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Encephalopathy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719495/late-onset-hiv-encephalopathy-in-children-with-long-standing-virologic-suppression-followed-by-slow-spontaneous-recovery-despite-no-change-in-antiretroviral-therapy-four-case-reports
#1
Steve Innes, Ronald van Toorn, Kennedy Otwombe, Els Dobbels, Gert van Zyl, Mark F Cotton, Barbara Laughton
We describe four CHER (Children with HIV Early antiRetroviral therapy) trial participants with late-onset HIV encephalopathy despite long-standing viral suppression in blood and undetectable HIV DNA and RNA PCR in cerebrospinal fluid. Extensive investigations revealed no alternative etiology. Reassuringly, all four experienced slow spontaneous recovery despite no change in antiretroviral therapy. Virally-suppressed HIV-infected children remain at risk for fluctuating neurologic signs and symptoms.
July 15, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718340/characterization-of-sepsis-and-sepsis-associated-encephalopathy
#2
Qing Feng, Yu-Hang Ai, Hua Gong, Long Wu, Mei-Lin Ai, Song-Yun Deng, Li Huang, Qian-Yi Peng, Li-Na Zhang
BACKGROUND: Sepsis and sepsis-associated encephalopathy (SAE) are common intensive care unit (ICU) diseases; the morbidity and mortality are high. The present study analyzed the sensitivity of different diagnostic criteria of sepsis 1.0 and 3.0, epidemiological characteristics of sepsis and SAE, and explored its risk factors for death, short-term, and long-term prognosis. METHODS: The retrospective study included patients in ICU from January 2015 to June 2016. After excluding 58 patients, 175 were assigned to either an SAE or a non-SAE group (patients with sepsis but no encephalopathy)...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718068/dengue-encephalopathy-very-unusual-neuroimaging-findings
#3
Ravindra Kumar Garg, Hardeep Singh Malhotra, Amita Jain, Neeraj Kumar
Neuroimaging, in many patients with dengue encephalopathy, may reveal periventricular signal changes. We report a 25-year-old man, who presented with altered sensorium. Dengue-IgM test in serum was positive. Cerebrospinal fluid examination was normal. MRI brain revealed presence of bilateral parieto-occipital intraparenchymal bleed with mass effect. Neuroimaging was consistent with posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome. We report posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome in a normotensive patient with dengue encephalopathy and systemic metabolic alterations...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Neurovirology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717971/subnetwork-mining-on-functional-connectivity-network-for-classification-of-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#4
Daoqiang Zhang, Liyang Tu, Long-Jiang Zhang, Biao Jie, Guang-Ming Lu
Hepatic encephalopathy (HE), as a complication of cirrhosis, is a serious brain disease, which may lead to death. Accurate diagnosis of HE and its intermediate stage, i.e., minimal HE (MHE), is very important for possibly early diagnosis and treatment. Brain connectivity network, as a simple representation of brain interaction, has been widely used for the brain disease (e.g., HE and MHE) analysis. However, those studies mainly focus on finding disease-related abnormal connectivity between brain regions, although a large number of studies have indicated that some brain diseases are usually related to local structure of brain connectivity network (i...
July 17, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717095/encephalopathy-associated-with-influenza-b-in-a-healthy-young-man
#5
Masaki Shimamoto, Satoshi Okada, Takeshi Terashima
A 19-year-old man presented with a fever, convulsions, and loss of consciousness at our hospital. The patient had a Glasgow Coma Scale score of 12. Influenza B virus infection was diagnosed using the rapid test kit, and an eight-fold increase in the serum levels of anti-influenza B virus antibody was confirmed using the complement fixation test. Brain magnetic resonance imaging showed multifocal high-signal lesions, and an electroencephalogram showed diffuse slowing of the background activity, indicating acute encephalopathy...
2017: Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715400/a-novel-method-to-model-chronic-traumatic-encephalopathy-in-drosophila
#6
Mingkuan Sun, Liam L Chen
Chronic Traumatic Encephalopathy (CTE) is an established neurodegenerative disease that is closely associated with exposure to repetitive mild Traumatic Brain Injury (mTBI). The mechanisms responsible for its complex pathological changes remain largely elusive, despite a recent consensus to define the neuropathological criteria. Here, we describe a novel method to develop a model of CTE in Drosophila melanogaster (Drosophila ) in an attempt to identify the key genes and pathways that lead to the characteristic hyperphosphorylated tau accumulation and neuronal death in the brain...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712466/hepatic-encephalopathy-manganese-also-shines-in-t1
#7
D Páez-Granda, V Orcajada-Zamora, V Vázquez-Sáez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 13, 2017: Revista Clínica Española
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711740/early-manifestations-of-epileptic-encephalopathy-brain-atrophy-and-elevation-of-serum-neuron-specific-enolase-in-a-boy-with-beta-propeller-protein-associated-neurodegeneration
#8
Kyoko Takano, Kazuya Goto, Mitsuo Motobayashi, Keiko Wakui, Rie Kawamura, Tomomi Yamaguchi, Yoshimitsu Fukushima, Tomoki Kosho
Mutations in WDR45 are responsible for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), which is an X-linked form of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation. BPAN mainly affects females and is characterized by seizures and developmental delay or intellectual disability until adolescence or early adulthood, followed by severe dystonia, parkinsonism, and progressive dementia. However, rare male patients have recently been reported with hemizygous germline mutations in WDR45 and severe clinical manifestations, such as epileptic encephalopathies...
July 12, 2017: European Journal of Medical Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711408/biochemical-characteristics-of-newborns-with-carnitine-transporter-defect-identified-by-newborn-screening-in-california
#9
N M Gallant, K Leydiker, Y Wilnai, C Lee, F Lorey, L Feuchtbaum, H Tang, J Carter, G M Enns, S Packman, H J Lin, W R Wilcox, S D Cederbaum, J E Abdenur
Carnitine transporter defect (CTD; also known as systemic primary carnitine deficiency; MIM 212140) is due to mutations in the SLC22A5 gene and leads to extremely low carnitine levels in blood and tissues. Affected individuals may develop early onset cardiomyopathy, weakness, or encephalopathy, which may be serious or even fatal. The disorder can be suggested by newborn screening. However, markedly low newborn carnitine levels can also be caused by conditions unrelated to CTD, such as the low carnitine levels often associated with normal pregnancies and some metabolic disorders occurring in the mother...
July 8, 2017: Molecular Genetics and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711320/liver-stiffness-measurement-by-transient-elastography-predicts-late-posthepatectomy-outcomes-in-patients-undergoing-resection-for-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#10
Muthukumarassamy Rajakannu, Daniel Cherqui, Oriana Ciacio, Nicolas Golse, Gabriella Pittau, Marc Antoine Allard, Teresa Maria Antonini, Audrey Coilly, Antonio Sa Cunha, Denis Castaing, Didier Samuel, Catherine Guettier, René Adam, Eric Vibert
BACKGROUND: Postoperative hepatic decompensation is a serious complication of liver resection in patients undergoing hepatectomy for hepatocellular carcinoma. Liver fibrosis and clinical significant portal hypertension are well-known risk factors for hepatic decompensation. Liver stiffness measurement is a noninvasive method of evaluating hepatic venous pressure gradient and functional hepatic reserve by estimating hepatic fibrosis. Effectiveness of liver stiffness measurement in predicting persistent postoperative hepatic decompensation has not been investigated...
July 12, 2017: Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711275/chemotherapy-induced-stroke-mimic-5-fluorouracil-encephalopathy-fulfilling-criteria-for-tissue-plasminogen-activator-therapy
#11
May Thuy Nguyen, Robyn Stoianovici, Luigi Brunetti
Stroke mimics, especially those involving chemotherapy related neurotoxicity, can confound the clinical diagnosis of acute stroke. Here we describe the case of a 63year-old male with a recent history of stage IIIC colon cancer who presented with confusion on the second day of modified FOLFOX6 (5-fluorouracil/oxaliplatin) chemotherapy and subsequently received alteplase, tissue plasminogen activator therapy (tPA), for presumed ischemic stroke. Magnetic resonance imaging scans after tPA administration did not reveal evidence of an infarction and the patients' neurological symptoms resolved completely after discontinuation of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU)...
July 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710237/focal-neurological-presentation-in-hashimoto-s-encephalopathy-mimicking-a-vascular-occlusion-of-the-middle-cerebral-artery
#12
Ahmad Alazzeh, Sarah Jaroudi, Matthew Gooch, Alan N Peiris
Hashimoto's encephalopathy is a rare form of autoimmune encephalopathy. It is likely an underdiagnosed entity especially in the setting of focal neurological defects. We report a case of a 49-year-old man who presented with "strange behavior"of a day's duration. Examination was significant only for lethargy, poor attention span and agitation. Routine labs revealed leucocytosis. Head CT scan was unremarkable. Lumbar puncture showed high white blood cells with lymphocytosis and elevated protein level. The patient was empirically treated for meningitis without improvement...
July 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709814/the-therapeutic-implication-of-a-novel-scn2a-mutation-associated-early-onset-epileptic-encephalopathy-with-rett-like-features
#13
Jao-Shwann Liang, Li-Ju Lin, Ming-Tao Yang, Jinn-Shyan Wang, Jyh-Feng Lu
Epileptic encephalopathies are highly heterogeneous and phenotypical disorders with different underlying genetic defects. Mutations in the SCN2A gene cause different epilepsy syndromes, including epilepsy of infancy with migrating focal seizures, Ohtahara syndrome, and West syndrome. We utilized a targeted next generation sequencing (NGS) approach on a girl with early-onset seizures and Rett-like features, including autistic behavior, limited hand function with chorea, and profound intellectual disability, to identify novel missense mutation (c...
July 11, 2017: Brain & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708361/-from-thiamine-deficiency-to-wernicke-encephalopathy-unknown-pathology
#14
Valérie Farquet, Veronica Alvarez, Stéphane Biselx, Martial Coutaz
The thiamine deficiency and its clinical consequences, especially the Wernicke encephalopathy, are still often not diagnosed. The etiologies are numerous, but the most frequent is the alcohol dependence. The diagnostic is mainly clinical and the treatment must be started as soon as possible by substituting the thiamine with intravenous injection.
February 8, 2017: Revue Médicale Suisse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708047/temporal-patterns-of-chronic-wasting-disease-prion-excretion-in-three-cervid-species
#15
Ian H Plummer, Scott D Wright, Chad J Johnson, Joel A Pedersen, Michael D Samuel
Chronic wasting disease (CWD) is the only naturally occurring transmissible spongiform encephalopathy affecting free-ranging wildlife populations. Transmission of CWD occurs by direct contact or through contaminated environments; however, little is known about the temporal patterns of CWD prion excretion and shedding in wild cervids. We tested the urine and faeces of three species of captive cervids (elk, mule and white-tailed deer) at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months after oral inoculation to evaluate the temporal, species- and genotype-specific factors affecting the excretion of CWD prions...
July 15, 2017: Journal of General Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707493/ab-chminaca-induced-sudden-death-from-non-cardiogenic-pulmonary-edema
#16
Hideyuki Maeda, Ruri Kikura-Hanajiri, Maiko Kawamura, Erika Nagashima, Ken-Ichi Yoshida
CONTEXT: Despite widespread use of diverse synthetic cannabinoid (sCB) compounds, the pathophysiology associated with intoxication with many sCB compounds, including AB-CHMINACA, is poorly understood, as is their metabolism and distribution into blood and organs. CASE DETAILS: A young man died shortly after ingesting an herb product containing sCB compounds. Toxicological analyses of blood samples revealed high levels of AB-CHMINACA (7.61 ± 0.59 ng/mL) and its metabolites (M2, 56...
July 14, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28707166/altered-dynamic-functional-connectivity-in-the-default-mode-network-in-patients-with-cirrhosis-and-minimal-hepatic-encephalopathy
#17
Hua-Jun Chen, Hai-Long Lin, Qiu-Feng Chen, Peng-Fei Liu
PURPOSE: Abnormal brain intrinsic functional connectivity (FC) has been documented in minimal hepatic encephalopathy (MHE) by static connectivity analysis. However, changes in dynamic FC (dFC) remain unknown. We aimed to identify altered dFC within the default mode network (DMN) associated with MHE. METHODS: Resting-state functional MRI data were acquired from 20 cirrhotic patients with MHE and 24 healthy controls. DMN seed regions were defined using seed-based FC analysis (centered on the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC))...
July 13, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706860/targeted-temperature-management-in-neurological-intensive-care-unit
#18
REVIEW
Sombat Muengtaweepongsa, Winchana Srivilaithon
Targeted temperature management (TTM) shows the most promising neuroprotective therapy against hypoxic/ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). In addition, TTM is also useful for treatment of elevated intracranial pressure (ICP). HIE and elevated ICP are common catastrophic conditions in patients admitted in Neurologic intensive care unit (ICU). The most common cause of HIE is cardiac arrest. Randomized control trials demonstrate clinical benefits of TTM in patients with post-cardiac arrest. Although clinical benefit of ICP control by TTM in some specific critical condition, for an example in traumatic brain injury, is still controversial, efficacy of ICP control by TTM is confirmed by both in vivo and in vitro studies...
June 26, 2017: World Journal of Methodology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706729/a-retrospective-review-of-the-pediatric-development-clinic-implementation-a-model-to-improve-medical-nutritional-and-developmental-outcomes-of-at-risk-under-five-children-in-rural-rwanda
#19
Eric Ngabireyimana, Christine Mutaganzwa, Catherine M Kirk, Ann C Miller, Kim Wilson, Evodia Dushimimana, Olivier Bigirumwami, Evelyne S Mukakabano, Fulgence Nkikabahizi, Hema Magge
BACKGROUND: As more high-risk newborns survive the neonatal period, they remain at significant medical, nutritional, and developmental risk. However, no follow-up system for early intervention exists in most developing countries. In 2014, a novel Pediatric Development Clinic (PDC) was implemented to provide comprehensive follow-up to at-risk under-five children, led by nurses and social workers in a district hospital and surrounding health centers in rural Rwanda. METHODS: At each PDC visit, children undergo clinical/nutritional assessment and caregivers participate in counseling sessions...
2017: Maternal Health, Neonatology and Perinatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28706102/a-method-to-assess-obstetric-outcomes-using-the-10-group-classification-system-a-quantitative-descriptive-study
#20
Janne Rossen, Miha Lucovnik, Torbjørn Moe Eggebø, Natasa Tul, Martina Murphy, Ingvild Vistad, Michael Robson
OBJECTIVES: Internationally, the 10-Group Classification System (TGCS) has been used to report caesarean section rates, but analysis of other outcomes is also recommended. We now aim to present the TGCS as a method to assess outcomes of labour and delivery using routine collection of perinatal information. DESIGN: This research is a methodological study to describe the use of the TGCS. SETTING: Stavanger University Hospital (SUH), Norway, National Maternity Hospital Dublin, Ireland and Slovenian National Perinatal Database (SLO), Slovenia...
July 12, 2017: BMJ Open
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