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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30103253/sex-differences-in-the-effect-of-cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-deletion-on-locus-coeruleus-norepinephrine-neurons-and-corticotropin-releasing-factor-mediated-responses
#1
Ryan R Wyrofsky, Beverly A S Reyes, Daohai Yu, Lynn G Kirby, Elisabeth J Van Bockstaele
Cannabinoids are capable of modulating mood, arousal, cognition, and behavior, in part via their effects on the noradrenergic nucleus locus coeruleus (LC). Dysregulation of LC signaling and norepinephrine (NE) efflux in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) can lead to the development of psychiatric disorders, and CB1r deletion results in alterations of α2- and β1-adrenoceptors in the mPFC, suggestive of increased LC activity. To determine how CB1r deletion alters LC signaling, whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology was conducted in LC-NE neurons of male and female wild type (WT) and CB1r-knock out (KO) mice...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098791/practice-guideline-update-recommendations-summary-disorders-of-consciousness-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology-the-american-congress-of-rehabilitation-medicine-and-the-national
#2
Joseph T Giacino, Douglas I Katz, Nicholas D Schiff, John Whyte, Eric J Ashman, Stephen Ashwal, Richard Barbano, Flora M Hammond, Steven Laureys, Geoffrey S F Ling, Risa Nakase-Richardson, Ronald T Seel, Stuart Yablon, Thomas S D Getchius, Gary S Gronseth, Melissa J Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: To update the 1995 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter on persistent vegetative state and the 2002 case definition on minimally conscious state (MCS) and provide care recommendations for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC). METHODS: Recommendations were based on systematic review evidence, related evidence, care principles, and inferences using a modified Delphi consensus process according to the AAN 2011 process manual, as amended...
August 7, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094544/brain-responses-to-pictures-of-children-in-men-with-pedophilic-disorder-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#3
Fadwa Cazala, Véronique Fonteille, Virginie Moulier, Mélanie Pélégrini-Issac, Christiane De Beaurepaire, Marlène Abondo, Magali Bodon-Bruzel, Jean Cano, Florent Cochez, Taoufik Fouli, Catherine Thevenon, Bernard Dauba, Michel Pugeat, Serge Stoléru
Structural and functional neuroimaging techniques have recently been used to investigate the mechanisms of sexual attraction to children, a hallmark of pedophilic disorder, and have reported many contradictory or non-replicated findings. Here, our purpose was to identify through functional magnetic resonance imaging the brain responses of 25 male outpatients with pedophilic disorder to visual stimuli depicting children (VSc) and to compare them with 24 male healthy controls matched on sexual orientation (to female or male adults), age, and handedness...
August 9, 2018: European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093855/gender-differences-in-processing-fearful-and-angry-body-expressions
#4
Zhenhong He, Zhenli Liu, Ju Wang, Dandan Zhang
Previous studies have demonstrated differential perception of body expressions between males and females. However, only two recent studies (Kret et al., 2011; Krüger et al., 2013) explored the interaction effect between observer gender and subject gender, and it remains unclear whether this interaction between the two gender factors is gender-congruent (i.e., better recognition of emotions expressed by subjects of the same gender) or gender-incongruent (i.e., better recognition of emotions expressed by subjects of the opposite gender)...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092888/prevalence-and-clinical-significance-of-respiratory-effort-related-arousals-in-the-general-population
#5
Adam Ogna, Nadia Tobback, Daniela Andries, Martin Preisig, Peter Vollenweider, Gerard Waeber, Pedro Marques-Vidal, José Haba Rubio, Raphaël Heinzer
STUDY OBJECTIVES: To determine the prevalence and clinical associations of respiratory effort-related arousals (RERA) in a general population sample. METHODS: A total of 2,162 participants (51.2% women, 58.5 ± 11.0 years old, body mass index [BMI] 25.6 ± 4.2 kg/m2) of a general population-based cohort (HypnoLaus, Switzerland) underwent full polysomnography at home. Each subject with a RERA index ≥ 5 events/h was compared with an age-, sex- and apnea-hypopnea index (AHI)-matched control without RERA...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30089618/practice-guideline-update-recommendations-summary-disorders-of-consciousness-report-of-the-guideline-development-dissemination-and-implementation-subcommittee-of-the-american-academy-of-neurology-the-american-congress-of-rehabilitation-medicine-and-the-national
#6
Joseph T Giacino, Douglas I Katz, Nicholas D Schiff, John Whyte, Eric J Ashman, Stephen Ashwal, Richard Barbano, Flora M Hammond, Steven Laureys, Geoffrey S F Ling, Risa Nakase-Richardson, Ronald T Seel, Stuart Yablon, Thomas S D Getchius, Gary S Gronseth, Melissa J Armstrong
OBJECTIVE: To update the 1995 American Academy of Neurology (AAN) practice parameter on persistent vegetative state and the 2002 case definition on minimally conscious state (MCS) and provide care recommendations for patients with prolonged disorders of consciousness (DoC). METHODS: Recommendations were based on systematic review evidence, related evidence, care principles, and inferences using a modified Delphi consensus process according to the AAN 2011 process manual, as amended...
August 8, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30078047/magnetic-resonance-imaging-of-obstructive-sleep-apnea-in-children
#7
REVIEW
Robert J Fleck, Sally R Shott, Mohamed Mahmoud, Stacey L Ishman, Raouf S Amin, Lane F Donnelly
Sleep-disordered breathing has a spectrum of severity that spans from snoring and partial airway collapse with increased upper airway resistance, to complete upper airway obstruction with obstructive sleep apnea during sleeping. While snoring occurs in up to 20% of children, obstructive sleep apnea affects approximately 1-5% of children. The obstruction that occurs in obstructive sleep apnea is the result of the airway collapsing during sleep, which causes arousal and impairs restful sleep. Adenotonsillectomy is the first-line treatment of obstructive sleep apnea and is usually effective in otherwise healthy nonsyndromic children...
August 2018: Pediatric Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077915/substance-use-disorders-and-sexual-behavior-the-effects-of-alcohol-and-drugs-on-patients-sexual-thoughts-feelings-and-behavior
#8
Meine H Bosma-Bleeker, Eric Blaauw
INTRODUCTION: Hardly any research exists on the relationship between substance use and sexual behaviors in patients with a substance use disorder. This study aimed to examine this relation by looking into perceived positive effects on sexual behavior, perceived negative effects and risky sexual behavior due to substance use in patient groups of users of alcohol, stimulants, sedatives and Gamma hydroxybutyrate (GHB). In addition, the current study aimed to address the question whether sexual behavior (e...
July 6, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30073571/the-importance-of-adolescent-self-report-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-integration-of-questionnaire-and-autonomic-measures
#9
Jessica M Keith, Jeremy P Jamieson, Loisa Bennetto
Anxiety and sensory symptoms are highly prevalent and meaningful in the daily lives of individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Despite the importance of carefully measuring, researching, and treating these symptoms, current methods in ASD seldom include self-report. This study investigated the consistency of adolescent and parent reports of anxiety and auditory sensitivity in individuals with ASD, and examined their validity via comparisons with sympathetic arousal at baseline and in response to an auditory challenge...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Abnormal Child Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30061861/is-metabolic-rate-increased-in-insomnia-disorder-a-systematic-review
#10
Julia L Chapman, Maria Comas, Camilla M Hoyos, Delwyn J Bartlett, Ronald R Grunstein, Christopher J Gordon
Background: Insomnia disorder is a highly prevalent health condition, affecting ~10-15% of the adult population worldwide. A central feature of insomnia is hyperarousal characterized as persistent and increased somatic, cognitive and cortical stimulation. Hyperarousal leads to a state of conditioned arousal that disrupts both sleep and daytime function. Research studies have shown increases in body temperature, heart rate, electroencephalographic activity, catecholamines, and oxygen consumption as a measure of metabolic rate...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057559/increased-attentional-bias-toward-visual-cues-in-internet-gaming-disorder-and-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-an-event-related-potential-study
#11
Sung Nyun Kim, Minah Kim, Tak Hyung Lee, Ji-Yoon Lee, Sunyoung Park, Minkyung Park, Dai-Jin Kim, Jun Soo Kwon, Jung-Seok Choi
Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a newly identified potential addiction disorder associated with compulsive internet-game playing behavior and attentional bias toward online gaming- related cues. Attentional bias toward addiction-related cues is the core feature of addiction that is associated with craving, but the pathophysiology of attentional bias in IGD is not well-understood, such as its relationship to compulsivity. In this study, we used the electrophysiological marker of late positive potential (LPP) to compare attentional bias in IGD and obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30057137/the-impact-of-thyroid-disease-on-sexual-dysfunction-in-men-and-women
#12
REVIEW
Andrew T Gabrielson, Rita A Sartor, Wayne J G Hellstrom
BACKGROUND: Individually, thyroid disease and sexual dysfunction are common conditions that can have a detrimental effect on quality of life. Recent reports have documented an increased prevalence of sexual dysfunction among patients with thyroid disorders. As such, it is important for sexual medicine physicians to be primed on the presentation of patients with overlying sexual and thyroid dysfunction to allow for proper management. AIM: To review the available literature exploring the relationship between thyroid disease and sexual dysfunction in men and women...
July 26, 2018: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055943/signs-of-autonomic-arousal-precede-tilt-induced-psychogenic-nonsyncopal-collapse-among-youth
#13
Geoffrey L Heyer, Rebecca A Harvey, Monica P Islam
Characterizing the physiologic changes leading up to psychogenic nonsyncopal collapse (PNSC) may help to elucidate the processes that cause paroxysmal functional neurological symptom disorders and to clinically distinguish PNSC from syncope. Thus, we aimed to characterize preictal sweat rate, heart rate, and systolic blood pressure changes among patients with tilt-induced PNSC compared to patients with tilt-induced neurally mediated syncope. The presence of increased preictal sweating was compared between groups...
July 25, 2018: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047487/opportunities-for-utilizing-polysomnography-signals-to-personalize-obstructive-sleep-apnea-subtypes-and-severity
#14
Diego Mazzotti, Diane Lim, Kate Sutherland, Lia Bittencourt, Jesse Mindel, Ulysses Magalang, Allan Pack, Philip de Chazal, Thomas Penzel
Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a heterogeneous sleep disorder with many pathophysiological pathways to disease. Currently, the diagnosis and classification of OSA is based on the apnea-hypopnea index, which poorly correlates to underlying pathology and clinical consequences. A large number of in-laboratory sleep studies are performed around the world every year, already collecting an enormous amount of physiological data within an individual. Clinically, we have not yet fully taken advantage of this data, but combined with existing analytical approaches, we have the potential to transform the way OSA is managed within an individual patient...
July 26, 2018: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047288/new-insights-into-the-neurobiology-of-restless-legs-syndrome
#15
Sergi Ferré, Diego García-Borreguero, Richard P Allen, Christopher J Earley
Restless legs syndrome (RLS) is a common sensorimotor disorder, whose basic components include a sensory experience, akathisia, and a sleep-related motor sign, periodic leg movements during sleep (PLMS), both associated with an enhancement of the individual's arousal state. The present review attempts to integrate the major clinical and experimental neurobiological findings into a heuristic pathogenetic model. The model also integrates the recent findings on RLS genetics indicating that RLS has aspects of a genetically moderated neurodevelopmental disorder involving mainly the cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits...
July 26, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30047097/the-influence-of-noise-on-autonomic-arousal-and-cognitive-performance-in-adolescents-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Jessica M Keith, Jeremy P Jamieson, Loisa Bennetto
This study examined the impact of noise on cognitive performance in autism spectrum disorder (ASD), while concurrently measuring sympathetic responses. Adolescents with and without ASD completed visually presented span tasks in a 2 × 2 experimental manipulation of noise (quiet vs. 75 dB gated broadband noise) and task difficulty (easier vs. harder). Analyses revealed a significant noise × difficulty interaction on performance, and a significant group × noise × difficulty interaction on sympathetic arousal...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30046255/hyperarousal-and-sleep-reactivity-in-insomnia-current-insights
#17
REVIEW
David A Kalmbach, Andrea S Cuamatzi-Castelan, Christine V Tonnu, Kieulinh Michelle Tran, Jason R Anderson, Thomas Roth, Christopher L Drake
Hyperarousal is a key component in all modern etiological models of insomnia disorder. Overall patterns in the literature suggest that over-active neurobiological and psychological systems contribute to difficulty sleeping. Even so, mixed results regarding the specific mechanisms linking hyperarousal to sleep disturbance limit current etiological conceptualizations. Similar basal arousal profiles between individuals with high vs low risk for insomnia in the absence of stress exposure suggest that dysregulated stress "response" rather than general hyperarousal may be a more pertinent marker of risk...
2018: Nature and Science of Sleep
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043350/subtyping-the-autism-spectrum-disorder-comparison-of-children-with-high-functioning-autism-and-asperger-syndrome
#18
Concetta de Giambattista, Patrizia Ventura, Paolo Trerotoli, Mariella Margari, Roberto Palumbi, Lucia Margari
Since Hans Asperger's first description (Arch Psych Nervenkrankh 117:76-136, 1944), through Lorna Wing's translation and definition (Psychol Med 11:115-129, 1981), to its introduction in the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM, 1994), Asperger Syndrome has always aroused huge interest and debate, until vanishing in the DSM fifth edition (2013). The debate regarded its diagnostic validity and its differentiation from high functioning autism (HFA). The present study aimed to examine whether AS differed from HFA in clinical profiles and to analyze the impact of DSM-5's innovation...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30037023/the-efficacy-of-transcranial-current-stimulation-techniques-to-modulate-resting-state-eeg-to-affect-vigilance-and-to-promote-sleepiness
#19
REVIEW
Ludovica Annarumma, Aurora D'Atri, Valentina Alfonsi, Luigi De Gennaro
Transcranial Current Stimulations (tCSs) are non-invasive brain stimulation techniques which modulate cortical excitability and spontaneous brain activity by the application of weak electric currents through the scalp, in a safe, economic, and well-tolerated manner. The direction of the cortical effects mainly depend on the polarity and the waveform of the applied current. The aim of the present work is to provide a broad overview of recent studies in which tCS has been applied to modulate sleepiness, sleep, and vigilance, evaluating the efficacy of different stimulation techniques and protocols...
July 20, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30036168/effects-of-a-painful-stimulus-on-stress-regulation-in-male-patients-with-borderline-personality-disorder-a-pilot-study
#20
Janina Naoum, Nikolaus Kleindienst, Ulf Baumgärtner, Franziska Willis, Falk Mancke, Rolf-Detlef Treede, Martin Bohus, Christian Schmahl
Pain processing in relation to stress has so far not been investigated in male patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). This experimental pilot study examined 17 male BPD patients and 20 male healthy controls (HCs) to assess the effects of a pain stimulus on arousal, aggression, pain (ratings), and heart rate. At baseline, BPD patients showed significantly higher arousal and aggression; however, there was no significant difference in heart rate compared to the HC group. Following stress induction, a noninvasive mechanical pain stimulus was applied...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Personality Disorders
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