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Self control

Yizhe Wang, Zhiwei Xu
A single piezoelectric patch can be used as both a sensor and an actuator by means of the self-sensing piezoelectric actuator, and the function of self-sensing shows several advantages in many application fields. However, some problems exist in practical application. First, a capacitance bridge circuit is set up to realize the function of self-sensing, but the precise matching of the capacitance of the bridge circuit is hard to obtain due to the standardization of electric components and variations of environmental conditions...
October 13, 2018: Sensors
Markus Blankenburg, Michael Schroth, Sarah Braun
Primary headache disorders such as migraine and tension-type headache begin as early as childhood or adolescence. Prevalence increases during primary school and adolescence. In tension-type headache, central pain sensitization and activation of central nociceptive neurons plays an important role. Migraine is a primary brain disorder with abnormalities in pain modulating systems and cortical stimulus processing. Bio-psycho-social factors play a decisive role in both types of headache. Secondary headaches due to an inflammatory or a structural brain alteration are rare...
October 15, 2018: Klinische Pädiatrie
Neil A Segal, Lauren N Neuman, Maria C Hochstedler, Howard L Hillstrom
INTRODUCTION: Anthropometric changes to the feet with pregnancy may increase risk for musculoskeletal disease. Customized arch-supportive orthoses to prevent anthropometric changes could potentially provide an inexpensive means to prevent musculoskeletal impairments and improve quality of life for women during their post-reproductive years. The objective of this prospective, randomized controlled trial was to determine whether customized foot orthoses can prevent arch collapse during pregnancy...
July 27, 2018: Foot
Justin Dainer-Best, Jason D Shumake, Christopher G Beevers
Depressed adults often show a bias towards negative self-referent processing at the expense of positive self-referent processing. The current study assessed whether a mental imagery intervention (Positive Self Reference Training-PSRT) delivered via the Internet could improve self-referent processing and depressive symptomatology among adults with moderate or greater depression symptoms. Participants were recruited via online methods and randomly assigned to one of two computerized interventions: active PSRT (n=44) or control training (NTC; n=43)...
October 6, 2018: Behaviour Research and Therapy
Liangchang Zhang, Ting Li, Weidang Ai, Chunyan Zhang, Yongkang Tang, Qingni Yu, Yinghui Li
Water management subsystem (WMS) is a major component of the controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). For guaranteeing the water requirement of crop growth and crewmember's daily life, a WMS was established in a 4 person 180-day integrated experiment (carried out in Shenzhen, China, 2016) to maintain a closed cycle with a total water amount of ~23 m3 . The design and operation of the WMS was summarized as follows: (1) Collection and allocation of condensate water. About 917 L/d condensate water (>98% was from plants' evapotranspiration) was collected, and ~866 L/d of which was reused as plant nutrient solution after ultraviolet (UV) disinfection, and 50...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Alexandra Butler, Karen A Patte, Mark A Ferro, Scott T Leatherdale
AIMS: The objective of the study was to examine if depression or anxiety was associated with youth cannabis use; and investigate whether flourishing moderates these associations. METHODS: Students (N = 8179) were recruited from 10 secondary schools (grade 9-12) in Ontario and British Columbia, Canada Self-report questionnaires were used to assess symptoms of depression [CESD-R-10], anxiety [GAD-7], flourishing [Deiner's Flourishing Scale] and cannabis consumption using measures that assess cannabis ever use and frequency of use...
October 8, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Paul H Lysaker, Emily Gagen, Abigail Wright, Jenifer L Vohs, Marina Kukla, Phillip T Yanos, Ilanit Hasson-Ohayon
The integrated model of insight in schizophrenia suggests that poor insight is the result of multiple factors which compromise persons' abilities to integrate streams of information into a personal awareness of psychiatric challenges, and make adaptive responses. This model hypothesizes that metacognitive deficits, or difficulties forming a complex and integrated understanding of the self and others, influence insight, regardless of other proximal causes including clinical profile. To explore this possibility, we performed a latent class analysis on 324 adults with schizophrenia or schizoaffective disorder...
October 15, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Virginia Sánchez-Jiménez, Noelia Muñoz-Fernández, Javier Ortega-Rivera
This study presents the first evaluation of Dat-e Adolescence, a dating violence prevention program aimed at adolescents in Spain. A cluster randomized control trial was used involving two groups (a control group and experimental group) and two waves (pre-test and post-test six months apart). 1,764 students from across seven state high schools in Andalucía (southern Spain) participated in the study (856 in the control group and 908 in the experimental group); 52.3% were boys (n = 918), with ages ranging from 11 to 19 years (average age = 14...
2018: PloS One
Michael L Lowe, Kelly L Haws
Confessions are commonplace. Even when embarrassing or otherwise damaging, we seem intrinsically motivated to open up to others and confess mistakes we have made. Although there may be many reasons one might choose to disclose one's "sins," very little is known about what confession actually does, particularly concerning its effect on future behavior. This work examines confession in the context of one's personal self-control failures in consumption, asking the central question: does confession lead to repentance (i...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
Julie A Cantelon, Grace E Giles, Marianna D Eddy, Zachary Haga, Caroline R Mahoney, Holly A Taylor, F Caroline Davis
Individuals with stressful occupations, such as law enforcement and military personnel, are required to operate in high stakes environments that can be simultaneously physically and emotionally demanding. These individuals are tasked with maintaining peak performance under stressful and often unpredictable conditions, exerting high levels of cognitive control to sustain attention and suppress task-irrelevant actions. Previous research has shown that physical and emotional stressors differentially influence such cognitive control processes...
October 15, 2018: Emotion
Rachel S T Low, Nickola C Overall, Emily J Cross, Annette M E Henderson
How does emotion regulation in one social context spillover to functioning in another? We investigate this novel question by drawing upon recent evidence that 3 categories underpin the most commonly assessed emotion regulation strategies: disengagement, aversive cognitive perseveration, and adaptive engagement. We examine how these emotion regulation categories during marital conflict are associated with conflict resolution and assess the associated implications for functioning during a subsequent family activity...
October 15, 2018: Emotion
Klodiana Lanaj, Trevor A Foulk, Amir Erez
The leader role is demanding and depleting, explaining why many leaders struggle to remain engaged while doing their job. In this study, we present theory and an intervention focused on improving leader energy. Integrating cognitive energetics theory (Kruglanski et al., 2012) with leader identity theory and expressive writing research, we develop and test a positive leader self-reflection intervention, which asks leaders to reflect on aspects of their selves that make them good leaders. We expected that this intervention would improve leaders' access to and application of their energy in ways that would make them more influential at work...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Applied Psychology
Reem A Ali, Nadin M Abdel Razeq, Fatmeh A Alzoubi, Karimeh M Alnuaimi
BACKGROUND: Although skipping breakfast is common among children and adolescents, daily breakfast consumption is a healthy habit that is particularly important in childhood. There is a link between children's attitudes toward breakfast, breakfast-skipping behaviors, and maternal factors. Evidence demonstrating a clear relationship between maternal factors and preadolescent attitudes and behaviors toward breakfast skipping is scarce. AIMS: This study aims to examine the mediation effect of preadolescent attitudes toward breakfast on the associations between maternal involvement (encouragement and control of breakfast eating) and preadolescent breakfast skipping...
October 15, 2018: Worldviews on Evidence-based Nursing
Trung P Nguyen, Jeff Schaffert, Christian LoBue, Kyle B Womack, John Hart, C Munro Cullum
BACKGROUND: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) with loss of consciousness (LOC) has been associated with earlier onset of mild cognitive impairment, frontotemporal dementia, Parkinson's disease, and Alzheimer's disease (AD), but has not been examined as a risk factor for earlier onset of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the association between a history of TBI and the age of onset of DLB. METHOD: Data from 576 subjects with a clinical diagnosis of DLB were obtained from the National Alzheimer's Coordinating Center (NACC)...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Priti Mulimani, Victor Cw Hoe, Melanie J Hayes, Jose Joy Idiculla, Adinegara Bl Abas, Laxminarayan Karanth
BACKGROUND: Dentistry is a profession with a high prevalence of work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSD) among practitioners, with symptoms often starting as early in the career as the student phase. Ergonomic interventions in physical, cognitive, and organisational domains have been suggested to prevent their occurrence, but evidence of their effects remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effect of ergonomic interventions for the prevention of work-related musculoskeletal disorders among dental care practitioners...
October 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Gustavo Saposnik, Xavier Montalban, Daniel Selchen, Maria A Terzaghi, Fabien Bakdache, Alonso Montoya, Manuel Fruns, Fernando Caceres, Jiwon Oh
Introduction: According to previous studies, therapeutic inertia (TI) may affect 7 out of 10 physicians who care for MS patients, particularly in countries where clinical guidelines are not widely used. Limited information is available on the prevalence of TI and its associated factors across Canada. Objectives: (i) To evaluate factors associated with TI amongst neurologists caring for MS patients across Canada; (ii) to compare the prevalence of TI observed in Canadian neurologists to the prevalence of TI observed in Argentinean, Chilean, and Spanish neurologists (historical controls from prior studies)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yan Yang, Kathryn Fletcher, Richard Whitehead, Greg Murray
There is growing interest in psychological processes that might be targeted in treatments for bipolar disorder (BD). One such process is a vulnerability at the level of self-concept, characterized by presence of, and fluctuations between positive and negative self-concept. The aim of the present study was to advance this literature by investigating the role of two emerging meta-cognitive processes - self-compassion and nonattachment to self - which have potential to therapeutically modulate this unstable self-concept in BD...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Zhi Ye, Lihua Chen, Danhua Lin
The traumatic experience of contracting and living with HIV/AIDS may produce a myriad of mental health problems, especially posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) symptoms, and conversely, bring posttraumatic growth (PTG), that is, positive changes resulting from a struggle with trauma. The growing body of research into the relationship between PTSD symptoms and PTG has produced mixed results. In addition, some research has suggested that psychosocial and cognitive factors may mediate the development of PTG after trauma exposure...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Cherry Hau-Lin Tam, Sharon I Kwok, T Wing Lo, Sally Hing-Po Lam, Gabriel Kwun-Wa Lee
The present paper examines the issue of hidden drug abuse in Hong Kong. Although official statistics show that the reported number of drug-abuse cases has been in decline in recent years, it has been reported that drug abusers tend to hide themselves at home to take drugs; thus, they are not discovered easily by the law enforcement and social control agents who report drug abuse cases to the Central Registry of Drug Abuse, resulting in the decrease in the reported number of drug-abuse cases. This "dark figure" phenomenon is a reflection of the official figure and reporting behavior, not the actual situation of drug abuse in Hong Kong...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Danielle M van der Laan, Petra J M Elders, Christel C L M Boons, Giel Nijpels, Liset van Dijk, Jacqueline G Hugtenburg
Introduction: Non-adherence to medication is a complex health care problem. In spite of substantial efforts, up till now little progress has been made to effectively tackle the problem with adherence-enhancing interventions. The aim of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a patient-tailored, pharmacist-led and theory-driven intervention program aimed to enhance self-reported adherence to antihypertensive medication. Materials and Methods: A parallel-group randomized controlled trial in 20 community pharmacies with nine months follow-up was conducted...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
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