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Severe allergic asthma

C C Loureiro, L Amaral, J A Ferreira, R Lima, C Pardal, I Fernandes, L Semedo, A Arrobas
Different subsets of asthma patients may be recognized according to the exposure trigger and the frequency and severity of clinical signs and symptoms. Regarding the exposure trigger, generally asthma can be classified as allergic (or atopic) and nonallergic (or nonatopic). Allergic and nonallergic asthma are distinguished by the presence or absence of clinical allergic reaction and in vitro IgE response to specific aeroallergens. The mechanisms of allergic asthma have been extensively studied with major advances in the last two decades...
2018: BioMed Research International
Garima Sharma, Sin Hyeog Im
The prevalence of allergic disorders has dramatically increased over the past decade, particularly in developed countries. Apart from gastrointestinal disorders, neoplasia, genital and dermatological diseases etc. , dysregulation of gut microbiota (dysbiosis) has also been found to be associated with increased risk of allergies. Probiotics are increasingly being employed to correct dysbiosis and, in turn, to modulate allergic diseases. However, several factors like strain variations and effector metabolites or component of them in a bacterial species can affect the efficacy of those as probiotics...
November 2018: Allergy, Asthma & Immunology Research
Mireya Becerra-Díaz, Ashley B Strickland, Aleksander Keselman, Nicola M Heller
Allergic asthma is a disease initiated by a breach of the lung mucosal barrier and an inappropriate Th2 inflammatory immune response that results in M2 polarization of alveolar macrophages (AM). The number of M2 macrophages in the airway correlates with asthma severity in humans. Sex differences in asthma suggest that sex hormones modify lung inflammation and macrophage polarization. Asthmatic women have more M2 macrophages than asthmatic men and androgens have been used as an experimental asthma treatment...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Zhaoyu Liu, Ming Li, Xiangming Fang, Lu Shen, Wenxia Yao, Zhiyuan Fang, Jitao Chen, Xiao Feng, La Hu, Zicheng Zeng, Chunyi Lin, Jinsheng Weng, Yuxiong Lai, Gao Yi
BACKGROUND: Allergic asthma is a lower respiratory tract disease of Th2 inflammation with multiple molecular mechanisms. The upper and lower airways can be unified by the concept of a united airway and, as such, gene expression studies of upper epithelial cells may provide effective surrogate biomarkers for the prognostic study of allergic asthma. OBJECTIVE: To identify surrogate biomarkers in upper airway epithelial cells for the prognostic study of allergic asthma...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Edita Gasiuniene, Ieva Janulaityte, Zivile Zemeckiene, Diana Barkauskiene, Brigita Sitkauskiene
IL-33 is a recently discovered cytokine which plays an important role in asthma pathogenesis. AIM: to evaluate serum IL-33 in patients with asthma and healthy controls, and to evaluate the association of IL-33 with different asthma phenotypes. METHODS: Patients with asthma (n=115) and healthy subjects (n=85) were included in the study. Subjects with asthma were divided into groups according to their phenotype: allergic/non-allergic, eosinophilic/non-eosinophilic, obese/non-obese and severity according to GINA (mild, moderate, severe)...
October 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Immunology
Natasha Purington, R Sharon Chinthrajah, Andrew Long, Sayantani Sindher, Sandra Andorf, Katherine O'Laughlin, Margaret A Woch, Alexandra Scheiber, Amal Assa'ad, Jacqueline Pongracic, Jonathan M Spergel, Jonathan Tam, Stephen Tilles, Julie Wang, Stephen J Galli, Manisha Desai, Kari C Nadeau
Background: Food allergy prevalence has continued to rise over the past decade. While studies have reported threshold doses for multiple foods, large-scale multi-food allergen studies are lacking. Our goal was to identify threshold dose distributions and predictors of severe reactions during blinded oral food challenges (OFCs) in multi-food allergic patients. Methods: A retrospective chart review was performed on all Stanford-initiated clinical protocols involving standardized screening OFCs to any of 11 food allergens at 7 sites...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Xiaoyao Tao, Fenghong Chen, Yueqi Sun, Shulian Wu, Haiyu Hong, Jianbo Shi, Rui Xu
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: The European Position Paper on Rhinosinusitis and Nasal Polyps proposes an assessment of clinical control of chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS). However, there are limited data about the percentage of postoperative control, and no prediction models for uncontrolled CRS have been reported. The aim of the study was to develop prediction models for postoperative uncontrolled CRS. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective case series. METHODS: Patients (n = 136) who had undergone endoscopic sinus surgery at least 1 year prior to the study were recruited to assess the clinical control...
September 8, 2018: Laryngoscope
Luis Caraballo, Nathalie Acevedo, Josefina Zakzuk
Ascariasis is the most frequent soil transmitted helminthiasis and, as well as other helminth infections, is expected to influence the clinical presentation of allergic diseases such as asthma. Indeed, several clinical and experimental works have shown an important impact either increasing or suppressing symptoms, and the same effects have been detected on the underlying immune responses. In this review we analyze the work on this field performed in Colombia, a Latin American tropical country, including aspects such as the molecular genetics of the IgE response to Ascaris; the allergenic activity of Ascaris IgE-binding molecular components and the immunological and clinical influences of ascariasis on asthma...
October 8, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Stephanie Bond, Renaud Léguillette, Eric A Richard, Laurent Couetil, Jean-Pierre Lavoie, James G Martin, R Scott Pirie
The term "equine asthma" has been proposed as a unifying descriptor of inflammatory airway disease (IAD), recurrent airway obstruction (RAO), and summer pasture-associated obstructive airway disease. Whilst the term will increase comprehensibility for both the lay and scientific communities, its biologic relevance must be compared and contrasted to asthma in human medicine, recognizing the limited availability of peer-reviewed equine-derived data, which are largely restricted to clinical signs, measures of airway obstruction and inflammation and response to therapy...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine
Ibon Eguiluz-Gracia, Tunn Ren Tay, Mark Hew, Maria M Escribese, Domingo Barber, Robyn E O'Hehir, Maria J Torres
The potential of precision medicine in allergy and asthma has only started to be explored. A significant clarification in the pathophysiology of rhinitis, chronic rhinosinusitis, asthma, food allergy and drug hypersensitivity was made in the last decade. This improved understanding led to a better classification of the distinct phenotypes, and to the discovery of new drugs such as biologicals, targeting phenotype-specific mechanisms. Nevertheless, many conditions remain poorly understood such as non-eosinophilic airway diseases or non-IgE mediated food allergy...
October 5, 2018: Allergy
Guillaume Pouessel, Paul J Turner, Margitta Worm, Victòria Cardona, Antoine Deschildre, Etienne Beaudouin, Jean-Marie Renaudin, Pascal Demoly, Luciana K Tanno
BACKGROUND: Anaphylaxis hospitalisations are increasing in many countries, in particular for medication and food triggers in young children. Food-related anaphylaxis remains an uncommon cause of death, but a significant proportion of these are preventable. AIM: To review published epidemiological data relating to food-induced anaphylaxis and potential risk factors of fatal and/or near-fatal anaphylaxis cases, in order to provide strategies to reduce the risk of severe adverse outcomes in food anaphylaxis...
October 4, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Allergy: Journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Elissa M Abrams, Allan B Becker, Stanley J Szefler
There is increasing recognition of phenotypic variability in pediatric asthma, providing the opportunity for a more personalized approach to therapy. Increasingly biologic therapies, in particular those targeting the "allergic" (or T helper 2) pathway, are being considered for children with severe asthma. However, there is a great deal of variability in the extent these biologic therapies have been studied in children, as well as efficacy of results thus far. The goal of this article is to review the mechanism of action, efficacy, and potential predictive and monitoring biomarkers of the biologic medications focusing on the pediatric population, in an effort to establish a more personalized approach to asthma in the pediatric population for the 21st century...
September 1, 2018: Pediatric Allergy, Immunology, and Pulmonology
Sandeep Kapur, Wade Watson, Stuart Carr
Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a common, chronic skin disorder that can significantly impact the quality of life of affected individuals as well as their families. Although the pathogenesis of the disorder is not completely understood, it appears to result from the complex interplay between defects in skin barrier function, environmental and infectious agents, and immune dysregulation. There are no diagnostic tests for AD; therefore, the diagnosis is based on specific clinical criteria that take into account the patient's history and clinical manifestations...
2018: Allergy, Asthma, and Clinical Immunology
Micheál Mac Aogáin, Pei Yee Tiew, Albert Yick Hou Lim, Teck Boon Low, Gan Liang Tan, Tidi Hassan, Thun How Ong, Sze Lei Pang, Zi Yang Lee, Xiao Wei Gwee, Christopher Martinus, Yang Yie Sio, Sri Anusha Matta, Tan Ching Ong, Yuen Seng Tiong, Kang Ning Wong, Sriram Narayanan, Veonice Bijin Au, Damien Marlier, Holly R Keir, Augustine Tee, John Arputhan Abisheganaden, Mariko Siyue Koh, De Yun Wang, John E Connolly, Fook Tim Chew, James D Chalmers, Sanjay H Chotirmall
RATIONALE: Allergic sensitization is associated with poor clinical outcomes in asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cystic fibrosis however its presence, frequency and clinical significance in non-CF bronchiectasis remain unclear. OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency and geographic variability that exists in sensitization pattern to common and specific allergens including house dust mite and fungi and, to correlate such patterns to airway immune-inflammatory status and clinical outcomes in bronchiectasis...
September 28, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Marina Lampalo, Irena Jukić, Jasna Bingulac-Popović, Hana Safić, Nikola Ferara, Sanja Popović-Grle
Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that is characterized by reversible obstruction of airways, bronchial hyper-reactivity and airway remodeling. The etiology of asthma is multifactorial, with inheritance playing an important role. The aim of our study was to investigate the importance of biomarkers of asthma and the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) gene as a genetic factor that could be involved in the pathogenesis of asthma. The research was conducted at Jordanovac University Department for Lung Diseases and Croatian Institute of Transfusion Medicine...
March 2018: Acta Clinica Croatica
Nuray Bayar Muluk, Fazilet Altın, Cemal Cingi
Objectives Our intention was to review all material published to date regarding superantigens (SAgs) and allergy from an otorhinolaryngological viewpoint to understand this association more clearly. Methods We identified all materials published mentioning both SAg and allergic rhinitis (AR), chronic sinusitis, asthma, and atopic dermatitis (AD) that are indexed on PubMed, Google, or the ProQuest Central databases. Results Staphylococcus aureus is a significant bacterial pathogen in humans and has the ability to produce enterotoxins with superantigenic features...
September 25, 2018: American Journal of Rhinology & Allergy
Laura Maggi, Beatrice Rossettini, Gianni Montaini, Andrea Matucci, Alessandra Vultaggio, Alessio Mazzoni, Boaz Palterer, Paola Parronchi, Enrico Maggi, Francesco Liotta, Francesco Annunziato, Lorenzo Cosmi
Even if omalizumab is broadly used in the treatment of severe, allergic asthma, the immunological effects in long-term treated patients have not been fully elucidated. To this aim a cohort of 15 allergic asthmatic patients treated with omalizumab for at least three years was compared with 12 allergic asthma patients treated with standard therapy. Omalizumab treated asthmatic patients showed lower frequencies of circulating plasmacytoid dendritic cells (DCs), and lower CD154 expression on CD4 T helper cells than the control group...
September 25, 2018: European Journal of Immunology
Nezar Mehanna, Nader Mohamed, Moges Wordofa, Dessie Abera, Abiyot Mesfin, Mistire Wolde, Kassu Desta, Aster Tsegaye, Bineyam Taye
BACKGROUND: There has been a noticeable increase in the prevalence of allergy-related disorders (ARDs) in the modern era. Urbanization is believed to be a major environmental risk factor for the onset of ARDs but data from low- to middle-income countries is limited. OBJECTIVE: Our purpose was to assess the prevalence of ARDs and atopy among a population of rural Ethiopian school children and identify environmental and lifestyle factors associated with such disorders...
2018: PloS One
Jill E Weatherhead, Paul Porter, Amy Coffey, Dana Haydel, Leroy Versteeg, Bin Zhan, Ana Clara Gazzinelli Guimarães, Ricardo Fujiwara, Ana M Jaramillo, Maria Elena Bottazzi, Peter J Hotez, David B Corry, Coreen M Beaumier
INTRODUCTION: Ascaris lumbricoides (roundworm) is the most common helminth infection globally and a cause of life-long morbidity that may include allergic airway disease, an asthma phenotype. We hypothesize that Ascaris larval migration through the lungs leads to persistent airway hyperresponsiveness (AHR) and type-2 inflammatory lung pathology despite resolution of infection that resembles allergic airway disease. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mice were infected with Ascaris by oral gavage...
September 24, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Elizabeth Daniel, Alanna Roff, Man-Hsun Hsu, Ronaldo Panganiban, Kristin Lambert, Faoud Ishmael
RATIONALE: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as important regulators of allergic inflammation and potential therapeutic targets. We sought to identify which miRNAs are expressed in CD4+ T-cells and determine whether allergic stimuli or glucocorticoids alter their expression. METHODS: After IRB approval, blood was collected from dust mite (DM) allergic rhinitis subjects (n=20), non-allergic controls (n=8), and asthmatics (n=16). Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were incubated with dust mite extract (DME), diluent control, or DME + dexamethasone (0...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
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