactivated serotype Ia GBS (109 CFU)...
October 2018: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
Paul Loubet, Olivia Anselem, Odile Launay
Vaccination in pregnancy has been shown to be effective for the prevention of influenza and pertussis in infants, providing support for similar strategies to prevent group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus infections that represent a large burden in pediatric population. Areas covered: This review addresses the principle of maternal immunization, efficacy and safety of both pertussis and seasonal influenza vaccines and presents available data on group B streptococcus and respiratory syncytial virus that are in development for administration during pregnancy...
May 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Wenzhen Lin, Wenxin Jiang, Xuchen Hu, Li Gao, Dongmei Ai, Hongfei Pan, Chenguang Niu, Keyong Yuan, Xuedong Zhou, Changen Xu, Zhengwei Huang
Pregnancy is a physiological process with pronounced hormonal fluctuations in females, and relatively little is known regarding how pregnancy influences the ecological shifts of supragingival microbiota. In this study, supragingival plaques and salivary hormones were collected from 11 pregnant women during pregnancy (P1, ≤14 weeks; P2, 20-25 weeks; P3, 33-37 weeks) and the postpartum period (P4, 6 weeks after childbirth). Seven non-pregnant volunteers were sampled at the same time intervals. The microbial genetic repertoire was obtained by 16S rDNA sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Ann L Jefferies
Early-onset neonatal bacterial sepsis (EOS) is sepsis occurring within the first 7 days of life. This statement provides updated recommendations for the care of term (≥37 weeks' gestational age) newborns at risk of EOS, during the first 24 hours of life. Maternal Group B streptococcus (GBS) colonization in the current pregnancy, GBS bacteriuria, a previous infant with invasive GBS disease, prolonged rupture of membranes (≥18 hours) and maternal fever (temperature ≥38°C) are the factors most commonly associated with EOS...
July 2017: Paediatrics & Child Health
Alisa Kachikis, Linda O Eckert, Janet Englund
Maternal immunization for prevention of morbidity and mortality of pregnant women and their neonates due to infectious diseases is ongoing worldwide. The complexity of vaccine research and development in this population is challenging. Not only do vaccines for pregnant women require evidence of immunogenicity, potency, stability, and limited reactogenicity, they must also provide efficacy in decreasing morbidity for the pregnant woman, her fetus, and the neonate, demonstrate safety or lack of evidence of harm, and offer benefit or potential benefit of vaccination during pregnancy...
March 2018: Viral Immunology
Emiliano Chiarot, Angela Spagnuolo, Silvia Maccari, Eleonora Naimo, Alessandra Acquaviva, Raffaella Cecchi, Bruno Galletti, Monica Fabbrini, Elena Mori, Paolo Ruggiero, Guido Grandi, Maria Rita Fontana, Giuliano Bensi, Immaculada Margarit
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a normal inhabitant of recto-vaginal mucosae in up to 30% of healthy women. Colonization is a major risk factor for perinatal infection which can lead to severe complications such as stillbirth and neonatal invasive disease. Intra-partum antibiotic prophylaxis in colonized women is a safe and cost-effective preventive measure against early-onset disease in the first days of life, but has no effect on late-onset manifestations or on early maternal infection. Maternal immunization with capsular polysaccharide-based vaccines shows promise for the prevention of both early-onset and late-onset neonatal infections, although ability to prevent maternal colonization and ascending infection has been less studied...
February 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Johan Vekemans, Vasee Moorthy, Martin Friede, Mark R Alderson, Ajoke Sobanjo-Ter Meulen, Carol J Baker, Paul T Heath, Shabir A Madhi, Kirsty Mehring-Le Doare, Samir K Saha, Stephanie Schrag, David C Kaslow
Group B streptococcus, found in the vagina or lower gastrointestinal tract of about 10-40% of women of reproductive age, is a leading cause of early life invasive bacterial disease, potentially amenable to prevention through maternal immunization during pregnancy. Following a consultation process with global stakeholders, the World Health Organization is herein proposing priority research and development pathways and preferred product characteristics for GBS vaccines, with the aim to facilitate and accelerate vaccine licensure, policy recommendation for wide scale use and implementation...
February 2, 2018: Vaccine
Michela Dalmartello, Fabio Parazzini, Mariangela Pedron, Riccardo Pertile, Lucia Collini, Carlo La Vecchia, Silvano Piffer
BACKGROUND: Rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, cytomegalovirus (CMV), hepatitis B (HBV) and C (HCV), HIV, and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections may have very severe outcomes during pregnancy, and for this reason, monitoring of infections in pregnant women is a requirement of prenatal assistance. AIMS: To describe coverage and outcome of the screening for rubella, syphilis, toxoplasmosis, CMV, HBV, HCV, HIV, and Group B Streptococcus in pregnancy in the Autonomous Province of Trento, Northern Italy (538,600 inhabitants)...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Sonwabile Dzanibe, Gaurav Kwatra, Peter V Adrian, Sheila Z Kimaro-Mlacha, Clare L Cutland, Shabir A Madhi
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) recto-vaginal colonisation in pregnant women is the major risk factor for early-onset invasive GBS disease in their newborns. We aimed to determine the association between serum antibody levels against 11 GBS surface proteins and recto-vaginal acquisition of GBS colonisation during pregnancy. Sera collected from pregnant women at 20-25 weeks and ≥37 weeks of gestation age were measured for IgG titres against GBS surface proteins using  a multiplex immunoassay. Women were evaluated for recto-vaginal colonisation every 4-5 weeks...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jennifer C Stearns, Julia Simioni, Elizabeth Gunn, Helen McDonald, Alison C Holloway, Lehana Thabane, Andrea Mousseau, Jonathan D Schertzer, Elyanne M Ratcliffe, Laura Rossi, Michael G Surette, Katherine M Morrison, Eileen K Hutton
Early life microbial colonization and succession is critically important to healthy development with impacts on metabolic and immunologic processes throughout life. A longitudinal prospective cohort was recruited from midwifery practices to include infants born at full term gestation to women with uncomplicated pregnancies. Here we compare bacterial community succession in infants born vaginally, with no exposure to antibiotics (n = 53), with infants who were exposed to intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis (IAP) for Group B Streptococcus (GBS; n = 14), and infants born by C-section (n = 7)...
November 28, 2017: Scientific Reports
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