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Karina R Casali, Beatriz D Schaan, Nicola Montano, Daniela Massierer, Flávio M F Neto, Gabriela H Teló, Priscila S Ledur, Marilia Reinheimer, Graciele Sbruzzi, Miguel Gus
BACKGROUND: Blood pressure (BP) variability can be evaluated by 24-hour ambulatory BP monitoring (24h-ABPM), but its concordance with results from finger BP measurement (FBPM) has not been established yet. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to compare parameters of short-term (24h-ABPM) with very short-term BP variability (FBPM) in healthy (C) and diabetic-hypertensive (DH) subjects. METHODS: Cross-sectional study with 51 DH subjects and 12 C subjects who underwent 24h-ABPM [extracting time-rate, standard deviation (SD), coefficient of variation (CV)] and short-term beat-to-beat recording at rest and after standing-up maneuvers [FBPM, extracting BP and heart rate (HR) variability parameters in the frequency domain, autoregressive spectral analysis]...
February 2018: Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia
Everton Cazzo, José Carlos Pareja, Elinton Adami Chaim, Cláudio Saddy Rodrigues Coy, Daniéla Oliveira Magro
BACKGROUND: The glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1/GLP-2) are gut hormones that may directly affect the glucose homeostasis and their activity seems to be significantly affected by chronic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the postprandial levels of glucagon-like peptides 1 and 2 (GLP-1/GLP-2), C-reactive protein (CRP), and the postprandial glucose and insulin levels among individuals with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and healthy controls. METHODS: An exploratory cross-sectional study, which involved individuals awaiting for bariatric/metabolic surgery and healthy controls...
January 2018: Arquivos de Gastroenterologia
E J F Peixoto de Miranda, M S Bittencourt, H L Staniak, R Sharovsky, A C Pereira, M Foppa, I S Santos, P A Lotufo, I M Benseñor
Data on the association between subclinical thyroid dysfunction and coronary artery disease (CAD) is scarce. We aimed to analyze the association between thyroid function and CAD using baseline data from the Brazilian Longitudinal Study of Adult Health (ELSA-Brasil). We included subjects with normal thyroid function (0.4-4.0 mIU/L, and normal free thyroxine, FT4, or 0.8 to 1.9 ng/dL), subclinical hypothyroidism (SCHypo; TSH>4.0 mIU/L and normal FT4), and subclinical hyperthyroidism (SCHyper; TSH<0.4 mIU/L and normal FT4) evaluated by coronary computed tomography angiography...
March 15, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research, Revista Brasileira de Pesquisas Médicas e Biológicas
Jan T Wollenberg, Jeff Ollerhead, Gail L Chmura
Salt marshes are highly effective carbon (C) sinks and have higher rates of soil C burial (per square meter) than terrestrial ecosystems. Marsh reclamation and anthropogenic impacts, however, have resulted in extensive losses of salt marshes. Restoration of marshes drained and "reclaimed" for agriculture (referred to in Canada as dykelands) and degraded marshes can generate C credits, but only if C burial is reliably quantified. To date, studies reporting on C burial rates have been limited primarily to restored marshes which are more than 10 years old...
2018: PloS One
Peter F M Teunis, Eric G Evers, Paul D Hengeveld, Cindy M Dierikx, Cornelia C C H Wielders, Engeline van Duijkeren
A subset of the study population from a cross-sectional study of carriership of ESBL/pAmpC-producing E. coli (ESBL-E) in the general population was followed up by five successive samples over an approximate half year period, leading to six samples in 333 persons. Fecal samples were cultured and analyzed for the presence of E. coli types as characterized by MLST, and ESBL/pAmpC genes were analysed by PCR and sequencing. The study included 255 persons who had a negative first sample, to allow observations of acquiring carriership of ESBL-E...
2018: PloS One
Trey S Rottgen, Andrew J Nickerson, Emily A Minor, Amanda B Stewart, Abby D Harold, Vazhaikkurichi M Rajendran
Attenuated Ca2+ -activated Cl- secretion has previously been observed in the model of dextran-sulfate-sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Prior studies have implicated dysfunctional muscarinic signaling from basolateral membranes as the potential perpetrator leading to decreased Ca2+ -activated Cl- secretion. However, in our chronic model of DSS-colitis, Chrm3 transcript (1.028 {plus minus} 0.12 vs. 1.029 {plus minus} 0.27, p > 0.05) and CHRM3 protein expression (1.021 {plus minus} .24 vs. .928 {plus minus} .09, p > 0...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Andres Canales, Seongjun Park, Antje Kilias, Polina Anikeeva
Multifunctional devices for modulation and probing of neuronal activity during free behavior facilitate studies of functions and pathologies of the nervous system. Probes composed of stiff materials, such as metals and semiconductors, exhibit elastic and chemical mismatch with the neural tissue, which is hypothesized to contribute to sustained tissue damage and gliosis. Dense glial scars have been found to encapsulate implanted devices, corrode their surfaces, and often yield poor recording quality in long-term experiments...
March 21, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Xiao-Jiang Yang, Rui-Jun Tian, Xing Su, Shan-Bo Hu, Wei Lei, Yang Zhang
BACKGROUND: Amounts of clinic research have been performed to investigate the increment of cross-sectional area in single-door cervical laminoplasty (SDCL). However, no one has taken the effects of surgery drill into consideration. METHODS: A mathematical model was built to investigate the relation of actual laminoplasty opening size (LOS), the transverse canal diameter (TCD), and the increment of cross-sectional area in SDCL). The model was based on geometric analysis on deformation of spinal canal; the relation was derived and characterized as: (Equation is included in full-text article...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Mohamed Ahmed Abdel-Mohsen, Ahlam Abd-Allah El-Braky, Abeer Abd El-Rahim Ghazal, Mohammed Mohammed Shamseya
The aims of this study were to investigate the interplay between autophagy and apoptosis and to investigate the association between both of autophagy and apoptosis and vitamin D and its receptor in hepatitis C virus (HCV) viral infection and its implication in the progression into hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).A cross-sectional study where serum levels of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3); marker of autophagy, caspase-3; marker of apoptosis, vitamin D3 and vitamin D receptor (VDR) were measured in healthy subjects as well as HCV and HCV-HCC patients using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Talisa E de Carlo, Gregg T Kokame, Kyle N Kaneko, Rebecca Lian, James C Lai, Raymond Wee
PURPOSE: Determine sensitivity and specificity of polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV) diagnosis with structural en face optical coherence tomography (OCT) and OCT angiography (OCTA). METHODS: Retrospective review of the medical records of eyes diagnosed with PCV by indocyanine green angiography with review of diagnostic testing with structural en face OCT and OCTA by a trained reader. Structural en face OCT, cross-sectional OCT angiograms alone, and OCTA in its entirety were reviewed blinded to the findings of indocyanine green angiography and each other to determine if they could demonstrate the PCV complex...
March 20, 2018: Retina
Barbara J Morgan, Nicole Schrimpf, Morgan Rothman, Ann Mitzey, Mark S Brownfield, Robert C Speth, John M Dopp
Chronic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) increases basal sympathetic nervous system activity, augments chemoreflex-induced sympathoexcitation, and raises blood pressure. All effects are attenuated by systemic or intracerebroventricular administration of angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 R) antagonists. This study aimed to quantify the effects of CIH on AT1 R- and AT2 R-like immunoreactivity in the rostroventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), central regions that are important components of the extended chemoreflex pathway...
March 21, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Hypertension: CHE
Alexandra Sturm, Michelle Rozenman, John C Piacentini, James J McGough, Sandra K Loo, James T McCracken
Predictors of math achievement in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are not well-known. To address this gap in the literature, we examined individual differences in neurocognitive functioning domains on math computation in a cross-sectional sample of youth with ADHD. Gender and anxiety symptoms were explored as potential moderators. The sample consisted of 281 youth (aged 8-15 years) diagnosed with ADHD. Neurocognitive tasks assessed auditory-verbal working memory, visuospatial working memory, and processing speed...
March 20, 2018: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Alexander C Hollis, Edward T Davis
AIM: To assess the knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of orthopaedic patients towards participating in clinical trials (CTs). METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 200 adult orthopaedic patients at a Tertiary Orthopaedic Centre. Data was collected using a self-completed questionnaire. Statistical analysis was used to compare responses between those that would and would not participate using the chi-squared and the Mann-Whitney U testing. RESULTS: Eighty-four percent of the patients (n = 168) stated that they would be happy to participate in clinical trials research...
March 20, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Marie Gerisch, Jan Smettan, Sabine Ebert, Maria Athelogou, Beate Brand-Saberi, Nick Spindler, Wolf C Mueller, Shibashish Giri, Augustinus Bader
We aimed to identify and quantify CD117+ and CD90+ endogenous cardiac progenitor cells (CPC) in human healthy and diseased hearts. We hypothesize that these cells perform a locally acting, contributing function in overcoming medical conditions of the heart by endogenous means. Human myocardium biopsies were obtained from 23 patients with the following diagnoses: Dilatative cardiomyopathy (DCM), ischemic cardiomyopathy (ICM), myocarditis, and controls from healthy cardiac patients. High-resolution scanning microscopy of the whole slide enabled a computer-based immunohistochemical quantification of CD117 and CD90...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
Xiaochen Huang, Shengqi Dong, Jie Zhen, Huiqiang Zhang, Tong Lin, Yuhong Zeng, Nicholas Van Halm-Lutterodt, Linhong Yuan
Background: Epidemiology studies have indicated an association of apolipoprotein E (ApoE) genetic polymorphism and circulating steroid hormone levels with the risk of Alzheimer's disease. The established physiologic relationship between apolipoproteins and steroid hormone indicate an important role of ApoE polymorphism in impacting the relationship between serum steroid hormones and cognition in the elderly. Study design: A total of 500 Chinese adults aged between 50 and 75 participated in this community-based cross-sectional study...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Jan Kassubek, Hans-Peter Müller, Kelly Del Tredici, Michael Hornberger, Matthias L Schroeter, Karsten Müller, Sarah Anderl-Straub, Ingo Uttner, Murray Grossman, Heiko Braak, John R Hodges, Olivier Piguet, Markus Otto, Albert C Ludolph
Objective: Recently, the characteristic longitudinal distribution pattern of the underlying phosphorylated TDP-43 (pTDP-43) pathology in the behavioral variant of frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) excluding Pick's disease (PiD) across specific brain regions was described. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether in vivo investigations of bvFTD patients by use of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) were consistent with these proposed patterns of progression. Methods: Sixty-two bvFTD patients and 47 controls underwent DTI in a multicenter study design...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Michael S Toss, I Miligy, Abdubaqi Al-Kawaz, Mansour Alsleem, Hazem Khout, Padmashree C Rida, Ritu Aneja, Andrew R Green, Ian O Ellis, Emad A Rakha
Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) provide prognostic value in invasive breast cancer and guidelines for their assessment have been published. This study aims to evaluate: (a) methods of TILs assessment, and (b) their prognostic significance in breast ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). Hematoxylin and eosin sections from two clinically annotated DCIS cohorts; a training set (n = 150 pure DCIS) and a validation set (n = 666 comprising 534 pure DCIS and 132 cases wherein DCIS and invasive breast carcinoma were co-existent) were assessed...
March 20, 2018: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
X Cheng, Y Zhang, C Wang, W Deng, L Wang, Y Duanmu, K Li, D Yan, L Xu, C Wu, W Shen, W Tian
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between the cross-sectional visceral adipose tissue (VAT) areas at different anatomic sites and the total VAT volume in a healthy Chinese population using quantitative computed tomography (QCT), and to identify the optimal anatomic site for a single slice to estimate the total VAT volume. SUBJECTS/METHODS: A total of 389 healthy Chinese subjects aged 19-63 years underwent lumbar spine QCT scans. The cross-sectional area of total adipose tissue and VAT were measured using the tissue composition module of the software (QCT Pro, Mindways) at each intervertebral disc level from T12 /L1 to L5 /S1 , as well as at the umbilical level...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Laura C O'Brien, Zachary A Graham, Qun Chen, Edward J Lesnefsky, Christopher Cardozo, Ashraf S Gorgey
STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional design. OBJECTIVES: This study examined the relationships between circulating adiponectin levels, body composition, metabolic profile, and measures of skeletal muscle mitochondrial enzyme activity and biogenesis. SETTINGS: Clinical Research in a Medical Center. METHODS: Plasma adiponectin was quantified in 19 individuals with chronic spinal cord injury (SCI). Body composition was evaluated by dual x-ray absorptiometry and magnetic resonance imaging...
March 20, 2018: Spinal Cord
M de Freitas Ferreira, C L de Moraes, J U Braga, M E Reichenheim, G V da Veiga
OBJECTIVE: To present a predictive model of alcohol abuse among adolescents based on prevalence projections in various population subgroups. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: The sample consisted of 785 adolescents enrolled in the second year of high school in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Alcohol consumption was assessed using the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test. Socio-economic, demographic, family, individuals, and school-related variables were examined as potential predictors...
March 17, 2018: Public Health
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