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Arousal AND Disorder

Lijuan Cheng, Daniela Cortese, Martin M Monti, Fuyan Wang, Francesco Riganello, Francesco Arcuri, Haibo Di, Caroline Schnakers
Objectives: Considering sensory stimulation programs (SSP) as a treatment for disorders of consciousness is still debated today. Previous studies investigating its efficacy were affected by various biases among which small sample size and spontaneous recovery. In this study, treatment-related changes were assessed using time-series design in patients with disorders of consciousness (i.e., vegetative state-VS and minimally conscious state-MCS). Methods: A withdrawal design (ABAB) was used. During B phases, patients underwent a SSP (3 days a week, including auditory, visual, tactile, olfactory, and gustatory stimulation)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
S Walther, J A Bernard, V A Mittal, S A Shankman
Despite the clinical impact of motor symptoms such as agitation or retardation on the course of depression, these symptoms are poorly understood. Novel developments in the field of instrumentation and mobile devices allow for dimensional and continuous recording of motor behavior in various settings, particularly outside the laboratory. Likewise, the use of novel assessments enables to combine multimodal neuroimaging with behavioral measures in order to investigate the neural correlates of motor dysfunction in depression...
October 16, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Seth M Levine, Anja Wackerle, Rainer Rupprecht, Jens V Schwarzbach
Humans experience emotions every day. Traditionally, psychology has described emotions through discrete labels (e.g. happy, afraid) or standardized affective dimensions (e.g. valence, arousal), and neuroscience has more recently sought the neurobiological basis of emotions via functional neuroimaging. However, by treating emotions similarly among everyone, we neglect that emotions are individualized; thus the overall relational structure of an individual's emotion information may be vital in understanding how the brain represents emotions...
October 12, 2018: Neuropsychologia
Jan R Wiersema, Elke Godefroid
ADHD is considered a disorder of self-regulation. Recent research has shown that awareness of bodily states, referred to as interoceptive awareness, crucially contributes to self-regulatory processes. Impaired self-regulation in ADHD has been explained in terms of arousal regulation deficits in ADHD (the state regulation deficit (SRD) account). There is now ample support for the SRD account, however the exact reason for arousal regulation difficulties is not yet known. The SRD account explicitly refers to the ability to monitor one's momentary bodily state as a prerequisite for effective state regulation...
2018: PloS One
Christian Sander, Jonathan M Schmidt, Roland Mergl, Frank M Schmidt, Ulrich Hegerl
Depressed patients frequently exhibit a hyperstable brain arousal regulation. According to the arousal regulation model of affective disorders, the antidepressant effect of therapeutic sleep deprivation could be achieved by counter-acting this dysregulation. We investigated the impact of partial sleep deprivation (PSD) on EEG-vigilance (an indicator of brain arousal regulation) in depressed patients (n = 27) and healthy controls (n = 16). PSD was hypothesized to cause a more prominent destabilisation of brain arousal regulation in depressed patients (reflected by increased occurrence of lower EEG-vigilance stages)...
October 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Caroline F Pukall, Robyn Jackowich, Kayla Mooney, Susan M Chamberlain
INTRODUCTION: Persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD) is a highly distressing and poorly understood condition characterized by unwanted sensations of genital arousal in the absence of subjective sexual desire. Research has shown that some individuals with PGAD also report orgasm, urinary, and pain symptoms, with 1 recent study specifically comparing a "painful persistent genital arousal symptom" group to a "non-painful persistent genital arousal symptom" group on various indicators given the highly frequent report of comorbid genitopelvic pain in their sample...
October 6, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
Nunu Laura T Lund, Agneta Henriette Snoer, Anja Sofie Petersen, Rasmus Paulin Beske, Poul Jørgen Jennum, Rigmor Højland Jensen, Mads Christian J Barloese
BACKGROUND: Cluster headache (CH) is characterized by severe, unilateral attacks of pain and a high nocturnal attack burden. It remains unknown if perturbations of sleep are solely present during the CH bout. Therefore, we aimed to investigate differences in sleep between the bout and remission period in episodic CH (eCH) patients, secondly to compare patients in the two phases with controls. METHODS: eCH patients, aged 18-65 years, diagnosed according to the International Classification of Headache Disorders 2nd edition, were admitted for polysomnography at the Danish Center for Sleep Medicine, in bout and in remission...
October 9, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
David R Watson, Sarah N Garfinkel, Cassandra Gould van Praag, Daniel Willmott, Katherine Wong, Frances Meeten, Hugo D Critchley
OBJECTIVE: Spider phobia is a common form of anxiety disorder for which exposure therapy is an effective first-line treatment. Motivated by the observed modulation of threat processing by afferent cardiac signals; we tested the hypothesis that interoceptive information concerning cardiovascular arousal can influence the outcomes of computerised exposure therapy for spider phobia. METHOD: Fifty-three normal healthy participants with high spider phobia scores underwent one of three modified computerised exposure protocols, defined by the timing of exposure to brief spider stimuli within the cardiac cycle: Systole (during afferent baroreceptor firing); Diastole (during baroreceptor-quiescent interbeat interval); Random (non-contingent on cardiac cycle)...
October 8, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Loredana Cavalli, Lucia Briscese, Tiziana Cavalli, Paolo Andre, Maria Chiara Carboncini
Acupuncture therapy has been used to treat several disorders in Asian countries and its use is increasing in Western countries as well. Current literature assessed the safety and efficacy of acupuncture in the acute management and rehabilitation of patients with neurologic disorders. In this paper, the role of acupuncture in the treatment of acute severe acquired brain injuries is described, acting on neuroinflammation, intracranial oedema, oxidative stress, and neuronal regeneration. Moreover, beneficial effects of acupuncture on subacute phase and chronic outcomes have been reported in controlling the imbalance of IGF-1 hormone and in decreasing spasticity, pain, and the incidence of neurovegetative crisis...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Panagis Drakatos, Lucy Marples, Rexford Muza, Sean Higgins, Alexander Nesbitt, Eptehal M Dongol, Raluca Macavei, Valentina Gnoni, Laura Perez Carbonell, Iain Duncan, Adam Birdseye, Sakina Dastagir, Ivana Rosenzweig, David O'Regan, Adrian J Williams, Guy D Leschziner, Brian D Kent
Although video polysomnography (vPSG) is not routinely recommended for the evaluation of typical cases of non-rapid eye movement (NREM) parasomnias, it can aid diagnosis of unusual cases, other sleep disorders and complicated cases with REM behaviour disorder (RBD), and in differentiating parasomnias from epilepsy. In this study, we aimed to assess vPSG findings in consecutive patients with a clinical diagnosis of NREM-parasomnia covering the whole phenotypic spectrum. Five hundred and twelve patients with a final diagnosis of NREM parasomnia who had undergone vPSG were retrospectively identified...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Sleep Research
Tina H Schweizer, Hannah R Snyder, Benjamin L Hankin
Multiple cognitive risk products (dysfunctional attitudes [DA], negative inferential style [NIS], self-criticism, dependency, rumination) predict internalizing disorders; however, an optimal structure to assess these risks is unknown. We evaluated the fit, construct validity, and utility of a bifactor, single, and correlated factor model in a community sample of 382 adolescents (age 11-15 years; 59% female). The bifactor, hierarchical single, and correlated factor models all fit well. The bifactor model included a common factor ( c), capturing covariance across all cognitive risk measures, and specific latent factors for DA, NIS, dependency and rumination...
October 8, 2018: Assessment
Leonie Wilhelm, Andrea S Hartmann, Martin Cordes, Manuel Waldorf, Silja Vocks
PURPOSE: Cognitive-behavioral theories posit that body checking decreases negative emotions, but increases levels of arousal. However, few studies have investigated the effects of body checking on the course of emotional states. Therefore, the current study examined how normal-weight females with higher and lower eating, weight, and shape concerns feel during a checking episode of their most-liked and least-liked body parts. METHODS: In an online design, levels of negative emotions and arousal were retrospectively assessed before, during, immediately after, and 15 min after an individually remembered body-checking episode...
October 4, 2018: Eating and Weight Disorders: EWD
Susanne Neufang, Maximilian J Geiger, György A Homola, Marina Mahr, Miriam A Schiele, Andrea Gehrmann, Brigitte Schmidt, Agnieszka Gajewska, Johannes Nowak, Eva Meisenzahl-Lechner, Mirko Pham, Marcel Romanos, Atae Akhrif, Katharina Domschke
Given the particular relevance of arousal and alerting in panic disorder (PD), here the alerting network was investigated (1) contrasting patients with PD and healthy controls, (2) as a function of anxiety sensitivity constituting a dimensional measure of panic-related anxiety, and (3) as a possible correlate of treatment response. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 45 out-patients with PD (f = 34) and 51 matched healthy controls were investigated for brain activation patterns and effective connectivity (Dynamic Causal Modeling, DCM) while performing the Attention Network Task (ANT)...
October 4, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
Taymour Mostafa, Laila A Rashed, Dina A Sabry, Ihab Osman, Nashaat Nabil, Firas Kareem, Ingi A Mostafa
This cross-sectional comparative study aimed to compare serum L-carnitine and 25(OH)D levels between men with ED non-responding for oral sildenafil citrate and healthy volunteers. Overall, 192 men, recruited from two University Hospitals, were allocated into two equal groups of matched age; healthy potent men and men with ED non-responders for oral sildenafil citrate. Oral sildenafil citrate non-responders self-reported inadequate erectile responses after four attempts using 100 mg with the manufacturer's guidelines relative to meals, associated medications, and sexual stimulation/arousal...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Impotence Research
Inbal Reuveni, Allison C Nugent, Jessica Gill, Meena Vythilingam, Paul J Carlson, Alicja Lerner, Alexander Neumeister, Dennis S Charney, Wayne C Drevets, Omer Bonne
Agonists of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) type A benzodiazepine (BZD) receptor exert anxiolytic effects in anxiety disorders, raising the possibility that altered GABA-ergic function may play a role in the pathophysiology of anxiety disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). However, few neuroimaging studies have assessed the function or binding potential of the central GABAA BZD receptor system in PTSD. Therefore, our aim was to compare the BZD receptor binding potential between PTSD patients and healthy controls...
October 4, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
Shawn R Criswell, Richard Sherman, Stanley Krippner
OBJECTIVE: To test the effectiveness of a mental health therapy designed to reduce noncombat-related persistent posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms in 30 adult outpatients with a diagnosis of PTSD. The individual treatment offered modules to address PTSD nightmare distress, dissociation, general core skills, alterations in arousal and reactivity, avoidance, intrusion, and negative alternations in cognitions and mood. The therapeutic approach centered on cognitive behavioral therapy and heart rate variability biofeedback...
September 27, 2018: Permanente Journal
Thibaut Dondaine, Pierre Philippot, Jean-Marie Batail, Florence Le Jeune, Md PhD Paul Sauleau, Sophie Drapier, Marc Vérin, Md PhD Bruno Millet, Dominique Drapier, Gabriel Robert
BACKGROUND: Within the heterogeneity of schizophrenia, apathy constitutes an independent cluster of negative symptoms associated with poor outcomes. Attempts to identify an emotional deficit in patients who have schizophrenia with negative symptoms have yielded mixed results, and studies that focus on the relationship between apathy and emotional disorders are lacking. METHODS: We set out to remedy this shortcoming using a validated battery of film excerpts to induce positive and negative emotions in patients with chronic schizophrenia with ( n = 20) or without ( n = 20) apathy, and in controls ( n = 20) comparable for age, sex and socioeconomic status...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Psychiatry & Neuroscience: JPN
Joseph M Andreano, Alexandra Touroutoglou, Brad Dickerson, Lisa Feldman Barrett
The rate of affective disorder is substantially higher in women than in men, and considerable evidence points to the actions of ovarian hormones in mediating this disparity. In this Opinion, we discuss the hypothesis that cyclic changes in ovarian hormone levels produce cyclic alterations in connectivity between the intrinsic networks of the brain. These alterations produce specific temporal windows within the menstrual cycle when internetwork connectivity is increased, associated with increased stress reactivity and better memory for unpleasant, arousing events, leading to increased negative mood and susceptibility to affective disorder...
October 2018: Trends in Neurosciences
Kirsten A Porter-Stransky, Samuel W Centanni, Saumya L Karne, Lindsay M Odil, Sinda Fekir, Jennifer C Wong, Canaan Jerome, Heather A Mitchell, Andrew Escayg, Nigel P Pedersen, Danny G Winder, Darlene A Mitrano, David Weinshenker
BACKGROUND: Dysregulation of arousal is symptomatic of numerous psychiatric disorders. Previous research has shown that the activity of dopamine (DA) neurons in the ventral periaqueductal gray (vPAG) tracks with arousal state, and lesions of vPAGDA cells increase sleep. However, the circuitry controlling these wake-promoting DA neurons is unknown. METHODS: This study combined designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs), behavioral pharmacology, electrophysiology, and immunoelectron microscopy in male and female mice to elucidate mechanisms in the vPAG that promote arousal...
August 17, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Lily A Brown, Ateka Contractor, Kathy Benhamou
BACKGROUND: Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is associated with suicidal ideation and behavior. However, less is known about how the PTSD symptom clusters, namely alterations in arousal and reactivity (AAR), negative alterations in cognitions and mood (NACM), avoidance, and intrusion, uniquely relate to suicidal ideation. This study aimed to characterize the associations among suicidal ideation and these symptom clusters. METHODS: Study 1 (n = 346) and Study 2 (n = 194) included community members and treatment-seeking adults at an anxiety specialty clinic, respectively...
September 15, 2018: Psychiatry Research
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