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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109853/-psychosomatic-disorders-in-ancient-greek-medicine
#1
K Laios, M-I Kontaxaki, K Markatos, E Lagiou, M Karamanou, G Androutsos
The concept of psychosomatic disorders, as defined by modern medicine, was difficult to be perceived by the ancient Greek physicians. Two main reasons contributed to this. One was that physicians in Greek antiquity had formed the idea that the mental illnesses that were recognized at that time, namely mania, melancholy, frenzy, caros, lethargy, apoplexy, but even epilepsy, was the result of a disturbance of the essential elements of the body, the balance of them contributed to the preservation of health. Thus, depending on the school of medical thought of each physician in antiquity, mental and corporal illnesses were the result of various disorders such as the dyscrasia of humors for the physicians of the Dogmatic school that followed the Hippocratic principles or the disorder of the qualitative characteristics of the humor and the pneuma (air), as the physicians of the Pneumatic School considered, but also of the stenosis or the expansion of the pores as the physicians of the Methodic school thought...
April 2018: Psychiatrikē, Psychiatriki
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106494/brief-report-gender-differences-in-demographic-and-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-opioid-use-disorder-entering-a-comparative-effectiveness-medication-trial
#2
Aimee N C Campbell, Celestina Barbosa-Leiker, Mary Hatch-Maillette, Sarah E Mennenga, Martina Pavlicova, Jennifer Scodes, Tanya Saraiya, Shannon G Mitchell, John Rotrosen, Patricia Novo, Edward V Nunes, Shelly F Greenfield
BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: We investigated gender differences in individuals with opioid use disorder (OUD) receiving inpatient services and entering a randomized controlled trial comparing extended-release naltrexone to buprenorphine. METHODS: Participants (N = 570) provided demographic, substance use, and psychiatric information. RESULTS: Women were significantly younger, more likely to identify as bisexual, live with a sexual partner, be financially dependent, and less likely employed...
August 14, 2018: American Journal on Addictions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104731/sexually-dimorphic-behavior-neuronal-activity-and-gene-expression-in-chd8-mutant-mice
#3
Hwajin Jung, Haram Park, Yeonsoo Choi, Hyojin Kang, Eunee Lee, Hanseul Kweon, Junyeop Daniel Roh, Jacob Ellegood, Woochul Choi, Jaeseung Kang, Issac Rhim, Su-Yeon Choi, Mihyun Bae, Sun-Gyun Kim, Jiseok Lee, Changuk Chung, Taesun Yoo, Hanwool Park, Yangsik Kim, Seungmin Ha, Seung Min Um, Seojung Mo, Yonghan Kwon, Won Mah, Yong Chul Bae, Hyun Kim, Jason P Lerch, Se-Bum Paik, Eunjoon Kim
Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are four times more common in males than in females, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We characterized sexually dimorphic changes in mice carrying a heterozygous mutation in Chd8 (Chd8+/N2373K ) that was first identified in human CHD8 (Asn2373LysfsX2), a strong ASD-risk gene that encodes a chromatin remodeler. Notably, although male mutant mice displayed a range of abnormal behaviors during pup, juvenile, and adult stages, including enhanced mother-seeking ultrasonic vocalization, enhanced attachment to reunited mothers, and isolation-induced self-grooming, their female counterparts do not...
August 13, 2018: Nature Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104726/the-army-study-to-assess-risk-and-resilience-in-servicemembers-army-starrs-progress-toward-understanding-suicide-among-soldiers
#4
REVIEW
James A Naifeh, Holly B Herberman Mash, Murray B Stein, Carol S Fullerton, Ronald C Kessler, Robert J Ursano
Responding to an unprecedented increase in the suicide rate among soldiers, in 2008 the US Army and US National Institute of Mental Health funded the Army Study to Assess Risk and Resilience in Servicemembers (Army STARRS), a multicomponent epidemiological and neurobiological study of risk and resilience factors for suicidal thoughts and behaviors, and their psychopathological correlates among Army personnel. Using a combination of administrative records, representative surveys, computerized neurocognitive tests, and blood samples, Army STARRS and its longitudinal follow-up study (STARRS-LS) are designed to identify potentially actionable findings to inform the Army's suicide prevention efforts...
August 13, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101637/sex-and-labor-trafficking-in-paraguay-risk-factors-needs-assessment-and-the-role-of-the-health-care-system
#5
Kimberly Stanford, Alyssa Cappetta, Roy Ahn, Wendy Macias-Konstantopoulos
Trafficking of adults and children for both sex and labor is a human rights violation occurring with alarming frequency throughout the world, and resulting in profound harm to close-knit communities and severe health consequences for victims. Certain areas, such as the country of Paraguay, are at a higher risk for trafficking due to unique economic, cultural, and geographic factors. Thousands of people, especially children, are trafficked within Paraguay's borders, and many eventually are transported to neighboring countries and sometimes to Europe and elsewhere...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Interpersonal Violence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099033/prenatal-undernutrition-suppresses-sexual-behavior-in-female-rats
#6
Toshiya Matsuzaki, Munkhsaikhan Munkhzaya, Takeshi Iwasa, Altankhuu Tungalagsuvd, Kiyohito Yano, Yiliyasi Mayila, Rie Yanagihara, Takako Tokui, Takeshi Kato, Akira Kuwahara, Sumika Matsui, Minoru Irahara
Infectious, psychological and metabolic stresses in the prenatal and early neonatal period induce long-lasting effects in physiological function and increase the risk of metabolic disorders later in life. We examined the sexual behavior of female rats that were subjected to undernutrition in the prenatal period. Eight pregnant rats were divided into two groups: a maternal normal nutrition group (mNN; n=4) and a maternal undernutrition group (mUN; n=4), which received 50% of the daily food intake amount of the mNN group from gestation day 13 to delivery...
August 9, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097528/behavioral-health-and-adult-milestones-in-young-adults-with-perinatal-hiv-infection-or-exposure
#7
Elaine J Abrams, Claude A Mellins, Amelia Bucek, Curtis Dolezal, Jeannette Raymond, Andrew Wiznia, Andrea Jurgrau, Mahrukh Bamji, Cheng-Shiun Leu, Yiu Kee Warren Ng
BACKGROUND: Young adults living with perinatally acquired HIV infection (PHIVYAs) are at risk for poor biomedical and behavioral health outcomes. Few studies offer a comprehensive overview of the functioning of this population in young adulthood and the role of HIV. METHODS: Data come from the Child and Adolescent Self-Awareness and Health Study, a longitudinal behavioral health cohort study of PHIVYAs and perinatally HIV-exposed but uninfected young adults (PHEUYAs) who are compared on psychiatric and neurocognitive functioning, sexual and substance use behaviors, health and reproductive outcomes, and young adult milestones...
August 10, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097137/the-sleep-and-sex-survey-relationships-between-sexual-function-and-sleep
#8
Martin Seehuus, Wilfred Pigeon
OBJECTIVE: Distress and dysfunction in sleep and sex are both very common, and have been found to be separately related to anxiety, depression, and stress. Even so, and despite evidence linking obstructive sleep apnea and erectile disfunction, the connections between sleep and sex are largely understudied. METHOD: A large (N = 703) survey of people in the United States between 18 and 65 years old was conducted using Mechanical Turk, an on-line crowd-sourcing platform...
September 2018: Journal of Psychosomatic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096662/an-initial-investigation-of-nonsuicidal-self-injury-among-male-and-female-survivors-of-military-sexual-trauma
#9
Ryan Holliday, Noelle B Smith, Lindsey L Monteith
Nonsuicidal self-injury (NSSI) has been understudied among survivors of military sexual trauma (MST). The aims of the current study were to: (1) describe characteristics of NSSI among survivors of MST and (2) determine if MST survivors who have engaged in NSSI differ from those who have never engaged in NSSI in terms of the severity of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and depressive symptoms, trauma-related cognitions, and recent suicidal ideation. Participants were 107 veterans (65 females, 42 males) with a history of MST who completed measures of NSSI, PTSD and depressive symptoms, recent suicidal ideation, and trauma-related cognitions...
July 27, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095673/when-family-matters-most-a-test-of-the-association-between-sexual-minority-identity-disclosure-context-and-diurnal-cortisol-in-sexual-minority-young-adults
#10
Andrew W Manigault, Wilson S Figueroa, Cari R Hollenbeck, Anna E Mendlein, Alex Woody, Katrina R Hamilton, Matt C Scanlin, Ryan C Johnson, Peggy M Zoccola
OBJECTIVE: Revealing one's sexual identity to others is a complex process marked by a shift in the types of stressors faced by sexual minority young adults. Such stressors influence the secretion of health-relevant hormones, including cortisol, yet how dimensions of disclosure (i.e., the degree and context) influence neuroendocrine functioning remains poorly understood. The current study examined the association between disclosure context (disclosure to family members, friends/co-workers/acquaintances, and members of religious groups) and diurnal cortisol while allowing disclosure to vary in degree (i...
August 9, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095668/gender-dysphoria-in-youth-an-overview-for-primary-care-providers
#11
Brayden N Kameg, Donna G Nativio
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Primary care providers who encounter children are often the first line of contact for individuals with gender dysphoria, which occurs when sex assigned at birth is incongruent with one's true, expressed sexual identity. Because those with untreated gender dysphoria are at risk of a variety of negative outcomes, including mood symptomatology, suicidality, substance use disorders, and other psychosocial risk factors, it is critical that health care providers are adept in the provision of holistic, patient-centered care...
August 6, 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30095567/nonmedical-use-of-stimulants-is-associated-with-riskier-sexual-practices-and-other-forms-of-impulsivity
#12
Jon E Grant, Sarah A Redden, Katherine Lust, Samuel R Chamberlain
BACKGROUND: This study sought to examine the occurrence of the nonmedical use of prescription stimulants (amphetamines and methylphenidate) in a university sample and their associated physical and mental health correlates, including potential relationships with risky sexual practices. METHODS: A 156-item anonymous online survey was distributed via e-mail to a sample of 9449 university students. Current use of alcohol and drugs, psychological and physical status, and academic performance were assessed, along with questionnaire-based measures of impulsivity and compulsivity...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Addiction Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094700/current-knowledge-on-gene-environment-interactions-in-personality-disorders-an-update
#13
REVIEW
Andrea Bulbena-Cabre, Anahita Bassir Nia, M Mercedes Perez-Rodriguez
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: We review the existing literature on gene-environment interactions (G×E) and epigenetic changes primarily in borderline personality disorder (BPD) but also in antisocial, schizotypal, and avoidant personality disorders. RECENT FINDINGS: Research supports that susceptibility genes to BPD or its underlying traits may be expressed under certain environmental conditions such as physical or childhood sexual abuse. Epigenetic modifications of neurodevelopment- and stress-related genes are suggested to underlie the relationship between early life adversary and borderline personality disorder...
August 9, 2018: Current Psychiatry Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094544/brain-responses-to-pictures-of-children-in-men-with-pedophilic-disorder-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#14
Fadwa Cazala, Véronique Fonteille, Virginie Moulier, Mélanie Pélégrini-Issac, Christiane De Beaurepaire, Marlène Abondo, Magali Bodon-Bruzel, Jean Cano, Florent Cochez, Taoufik Fouli, Catherine Thevenon, Bernard Dauba, Michel Pugeat, Serge Stoléru
Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have recently been used to investigate the mechanisms of sexual attraction to children, a hallmark of pedophilic disorder, and have reported many contradictory or non-replicated findings. Here, our purpose was to identify through functional magnetic resonance imaging the brain responses of 25 male outpatients with pedophilic disorder to visual stimuli depicting children (VSc) and to compare them with 24 male healthy controls matched on sexual orientation (to female or male adults), age, and handedness...
August 9, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094339/molecular-karyotyping-in-children-and-adolescents-with-gender-dysphoria
#15
Ken C Pang, Debi Feldman, Ralph Oertel, Michelle Telfer
Purpose: The presence of a disorder of sexual development (DSD) acts as a diagnostic specifier for gender dysphoria (GD) under DSM-5, while the International Classification of Diseases (ICD)-10 specifically states that its equivalent diagnosis, gender identity disorder (GID), must not be the result of a chromosomal abnormality. For these reasons, routine karyotyping has been previously advocated in the clinical work-up of children and adolescents with suspected GD or GID. However, the utility of such testing remains unclear...
2018: Transgender Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093882/up-to-date-review-about-minipuberty-and-overview-on-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-activation-in-fetal-and-neonatal-life
#16
REVIEW
Lucia Lanciotti, Marta Cofini, Alberto Leonardi, Laura Penta, Susanna Esposito
Minipuberty consists of activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis during the neonatal period, resulting in high gonadotropin and sex steroid levels, and occurs mainly in the first 3-6 months of life in both sexes. The rise in the levels of these hormones allows for the maturation of the sexual organs. In boys, the peak testosterone level is associated with penile and testicular growth and the proliferation of gonadic cells. In girls, the oestradiol levels stimulate breast tissue, but exhibit considerable fluctuations that probably reflect the cycles of maturation and atrophy of the ovarian follicles...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092929/psychosocial-aspects-of-fertility-and-assisted-reproductive-technology
#17
REVIEW
Jamie Stanhiser, Anne Z Steiner
Psychosocial aspects of fertility, infertility, and assisted reproductive technology (ART) can significantly impact patients' sense of self-identity and personal agency, mental well-being, sexual and marital relationships, reproductive efficiency, compliance with treatment, and pregnancy outcomes. Research is needed to understand how stress, anxiety, depression, mood disorders, and psychotropic medications impact fertility and infertility treatment. The psychosocial implications of ART on our society include a shift toward older maternal age at conception, the complexities of third-party reproduction, and consideration for the psychological and socioeconomic barriers to receiving care...
September 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092317/role-of-estrogens-in-fish-immunity-with-special-emphasis-on-gper1
#18
REVIEW
Isabel Cabas, Elena Chaves-Pozo, Victoriano Mulero, Alfonsa García-Ayala
It is well accepted that estrogens, the primary female sex hormones, play a key role in modulating different aspects of the immune response. Moreover, estrogens have been linked with the sexual dimorphism observed in some immune disorders, such as chronic inflammatory and autoimmune diseases. Nevertheless, their effects are often controversial and depend on several factors, such as the pool of estrogen receptors (ERs) involved in the response. Their classical mode of action is through nuclear ERs, which act as transcription factors, promoting the regulation of target genes...
August 6, 2018: Developmental and Comparative Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091801/military-and-premilitary-trauma-attachment-orientations-and-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-severity-among-male-and-female-veterans
#19
Jenny A Bannister, Frederick G Lopez, Deleene S Menefee, Peter J Norton, Jill Wanner
Samples in prior studies examining attachment theory in the military have been predominantly composed of male combat veterans. Given the rates of sexual trauma among female veterans and differences in the association between attachment and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity for sexual trauma survivors, it was necessary to consider the attachment characteristics of veterans within a mixed-sex sample. Participants were a mixed-sex veteran sample seeking inpatient trauma-related treatment (N = 469)...
August 9, 2018: Journal of Traumatic Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30091618/the-role-of-emotion-regulation-difficulties-in-the-connection-between-childhood-emotional-abuse-and-borderline-personality-features
#20
Lia K Rosenstein, William D Ellison, Emily Walsh, Iwona Chelminski, Kristy Dalrymple, Mark Zimmerman
In the present report from the Rhode Island Methods to Improve Diagnostic Assessment and Services project, we examined the role of emotion dysregulation as a mediator between childhood abuse and borderline personality disorder (BPD) feature severity among a sample of 964 adults presenting for treatment at an outpatient clinic. A structural equation model suggested that emotional abuse relates to BPD features both directly and through difficulties with emotion regulation, whereas physical abuse showed only a weak indirect relation with BPD features...
August 9, 2018: Personality Disorders
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