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Self control

Dovile Barauskaite, Justina Gineikiene, Vilte Auruskeviciene, Bob M Fennis, Miwa Yamaguchi, Naoki Kondo
Functional foods are promoted as products that provide specific health benefits beyond basic nutrition. While a number of studies show that the motivation behind the purchase of such products is oriented towards health concerns, we argue that consumers' choice of functional food can also be driven by less health-related hedonic or social motives, such as a tendency for indulgence vs. self-control or the motivation to impress and show off. This proposition has not been systematically and empirically tested before...
August 13, 2018: Appetite
David Weidenauer, Thomas Hamp, Christoph Schriefl, Caroline Holaubek, Markus Gattinger, Mario Krammel, Markus Winnisch, Ana Weidenauer, Gerald Mundigler, Irene Lang, Wolfgang Schreiber, Fritz Sterz, Harald Herkner, Hans Domanovits
BACKGROUND: Cardio-pulmonary-resuscitation (CPR) training starting at the age of 12 years is recommended internationally. Training younger children is not recommended because young children lack the physical ability to perform adequate CPR and discouragement to perform CPR later is apprehended. The aim of this study was to answer the following questions: Are younger children discouraged after CPR training? Is discouragement caused by their lack in physical ability to perform adequate chest compressions on a standard manikin and would the use of manikins with a reduced resistance affect their motivation or performance? METHODS: We investigated the motivation and CPR performance of children aged 8-13 years after CPR training on manikins of different chest stiffness in a prospective, randomized, single-blind, controlled trial...
2018: PloS One
Dongyang Wang, Changxu Liu, Hongchao Liu, Jiaguang Han, Shuang Zhang
Wave dynamics on curved surfaces has attracted growing attention due to its close resemblance to the warped space time governed by general relativity. It also opens up opportunities for designing functional optical devices such as geodesic lenses. In this work we study the wave dynamics on the surface of a torus, a shape of considerable interest due to its nontrivial topology. Governed by the conservation of angular momentum, light propagates on the torus in two different types of modes: one is able to twist around and sweep through the whole surface of the torus; the other is confined within a certain angular range along the torus latitude direction...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Chaoheng Guo, Shenhe Fu, Haolin Lin, Zhen Li, Hao Yin, Zhenqiang Chen
We demonstrate that the spatially diffractive properties of cylindrical vector beams could be controlled via linear interactions with anisotropic crystals. It is the first time to show experimentally that the diffraction of the vector beams can be either suppressed or enhanced significantly during propagation, depending on the sign of anisotropy. Importantly, it is also possible to create a linear non-spreading and shape-preserving vector beam, by vanishing its diffraction during propagation via strong anisotropy in a crystal...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Qiong Yuan, Lei He, Zhong-Ji Qian, Chunxia Zhou, Pengzhi Hong, Zhe Wang, Yi Wang, Shengli Sun, Chengyong Li
Microstructure of hydroxyapatite is known to influence cellular behavior, can be performed as a substrate for osteoblast growth, and exploited as a drug release platform. However, easy delamination and self-decomposition of hydroxyapatite caused by poor adhesion with substrates are the main problems currently. In this paper, we successfully fabricated TiO2/SrHA composite scaffolds by self-generated strontium substituted hydroxyapatite microspheres in TiO2 nanotubes. Moreover, the active compound 1-(5-bromo-2-hydroxy-methoxyphenyl)-ethanone (BHM) from Seahorse (Hippocampus kuda Bleeler) was loaded in this scaffold, and the controlled release kinetics of BHM was studied...
August 16, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jennifer R Mammen, James J Java, Hyekyun Rhee, Arlene M Butz, Jill S Halterman, Kimberly Arcoleo
BACKGROUND: Accurate symptom assessment remains challenging in teen populations. Little is known of usual symptom/response patterns, and self-reported paper diaries have traditionally low compliance rates. Therefore, we used concurrent digital voice-diaries to capture daily asthma experiences. OBJECTIVE: (1) To qualitatively explore usual symptom patterns and self-management responses; and (2) to quantitatively explore relationships between symptom severity and sentiment scores (a marker of emotional response to events)...
August 16, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Rubab Qureshi, Yuri Jadotte, Peijia Zha, Sallie Ann Porter, Cheryl Holly, Susan Salmond, Elizabeth Ann Watkins
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the review was to determine if prenatal exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) increases the risk of obesity and overweight in children. INTRODUCTION: Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many developed countries. This is of great concern as childhood obesity is associated with early onset of chronic diseases such as coronary artery disease, type II diabetes and hypertension in adulthood. Extensive research suggests a multifactorial etiology...
August 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Joseph K McLaughlan, Leia Vos, Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Tanya Sherman, Scott R Millis
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Despite the widespread use of the Cognitive Log, information regarding normative performance is only available in individuals with known brain injury and in healthy college students. The purpose of the current research is to provide information about Cognitive Log performance in a regional group of rehabilitation patients without history of brain injury. Secondarily, non-neurological factors that may predict performance are considered. Research Method/Design: Participants included in this study were 121 consecutive patients admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital spinal cord and orthopedic floor...
August 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Edith Holloway, Bonnie Sturrock, Ecosse Lamoureux, Mark Hegel, Robin Casten, David Mellor, Gwyneth Rees
PURPOSE: To explore the feasibility and preliminary effectiveness of Problem-Solving Treatment for Primary Care (PST-PC) delivered by low-vision rehabilitation (LVR) practitioners to adult clients with depressive symptoms. DESIGN/METHOD: A single-group pre/postintervention study. Eighteen adult LVR clients with depressive symptoms (Patient Health Questionnaire-9 [PHQ-9] score of ≥5) received 6-8 weekly telephone sessions of PST-PC delivered by expertly trained practitioners (n = 14)...
August 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Majse Lind, Carsten René Jørgensen, Torben Heinskou, Sebastian Simonsen, Rikke Bøye, Dorthe Kirkegaard Thomsen
Patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) display disturbances in self and other understanding, which is also evident when they narrate events from their own and significant others' lives. In a recent study, we found that patients described both their own and their parents' life stories as more negative and with fewer themes of agency and communion fulfillment. Hence, we examined whether 12 months of psychotherapy would change how patients described their own and their parents' life stories. At baseline, 30 BPD patients and 30 matched control participants described and answered questions about their personal and their parents' life stories...
August 16, 2018: Psychotherapy
Cathrine Pedersen, Hallgeir Halvari, Anja H Olafsen
Suffering from somatic symptoms can seriously hamper one's quality of life and ability to function, causing lost work productivity, sickness absence, and extensive medical utilization. Physical activity (PA) has demonstrated promising results related to mild to moderate cases of somatic symptoms. The present study explored whether a worksite health promotion intervention was able to increase PA and cardiorespiratory fitness, and to reduce somatic symptoms and sickness absence. The intervention was designed based on the tenets of Self-determination theory...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Occupational Health Psychology
Eun Young Joo, Ji Eun Lee, Hee Sook Kang, Shin Goo Park, Yong Hee Hong, Young Lim Shin, Min Sohn
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the frequency of self-monitoring of blood glucose (SMBG) and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels among Korean adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Factors affecting the SMBG frequency were analyzed in order to improve their glycemic control. METHODS: Sixty-one adolescents aged 13 to 18 years with T1DM were included from one tertiary center. Clinical and biochemical variables were recorded...
June 29, 2018: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
Francesco Paradisi, Eugenio Di Stanislao, Aurora Summa, Stefano Brunelli, M Traballesi, Giuseppe Vannozzi
BACKGROUND: The observation of upper body movement is gaining interest in the gait analysis community. Recent studies involved the use of body-worn motion sensors, allowing translation of laboratory measurements to real-life settings in the context of patient monitoring and fall prevention. OBJECTIVES: It was shown that amputee persons demonstrate altered acceleration patterns due to the presence of prosthetic components, while no information is available on how accelerations propagate upwards to the head during level walking...
August 16, 2018: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Xiao Mei Zhang, Peng Fei Li, Jia Ning Hou, Li Nong Ji
AIM: The primary objective of this study was to compare blood glucose (BG) excursions between East Asian and Caucasian patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) who were injection-naive, had inadequate glycemic control with oral antihyperglycemic medications (OAMs), and who required initiation with injectable therapy. METHODS: This retrospective pooled analysis included individual patient data from completed clinical trials (Eli Lilly insulin lispro injection/dulaglutide development programs, first patient visit ≥1997)...
August 15, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Zadalla Mouslech, Maria Somali, Livadas Sarantis, Daramilas Christos, Chatzi Alexandra, Papagianni Maria, George Mastorakos, Christos Savopoulos, Apostolos I Hatzitolios
OBJECTIVE: Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) constitutes a real challenge in everyday practice for both physicians and patients. Due to the complexity of the disease and its unpredictable nature, structured education and training programs are nowadays implemented that ensure active patient involvement and self-care behaviors to achieve adequate glycemic control, prevent diabetic complications, and improve the quality of life of patients. These programs provide patients with the necessary knowledge and skills to self-monitor and self-manage the disease and its associated metabolic conditions...
August 15, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Masayoshi Saito, Sachiyuki Tsukada, Nobuko Fujita, Mahbubur Rahman, Wataru Morita, Nobuto Kitamura, Atsushi Tasaki
PURPOSE: To compare post-operative pain relief with peri-articular injection (PI) versus interscalene brachial plexus block (IBPB) after arthroscopic rotator cuff repair (ARCR) surgery. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed 121 consecutive patients undergoing ARCR surgery divided into two groups: the PI group and the IBPB group. We compared complications and self-reported pain score measured using a Numerical Rating Scale (NRS) during the initial 24 hours after surgery...
August 15, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Jøran Hjelmesæth, Jan H Rosenvinge, Hege Gade, Oddgeir Friborg
BACKGROUND: The long-term effects of presurgical psychological interventions on weight loss, eating behaviors, affective symptoms, and health-related quality of life remain uncertain. This study aimed to assess the 4-year effects of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) before bariatric surgery on these outcomes. METHODS: Single-center randomized controlled parallel-group trial. Patients were assessed after CBT before bariatric surgery (n = 98) and 1 year (n = 80) and 4 years (n = 61) after surgery...
August 15, 2018: Obesity Surgery
Yan Nok Lau, Joseph Ng, Shan Yee Lee, Lam Chin Li, Cheuk Man Kwan, Sin Ming Fan, Bernard Pui Lam Leung, Chi Ngai Lo
BACKGROUND: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovitis, activation of synoviocytes and infiltration of adaptive immune cells leads to synovial hyperplasia and joint swelling. Under the elevated extra-neural pressure, free nerve endings release neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and substance P, thus promoting neurogenic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effect of therapeutic neural mobilization (NM) exercises targeting the nervous system on disease impact in RA patients...
August 15, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Neşe Yoko Gönül, Korkmaz Sayınsu
The clinical examination of an 11.10-year-old girl in permanent dentition showed severe crowding, chewing problems and her right maxillary lateral incisor was in palatal position. The molars were in Class II relationship on both sides. An extraction treatment was planned. Upper second premolars and lower first premolars were extracted. Lower crowding was eliminated using physiological tooth movement called "driftodontics". Slots sized 0.022 inches and self-ligating brackets were used. The patient also used a high-pull headgear for anchorage and vertical control reasons for a short period...
September 2017: Turkish journal of orthodontics
Lauren Smith, Abraham Reichenberg, Jonathan Rabinowitz, Stephen Z Levine, Eva Velthorst
Background: Along with the key clinical features of major psychiatric disorders such as psychosis, mania, and depression, these disorders are also associated with cognitive, social, and functional deficits. A growing body of evidence suggests that these disorders exist at the extreme end of a continuum of symptoms rather than as binary entities, so it is plausible that the associated cognitive, social, and functional deficits assume a similar pattern. Consistent with this approach, we sought to determine whether adults in the general population with psychiatric symptoms also demonstrate milder forms of the cognitive, social, and functional deficits that are often associated with the psychiatric disorders...
December 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
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