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Sexual AND Disorder

Ewa B Stefanska, Joachim Nitschke, Adam J Carter, Andreas Mokros
Sexual sadism is assumed to be a crucial factor in sexual homicide. Prevalence estimates vary greatly due to differences in the definition of sexual sadism. A nationwide sample of 350 male perpetrators who had committed a sexual homicide offense against a female 14 years of age or above in England or Wales was assessed based on archival records. Sexual sadism was assessed using the Sexual Sadism Scale (SeSaS). Item response theory (IRT) analyses were conducted focusing on the 2-parameter logistic model. The single-factor structure of the SeSaS Part 1 was tested using confirmatory factor analysis...
October 15, 2018: Psychological Assessment
A Pastijn, S Vasseur, F Deneft, M Caillet, F Janssens, S Rozenberg
The ageing of the population, having access to good quality of care, will result in an increase in the prevalence of pelvic floor diseases. Those persons, often in good general health, may experience difficulties in accepting functional pathologies, associated with loss in quality of life. One out of 2 women will have a pelvic floor problem and 1 out of 9 will have a surgical perineal procedure before the age of 80 years. The unitary character of the pelvic floor, a complex functional anatomic region, is often forgotten, essentially because the patients complain about one main pathology like urinary incontinence, genital prolapse, constipation and sexual disorders or chronic pain and will consult one specific specialist...
2018: Revue Médicale de Bruxelles
Kathleen Kieran, Margarett Shnorhavorian
Improved understanding of the pathogenesis and natural history of many urologic disorders, as well as advances in fertility preservation techniques, has increased the awareness of and options for management of fertility threats in pediatric patients. In children, fertility may be altered by oncologic conditions, by differences in sexual differentiation, by gonadotoxic drugs and other side effects of treatment for nonurologic disorders, and by urologic conditions, such as varicocele and cryptorchidism. Although fertility concerns are best addressed in a multidisciplinary setting, pediatric urologists should be aware of the underlying pathophysiology and management options to properly counsel and advocate for patients...
November 2018: Urologic Clinics of North America
G Singh, V Singh, J S Schneider
Sex differences in the risk for and expression of various brain disorders have been known for some time. Yet, the molecular underpinnings of these sex differences as well as how sex modifies normal brain development are still poorly understood. It has recently become known that epigenetic mechanisms play an essential role in establishing and maintaining sex differences in neurodevelopment and disease susceptibility. Epigenetic mechanisms such as post-translational modifications of histones (histone PTMs) integrate various hormonal and external environmental influences to affect genomic output, and this appears to occur in a sex-dependent manner...
October 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
M M E Riem, M J van Hoof, A S Garrett, S A R B Rombouts, N J A van der Wee, M H van IJzendoorn, R R J M Vermeiren
BACKGROUND: A dimensional approach of psychopathology focuses on features and risk factors that are shared across diagnoses. In support for this dimensional approach, studies point to a general psychopathology factor (GPF) associated with risk for multiple psychiatric disorders. It is, however, unknown how GPF relates to white matter integrity (WMI). In the current diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) study, we examined how GPF relates to abnormalities in a skeleton representation of white matter tracts, taking into account a trans-diagnostic risk factor: unresolved-disorganized attachment (Ud) resulting from loss or trauma...
October 10, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Dario d'Ovidio, Federica Pirrone
While the presence of squirrels in households is growing, little data is published on their status in captivity. A web-based questionnaire for owners was devised eliciting information about them, their squirrels and their squirrels' husbandry and health. One hundred owners answered the survey, with most respondents being located in Europe (n = 81). Only data from these respondents were analysed. Twenty-five percents of the owners housed an invasive non-native species of European Union concern (S. carolinensis and T...
November 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
William R Lovallo, Ashley Acheson, Andrea S Vincent, Kristen H Sorocco, Andrew J Cohoon
Early life adversity (ELA) contributes to behavioral impulsivity along with risk for substance use disorders, both accompanied by blunted stress-axis reactivity. However, the biological contributors to blunted stress reactivity are not known. We took advantage of the fact that women have significant opioid inhibition of cortisol output by using the opioid antagonist, naltrexone, to unmask opioid interactions due to ELA. We administered 50 mg of naltrexone or placebo to 72 healthy women (23 years of age) in a double-blind crossover study and observed deviations in cortisol secretion from placebo over the next 180 minutes...
2018: PloS One
Jun Mo, Lei Huang, Jianhua Peng, Umut Ocak, Jianmin Zhang, John H Zhang
Autonomic disturbances often occur in patients with acute cerebrovascular disease due to damage of the central autonomic network. We summarize the structures of the central autonomic network and the clinical tests used to evaluate the functions of the autonomic nervous system. We review the clinical and experimental findings as well as management strategies of post-stroke autonomic disturbances including electrocardiographic changes, cardiac arrhythmias, myocardial damage, thermoregulatory dysfunction, gastrointestinal dysfunction, urinary incontinence, sexual disorders, and hyperglycemia...
October 11, 2018: Neuroscience Bulletin
Annamária Fejes-Szabó, Eleonóra Spekker, Lilla Tar, Gábor Nagy-Grócz, Zsuzsanna Bohár, Klaudia Flóra Laborc, László Vécsei, Árpád Párdutz
Background: The prevalence of craniofacial pain disorders show sexual dimorphism with generally more common appearance in women suggesting the influence of estradiol, but the exact cause remains unknown. The common point in the pathogenesis of these disorders is the activation of trigeminal system. One of the animal experimental models of trigeminal activation is the orofacial formalin test, in which we investigated the effect of chronic 17β-estradiol pretreatment on the trigeminal pain-related behavior and activation of trigeminal second-order neurons at the level of spinal trigeminal nucleus pars caudalis (TNC)...
2018: Journal of Pain Research
Jia Huang, Yun Wang, Jun Chen, Yanlei Zhang, Zheng Yuan, Li Yue, Josep Maria Haro, Maria Victoria Moneta, Diego Novick, Yiru Fang
Purpose: To compare treatment outcomes in patients with major depressive disorder treated with duloxetine, escitalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine, or sertraline for up to 6 months. Patients and methods: Data were taken from a 6-month prospective, observational study that included 1,549 major depressive disorder patients without sexual dysfunction in 12 countries. We report the overall results and those from Asian countries. Depression severity was measured using the Clinical Global Impression and the 16-item Quick Inventory of Depressive Symptomatology Self-Report (QIDS-SR16 )...
2018: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
M Bouthier, V Mahé
BACKGROUND: Currently, all of the studies that focus on the relationship between paranoia and criminal offenses exclusively concern subjects suffering from a delusional paranoid disorder. However, subjects with single paranoid personality disorder, without any associated delusional disorder, are not uncommon in forensic practice. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to describe the offenses committed by subjects suffering from a single paranoid personality disorder and to compare them with the offenses committed by the subjects affected by a paranoid delusional disorder associated with paranoid personality disorder...
October 8, 2018: L'Encéphale
Jonathan Adams, Sylvie Mrug, David C Knight
Childhood physical and sexual abuse victims are at increased risk for developing depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) in adulthood. Prior findings suggest abuse onset, duration, and severity moderate relationships between victimization and psychopathology. However, because these abuse characteristics are highly intercorrelated, their unique, individual effects on mental health outcomes remain unclear. To address this gap, the present study examined relationships between physical and sexual abuse characteristics and mental health outcomes and whether these relationships differed by sex...
October 8, 2018: Child Abuse & Neglect
Edouard G A Mills, Waljit S Dhillo, Alexander N Comninos
Reproduction is fundamental for the survival of all species and requires meticulous synchronisation of a diverse complement of neural, endocrine and related behaviours. The reproductive hormone kisspeptin (encoded by the KISS1/Kiss1 gene) is now a well-established orchestrator of reproductive hormones, acting upstream of gonadotrophin-releasing hormone (GnRH) at the apex of the hypothalamic–pituitary–gonadal (HPG) reproductive axis. Beyond the hypothalamus, kisspeptin is also expressed in limbic and paralimbic brain regions, which are areas of the neurobiological network implicated in sexual and emotional behaviours...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
S Fischer, S King, A Papadopoulos, M Hotopf, A H Young, A J Cleare
OBJECTIVE: Around 30-50% of patients with depression and anxiety disorders fail to respond to standard psychological therapy. Given that cortisol affects cognition, patients with altered hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis functioning may benefit less from such treatments. To investigate this, reliable pretreatment cortisol measures are needed. METHOD: N = 89 outpatients with depression and anxiety disorders were recruited before undergoing therapy within an Improving Access to Psychological Therapies (IAPT) service...
October 9, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
Caroline F Pukall, Robyn Jackowich, Kayla Mooney, Susan M Chamberlain
INTRODUCTION: Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a highly distressing and poorly understood condition characterized by unwanted sensations of genital arousal in the absence of subjective sexual desire. Research has shown that some individuals with PGAD also report orgasm, urinary, and pain symptoms, with 1 recent study specifically comparing a "painful persistent genital arousal symptom" group to a "non-painful persistent genital arousal symptom" group on various indicators given the highly frequent report of comorbid genitopelvic pain in their sample...
October 6, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Robert E Pyke
INTRODUCTION: Care-seeking for sexual dysfunction is limited by embarrassment, efficacy/safety concerns, and cost. Nutritional supplements (NSs) are low-cost but unproven. AIM: To provide hypotheses on whether effective NS combinations for sexual dysfunction can be created following known pharmacology principles and tested with sufficient rigor in Internet-based "exo-clinical" trials (XCTs). METHODS: PubMed and Google searches were conducted to review the feasibility of XCTs of NS combinations for sexual dysfunction...
October 6, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Vikas Choudhry, Radhika Dayal, Divya Pillai, Ameeta S Kalokhe, Klaus Beier, Vikram Patel
OBJECTIVE: Child Sexual Abuse (CSA) is a pressing human right issue and public health concern. We conducted a systematic review of quantitative and qualitative studies published in the past decade on CSA in India to examine the distribution of the prevalence estimates for both genders, to improve understanding of the determinants and consequences of CSA and identify gaps in the current state of research. METHODS: For this systematic review, we searched electronic literature databases (PubMed, POPLINE, and PsycINFO) for articles published in English on Child Sexual Abuse in India between January 1, 2006 and January 1, 2016 using 55 search terms...
2018: PloS One
Afonso Morgado, Ana Sofía Cavadas, Luis Pacheco Figueiredo, Nuno Tomada
INTRODUCTION: Erectile dysfunction (ED) is one of the most prevalent male sexual disorders worldwide. When conservative treatment is unsuccessful, contraindicated or causes unacceptable side effects penile prosthesis implantation is a definitive option for the management of ED. Although considered a third-line therapy, it achieves the highest satisfaction rates as compared with non-surgical treatment. Three-piece inflatable penile prothesis (IPP) represents the most sophisticated implantable device, AMS 700CX™ and Coloplast Titan® being the two most commonly used...
July 2018: Revista Internacional de Andrología
Vipula Kolli, Hannah Kim, Ahmed Torky, Qizong Lao, Christina Tatsi, Ashwini Mallappa, Deborah P Merke
Context: Cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme (P450scc), encoded by CYP11A1 catalyzes the first step of steroidogenesis. Complete P450scc deficiency leads to primary adrenal insufficiency (PAI) and 46,XY disordered sexual development. Partial impairment can cause variable adrenal and gonadal dysfunction. Objective: Our aim was to evaluate the effects of the CYP11A1 variant p.E314K, identified in patients with PAI, specifically on P450scc enzyme stability and function...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Ravichandra Vemuri, Kristyn E Sylvia, Sabra L Klein, Samuel C Forster, Magdalena Plebanski, Raj Eri, Katie L Flanagan
Sex differences in immunity are well described in the literature and thought to be mainly driven by sex hormones and sex-linked immune response genes. The gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is one of the largest immune organs in the body and contains multiple immune cells in the GIT-associated lymphoid tissue, Peyer's patches and elsewhere, which together have profound effects on local and systemic inflammation. The GIT is colonised with microbial communities composed of bacteria, fungi and viruses, collectively known as the GIT microbiota...
October 8, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
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