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Arousal AND Disorder

Giuseppe Tardiolo, Placido Bramanti, Emanuela Mazzon
N -acetylcysteine (NAC), which is an acetylated cysteine compound, has aroused scientific interest for decades due to its important medical applications. It also represents a nutritional supplement in the human diet. NAC is a glutathione precursor and shows antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. In addition to the uses quoted in the literature, NAC may be considered helpful in therapies to counteract neurodegenerative and mental health diseases. Furthermore, this compound has been evaluated for its neuroprotective potential in the prevention of cognitive aging dementia...
December 13, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Akira Hashimoto
This text, dealing with the private confinement of the mentally ill at home, or shitaku kanchi, has often been referred to as a 'classic text' in the history of Japanese psychiatry. Shitaku kanchi was one of the most prevalent methods of treating mental disorders in early twentieth-century Japan. Under the guidance of Kure Shūzō (1865-1932), Kure's assistants at Tokyo University inspected a total of 364 rooms of shitaku kanchi across Japan between 1910 and 1916. This text was published as their final report in 1918...
December 14, 2018: History of Psychiatry
Agnieszka Ścisłowicz, Piotr Piejko, Mateusz Nowak, Paulina Renke, Piotr Chaniecki, Aneta Rucka
Roth spots are petechiae of the retina with a white or pale center that corresponds to a bundle of cotton wool or a multinuclear leukocyte aggregate. Often considered a sign of bacterial endocarditis, they are an unspecific symptom, usually more commonly seen in patients with hematopoietic system diseases. A 56-year-old patient reported to the hospital due to sudden visual impairment. The fundoscopy revealed Roth spots in both eyes that aroused the suspicion of infective endocarditis. After confirming the condition at the Department of Cardiology and the implementation of the treatment, there was a significant improvement in visual acuity, including the resolution of retinal changes...
November 28, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Pengfei Han, Thomas Hummel, Claudia Raue, Ilona Croy
Emotional processing evolved within brain structures that were originally dedicated to olfactory function. Reduced olfactory function, absence of the olfactory bulb and the experimental removal of the olfactory bulb are associated with depressive behavior. Against this background, we hypothesized that olfactory dysfunction modifies the neural processing of non-olfactory emotion information. Using a functional magnetic resonance imaging design, we therefore tested whether people with and without impaired olfactory function differ in emotional perception and processing...
December 5, 2018: NeuroImage
Andry V Souroulla, Maria Panteli, Jason D Robinson, Georgia Panayiotou
We examined emotional responses in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity and Oppositional Defiant/Conduct Disorder to affective pictures. Eighty seven children (42 female, Mage  = 11.2), with clinical or subclinical symptoms and controls viewed joy, fear, sadness or neutral pictures while heart rate, skin conductance, corrugator and zygomaticus responses were recorded. The moderating role of Callous-Unemotional and anxiety traits was evaluated. Lower resting heart rate and decreased skin conductance across picture types was associated with ADHD symptoms...
December 6, 2018: Biological Psychology
Kelly A Curran
BACKGROUND: After several visits with unrelated complaints, a 16-year-old female disclosed symptoms of unwanted genital arousal and was diagnosed with persistent genital arousal disorder (PGAD). CASE: A 16-year-old female with history of depression, sexual abuse, and dysmenorrhea insistently requested etonogestrel rod removal. At two visits following implant removal, the patient disclosed the reason for her insistence: PGAD symptoms developed after implant insertion, though they worsened with removal...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Pediatric and Adolescent Gynecology
Natalie O Rosen, Justin P Dubé, Serena Corsini-Munt, Amy Muise
INTRODUCTION: Women diagnosed with female sexual interest/arousal disorder (FSIAD) report lower health-related quality of life, more depressive symptoms, and lower sexual and relationship satisfaction compared with healthy control subjects. Despite the impact of FSIAD on women's sexuality and the inherently interpersonal nature of the sexual problem, it remains unclear whether the partners of women with FSIAD also face negative consequences, as seen in other sexual dysfunctions. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare the sexual, relational, and psychological functioning of partners of women with FSIAD (as well as the women themselves) to their control counterparts...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Sexual Medicine
Ueli Kramer, Stéphane Kolly, Pauline Maillard, Antonio Pascual-Leone, Andrea C Samson, Ruth Schmitt, Adriano Bernini, Gilles Allenbach, Patrick Charbon, Yves de Roten, Philippe Conus, Jean-Nicolas Despland, Bogdan Draganski
Changes in emotional processing (EP) and in theory of mind (TOM) are central across treatment approaches for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). Although the assessment of EP relies on the observation of a patient's self-criticism in a two-chair dialogue, an individual's TOM assessments is made based on responses to humorous stimuli based on false beliefs. For this pilot study, we assessed eight patients with BPD before and after a 3-month-long psychiatric treatment, using functional magnetic resonance imaging and behavioral tasks...
December 2018: Journal of Nervous and Mental Disease
E Garcia-Rill, S D'Onofrio, S Mahaffey, V Bisagno, F J Urbano
OBJECTIVES: This limited review examines the role of the reticular activating system (RAS), especially the pedunculopontine nucleus (PPN), one site of origin of bottom-up gamma, in the symptoms of bipolar disorder (BD). METHODS: The expression of neuronal calcium sensor protein 1 (NCS-1) in the brains of BD patients is increased. It has recently been found that all PPN neurons manifest intrinsic membrane beta/gamma frequency oscillations mediated by high threshold calcium channels, suggesting that it is one source of bottom-up gamma...
December 1, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
Grant N Marshall, Lisa H Jaycox, Charles C Engel, Andrea S Richardson, Sunny J Dutra, Terence M Keane, Raymond C Rosen, Brian P Marx
BACKGROUND: The primary purpose of this study was to examine the place of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) vis-à-vis the external dimensions of general distress and physiological arousal. METHODS: Using data collected from veterans of the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan (N = 1350), latent variable covariance structure modeling was employed to compare correlations of PTSD symptom clusters and individual PTSD symptoms with general distress and physiological arousal...
October 29, 2018: Journal of Anxiety Disorders
Marie-Charlotte Gandolphe, Christelle Duprez, Flora Enault, Orianne Seyeux, Emmanuel Brunelle, Jean-Paul Duparcq, Jean-Louis Nandrino
Autobiographical memory plays a major role in the construction of identity. A particular type of memory has been described as more relevant in pursuit of personal goals: self-defining memory (SDM). In patients with opioid-use disorder (OUD), SDM recall has not yet been investigated despite deficits in the retrieval of autobiographical memories. This study aims to characterise SDM recall in OUD patients. Patients (N = 25) and non-dependent individuals (N = 25) were told to recall five SDM and to rate the emotion (valence and arousal) triggered during the retrieval...
November 29, 2018: Memory
L Garcia-Larrea, K Hagiwara
Electrophysiological techniques demonstrate abnormalities in somatosensory transmission, hence providing objective evidence of 'somatosensory lesion or disease' which is crucial to the diagnosis of neuropathic pain (NP). Since most instances of NP result from damage to thermo-nociceptive pathways (thin fibres and spino-thalamo-cortical systems), specific activation of these is critical to ensure diagnostic accuracy. This is currently achieved using laser pulses or contact heat stimuli, and in a near future probably also with contact cold and intra-epidermal low-intensity currents...
October 25, 2018: Revue Neurologique
Fernanda B C Pires, Shirley S Lacerda, Joana B Balardin, Bruna Portes, Patrícia R Tobo, Carla R C Barrichello, Edson Amaro, Elisa H Kozasa
BACKGROUND: Women have been assuming more responsibilities and higher positions in major companies, which exposes them to high levels of stress. Higher perceived work stress is related to higher emotional reactivity. Difficulties with emotional regulation can lead to anxiety and mood disorders, which are more prevalent in women than men. Indeed, women leaders are more likely to experience emotional fatigue than men due to excessive empathy. Our aim was to evaluate the associations between self-compassion (SC) scores to depression symptoms, perceived stress and mindfulness, as well as with brain responses to high-arousal unpleasant and pleasant pictures from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS), as measured through functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) in women managers...
November 27, 2018: BMC Women's Health
Shingo Soya, Takeshi Sakurai
Fear is an important physiological function for survival. It appears when animals or humans are confronted with an environmental threat. The amygdala has been shown to play a highly important role in emergence of fear. Hypothalamic orexin neurons are activated by fearful stimuli to evoke a 'defense reaction' with an increase in arousal level and sympathetic outflow to deal with the imminent danger. However, how this system contributes to the emergence of fear-related behavior is not well understood. Orexin neurons in the hypothalamus send excitatory innervations to noradrenergic neurons in the locus coeruleus (NALC ) which express orexin receptor 1 (OX1R) and send projections to the lateral amygdala (LA)...
November 24, 2018: Brain Research
Mona M Voges, Claire-Marie Giabbiconi, Benjamin Schöne, Karsten Braks, Thomas J Huber, Manuel Waldorf, Andrea S Hartmann, Silja Vocks
OBJECTIVE: Women with eating disorders (ED) evaluate their own body more negatively than do women without ED. However, it is unclear whether this negative rating is due to objective bodily features or different standards for one's own body and others' bodies. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine whether women with ED apply double standards when rating bodies by disentangling the objective features of one's own body from the feelings of ownership. METHOD: We presented n = 34 women with anorexia nervosa, n = 31 women with bulimia nervosa, and n = 114 healthy controls with pictures of thin, average-weight, overweight, athletic, and hypermuscular bodies...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Eating Disorders
Harleen Kaur, Muhammad Umair Jahngir, Junaid H Siddiqui
Sleep disorders constitute a major aspect of the non-motor symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rapid eye movement (REM) behavior disorders are the most frequently experienced parasomnias in patients with PD. Non-REM sleep disorders like confusional arousals, sleep terrors, sleepwalking, and sleep-related eating disorder (SRED) are also associated with PD. Parasomnias can affect the quality of life of the patients as well as the night time sleep of their bed partners. Hence, it is important for physicians to recognize the occurrence of parasomnias in PD...
September 22, 2018: Curēus
Michel A Cramer Bornemann, Carlos H Schenck, Mark W Mahowald
This review of Sleep-Related Violence reports the nature of the underlying sleep-suspected conditions encountered and helps establish the spectrum of sleep-related behaviors resulting in forensic consequences. This information may begin to bridge the gap between the differing medical and legal concepts of automatisms (complex motor behaviors occurring in the absence of conscious awareness and therefore without culpability). Increasingly, sleep medicine professionals are asked by legal professionals whether a sleep-related condition could possibly have played a role in a forensic-related event...
November 22, 2018: Chest
Georgina Lynch
With recent advances in technology, there has been growing interest in use of eye-tracking and pupillometry to assess the visual pathway in autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Within emerging literature, an atypical pupillary light reflex (PLR) has been documented, holding potential for use as a clinical screening biomarker for ASD. This review outlines dominant theories of neuropathology associated with ASD and integrates underlying neuroscience associated with the atypical PLR through a reciprocal model of brainstem involvement and cortical underconnectivity...
November 21, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
Qin Li, Benjamin Becker, Jennifer Wernicke, Yuanshu Chen, Yingying Zhang, Rui Li, Jiao Le, Juan Kou, Weihua Zhao, Keith M Kendrick
Massage may be an important method for increasing endogenous oxytocin concentrations and of potential therapeutic benefit in disorders with social dysfunction such as autism where basal oxytocin levels are typically reduced. Here we investigated oxytocin release and associated neural responses using functional near infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) during hand- or machine-administered massage. 40 adult male subjects received 10 min of light foot massage either by hand or machine in a counterbalanced order and then rated pleasure, intensity, arousal and how much they would pay for the massage...
November 14, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
Bibiana Török, Eszter Sipos, Nela Pivac, Dóra Zelena
Animal models of posttraumatic stress disorder are useful tools to reveal the neurobiological basis of the vulnerability to traumatic events, and to develop new treatment strategies, as well as predicting treatment response contributing to personalized medicine approach. Different models have different construct, face and predictive validity and they model different symptoms of the disease. The most prevalent models are the single prolonged stress, electric foot-shock and predator odor. Freezing as 're-experiencing' in cluster B and startle as 'arousal' in cluster E according to DSM-5 are the most frequently studied parameters; however, several other symptoms related to mood, cognitive and social skills are part of the examinations...
November 20, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
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