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Severe allergic asthma

Ebrahim Mazloomi, Behrooz Ilkhanizadeh, Ahad Zare, Adel Mohammadzadeh, Nowruz Delirezh, Shahram Shahabi
Nicotine, an nAChR agonist, shows prominent anti-inflammatory properties, and some studies have illustrated its suppressive effects on inflammation. Here, we have examined whether nicotine as a medicine may have beneficial effects on the treatment of asthma in a mouse model of allergic asthma. BALB/c mice were sensitized with OVA and alum. Two weeks later, the mice received nicotine with concentrations of 1 and 10 mg/kg three times every other day. After 10 days, the mice were challenged with OVA (5%) using an ultrasonic nebulizer and died the next day...
August 13, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Yusuke Okubo, Kotaro Nochioka, Marcia A Testa
OBJECTIVE: Anaphylaxis is a common, serious, systemic allergic reaction. In the United States, the change of annual hospitalization rates by anaphylaxis-trigger foods and risk factors associated with severity remain unclear. METHODS: Hospital discharge records of food-induced anaphylactic reactions of individuals younger than 20 years were obtained from Kids' Inpatient Database in 2006, 2009, and 2012 and were weighted to estimate the number of hospitalizations in the United States...
August 14, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Süleyha Hilmioğlu-Polat, Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi, Macit Ilkit, Mohammad Taghi Hedayati, Ramazan Inci, Emel Tumbay, David W Denning
The current number of fungal infections occurring each year in Turkey is unknown. We estimated the burden of serious human fungal diseases based on the population at risk, existing epidemiological data from 1920 to 2017, and modelling previously described by the LIFE program Among the population of Turkey (80.8 million in 2017), approximately 1,785,811 (2.21%) people are estimated to suffer from a serious fungal infection each year. The model used predicts high prevalences of allergic fungal rhinosinusitis episodes (312,994 cases) (392/100,000), of severe asthma with fungal sensitization (42,989 cases) (53...
August 14, 2018: Mycoses
Yu-Chen Huang, Chih-Ming Weng, Meng-Jung Lee, Shu-Min Lin, Chun-Hua Wang, Han-Pin Kuo
BACKGROUND: Omalizumab, a recombinant monoclonal anti-IgE antibody, was developed for the treatment of severe allergic asthma. Not all these patients respond to omalizumab. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to evaluate whether the pro-inflammatory cytokine profiles in the severe allergic asthma patients were different between who responded and non-responded to omalizumab therapy. METHODS: A prospective study was conducted to examine type 2 cytokines and epithelium derived cytokines in the bronchial tissues by immunohistochemistry, western blot and PCR analysis among patients with severe allergic asthma before and after omalizumab therapy...
August 14, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Jorge Sanchez, Andres Sánchez, Ricardo Cardona
Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that children who grow up on traditional farms are protected from allergic diseases. However, less is known about if the environment influences the pharmacotherapy in these patients. Objective: To compare the treatment of asthmatic and rhinitis children from urban and rural areas in Medellín, Colombia. Methods: During one year, we follow up a group of children (6 to 14 years) with diagnostic of asthma or rhinitis living for more than five years in urban or rural area...
June 30, 2018: Colombia Médica: CM
Sakine Işık, Şule Çağlayan-Sözmen, Suna Asilsoy, Serdar Kamer Kılıçarslan, Özden Anal, Özkan Karaman, Nevin Uzuner
Işık S, Çağlayan-Sözmen Ş, Asilsoy S, Kılıçarslan SK, Anal Ö, Karaman Ö, Uzuner N. Knowledge levels related to allergen specific immunotherapy and perspectives of parents whose children were diagnosed with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis in Turkey. Turk J Pediatr 2018; 60: 50-55. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate the knowledge levels and perspectives about allergen specific immunotherapy (ASI) of parents whose children were diagnosed with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis with positive skin prick test...
2018: Turkish Journal of Pediatrics
Samuel N Uwaezuoke, Joy N Eze, Adaeze C Ayuk, Ikenna K Ndu
Besides their fundamental role in transfusion medicine, ABO and other histo-blood group antigens are associated with the pathogenesis of some human diseases such as malignancy and thrombosis. Reports also show a possible relationship with the risk of asthma and other forms of respiratory atopy. This paper aims to critically review the current evidence linking ABO histo-blood group with the risk of respiratory atopy in children and adults. A literature search was conducted with PubMed to gather baseline data about this relationship...
2018: Pediatric Health, Medicine and Therapeutics
Sairaman Nagarajan, Sabina Ahmad, Markus Quinn, Sabhyata Agrawal, Elena Manilich, Emily Concepcion, Haesoon Lee
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to examine if food and/or aeroallergen sensitization was associated with worse asthma, pulmonary function tests (PFT), and laboratory markers. METHODS: At our institution, 386 children with asthma were divided into allergic and nonallergic groups based on allergen-specific immunoglobulin E (IgE) testing classes 1-6 versus 0. Asthma severity and/or control, IgE level, eosinophil counts and/or percentages, forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in the first second of expiration (FEV1), and FEV1/FVC, were compared by using bivariate, regression, and subgroup analyses for children who were highly allergic (≥4 allergens)...
July 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Harold S Nelson
BACKGROUND: Since the discovery of house-dust mites (HDM) in the 1960's, allergy immunotherapy trials that used extracts of these mites have been conducted, first by subcutaneous (SCIT) and later by the sublingual (SLIT) route. When reviewed in 2013, published studies of HDM immunotherapy were found to often be characterized by small sample size, widely varying doses, and poorly defined disease severity and outcomes. These trials were thought to to support the efficacy of HDM subcutaneous allergy immunotherapy but the evidence for efficacy of sublingual immunotherapy was less firm...
July 1, 2018: Allergy and Asthma Proceedings:
Si Chen, Yuting Han, Hao Chen, Jing Wu, Min Zhang
PURPOSE: T helper (Th) 17 cells play a critical role in the development of asthma, but the underlying mechanism of how interleukin (IL)-17 is regulated in allergic airway inflammation is poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the impact of Bcl11b on Th17 response in asthma. METHODS: Blood samples from patients with mild asthma (MA) and severe asthma (SA) were collected. Expression of Bcl11b, IL-4, IL-5, IL-13, IL-17A and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 were determined in CD4⁺ T cells and plasma by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)...
September 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Keiji Oishi, Kazuto Matsunaga
INTRODUCTION: Recently, several new biological therapies targeted IgE and IL-5 in severe asthma have been developed and approved. In the last few years, there have been some reports on the therapeutic algorithms for severe asthmatic subjects screened by biomarkers. However, these algorithms have one problem. In atopic/eosinophilic overlapping asthmatic subjects, there is no effective answer to the question: "which is the optimal choice between Anti-IgE and anti-IL-5?" METHODS: We propose a new three-step algorithm for biological therapy in severe asthma...
August 7, 2018: Immunity, Inflammation and Disease
Kathleen R Bartemes, Hirohito Kita
Fungi are ubiquitous outdoors and indoors. Exposure, sensitization, or both to fungi are strongly associated with development of asthma and allergic airway diseases. Furthermore, global climate change will likely increase the prevalence of fungi and enhance their antigenicity. Major progress has been made during the past several years regarding our understanding of antifungal immunity. Fungi contain cell-wall molecules, such as β-glucan and chitin, and secrete biologically active proteases and glycosidases...
August 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Inês Mota, Susana Piedade, Ângela Gaspar, Filipe Benito-Garcia, Graça Sampaio, Luís Miguel Borrego, Mário Morais-Almeida
Background: Oral immunotherapy (OIT) has been recognized as a promising treatment for severe and long-lasting cow's milk (CM) allergy. Once maintenance has been achieved, patients should maintain daily intake of CM to ensure desensitization. Clinical experience concerning long-term follow-up is scarce. Objective: The authors aimed to assess long-term efficacy and safety of a maintenance phase of OIT in real life. Methods: Prospective study of all children and adolescents, who underwent CM-OIT and were subsequently followed at our allergy center on maintenance dose (200 mL daily) for at least 36 months after reaching the maintenance phase (from 2009 to 2016)...
July 2018: Asia Pacific Allergy
Z B Abd El-Hamid, M M Refaat, H H El-Shahawy, A M Eissa, M M El-Sheikh, A S Abdel-Rehim, S A Elgaaly, M H Abd El-Moneam, N A Mohamed, O M Abdel Latif
Background. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is commonly present worldwide, causing serious problems to those affected. ADHD was suggested to be secondary to allergic disorder or its medication. Both ADHD and allergy depend on complex environmental and genetic interaction, and they meet the hypersensitivity criteria. Objective. Detect the percentage of allergy in ADHD children, the common allergic disorders and allergens, and the effect of allergy on symptom and severity of ADHD. Material and methods...
August 1, 2018: European Annals of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Mey-Fann Lee, Chu-Hui Chiang, Ying-Lan Li, Nancy M Wang, Pei-Pong Song, Shyh-Jye Lin, Yi-Hsing Chen
BACKGROUND: American cockroaches (Periplaneta americana) are an important indoor allergen source and a major risk factor for exacerbations and poor control of asthma. We previously reported that allergen components from American cockroaches exhibit varying levels of pathogenicity. Sensitization to major American cockroach allergen, Per a 2, correlated with more severe clinical phenotypes among patients with allergic airway diseases. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, we examined whether oral plant vaccine-encoding full-length Per a 2 clone-996 or its hypoallergenic clone-372 could exert a prophylactic role in Per a 2-sensitized mice...
2018: PloS One
B Sastre, J M Rodrigo-Muñoz, D A Garcia-Sanchez, J A Cañas, V Del Pozo
Eosinophils are terminal polymorphonuclear cells originated from bone marrow with an important number of cytoplasmic granules, some of them are exosomes, which contain multiple molecules such as specific eosinophilic proteins, cytokines, chemokines, enzymes, and lipid mediators that contribute to effector role of these cells. Moreover, they present a large number of receptors that allow them interact with multiple cellular types. Eosinophils play an important role in defence against infestations and they are a key element in asthma and allergic diseases...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Investigational Allergology & Clinical Immunology
Gilda Varricchi, Antonio Pecoraro, Giancarlo Marone, Gjada Criscuolo, Giuseppe Spadaro, Arturo Genovese, Gianni Marone
Thymic stromal lymphopoietin (TSLP) is a pleiotropic cytokine originally isolated from a murine thymic stromal cell line. TSLP exerts its biological effects by binding to a high-affinity heteromeric complex composed of thymic stromal lymphopoietin receptor chain and IL-7Rα. TSLP is primarily expressed by activated lung and intestinal epithelial cells, keratinocytes, and fibroblasts. However, dendritic cells (DCs), mast cells, and presumably other immune cells can also produce TSLP. Different groups of investigators have demonstrated the existence of two variants for TSLP in human tissues: the main isoform expressed in steady state is the short form (sf TSLP), which plays a homeostatic role, whereas the long form (lfTSLP) is upregulated in inflammatory conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Agnieszka Kowalczyk, Aneta Krogulska
Nitric oxide is produced by enzymes called nitric oxide synthases. It fulfills many important functions in the human body, but produced in excess amount has a proinflammatory activity. Fractional exhaled nitric oxide measurements are used in the diagnosis and monitoring of eosinophilic inflammation in the lower airways, but should not be used as an independent parameter to make a diagnosis of asthma or for the monitoring of asthma treatment. Evaluation of fractional exhaled nitric oxide concentrations is also used to determine the pathogenesis of symptoms in patients with rhinitis...
2018: Developmental Period Medicine
Mitsuru Adachi, Masanari Kozawa, Hajime Yoshisue, Ki Lee Milligan, Makoto Nagasaki, Takayoshi Sasajima, Terumasa Miyamoto, Ken Ohta
BACKGROUND: Omalizumab (anti-IgE monoclonal antibody) is an approved add-on therapy for Japanese patients with severe allergic asthma. As directed by the Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare Japan, a post-marketing surveillance (PMS) study on omalizumab was conducted between 2009 and 2017. METHODS: The PMS observed safety and efficacy of omalizumab in patients treated with open-label omalizumab for 52 weeks (with optional 2-year extension period). Primary safety outcomes included incidence and severity of adverse events (AEs) and adverse drug reactions (ADRs)...
August 2018: Respiratory Medicine
Thomas Secher, Isabelle Maillet, Claire Mackowiak, Jessica Le Bérichel, Amandine Philippeau, Corinne Panek, Michèle Boury, Eric Oswald, Abdelhadi Saoudi, Francois Erard, Marc Le Bert, Valérie Quesniaux, Aurélie Couturier-Maillard, Bernhard Ryffel
Allergic asthma is characterized by a strong Th2 and Th17 response with inflammatory cell recruitment, airways hyperreactivity and structural changes in the lung. The protease allergen papain disrupts the airway epithelium triggering a rapid eosinophilic inflammation by innate lymphoid cell type 2 (ILC2) activation, leading to a Th2 immune response. Here we asked whether the daily oral administrations of the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (ECN) might affect the outcome of the papain protease induced allergic lung inflammation in BL6 mice...
July 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
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