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phytochemicals prostate cancer

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30289005/phase-ii-trial-of-acai-juice-product-in-biochemically-recurrent-prostate-cancer
#1
Elizabeth R Kessler, Lih-Jen Su, Dexiang Gao, Kathleen C Torkko, Michael Wacker, Mary Anduha, Nicole Chronister, Paul Maroni, E David Crawford, Thomas W Flaig, L Michael Glode, Elaine T Lam
BACKGROUND: Plant derivatives have been studied as therapies for prostate cancer based on their purported anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties and low toxicities. The acai berry is an example of a plant rich in phytochemicals, which may slow the growth of prostate cancer. METHODS: This was a phase II, Simon 2-stage clinical trial in patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer with a primary endpoint of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response. Patients were asymptomatic, with a rising PSA of at least 0...
October 5, 2018: Integrative Cancer Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30284468/allyl-isothiocyanate-induces-autophagy-through-the-up-regulation-of-beclin-1-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#2
Hung-En Chen, Ji-Fan Lin, Te-Fu Tsai, Yi-Chia Lin, Kuang-Yu Chou, Thomas I-Sheng Hwang
Allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), one of the most widely studied phytochemicals, inhibits the survival of human prostate cancer cells while minimally affecting normal prostate epithelial cells. Our study demonstrates the mechanism of AITC-induced cell death in prostate cancer cells. AITC induces autophagy in RV1 and PC3 cells, judging from the increased level of LC3-II protein in a dose- and time-dependent manner, but not in the normal prostate epithelial cell (PrEC). Inhibition of autophagy in AITC-treated cells decreased cell viability and enhanced apoptosis, suggesting that the autophagy played a protective role...
October 4, 2018: American Journal of Chinese Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257470/targeting-crosstalk-between-nrf-2-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-and-androgen-receptor-signaling-in-prostate-cancer
#3
REVIEW
Namrata Khurana, Suresh C Sikka
Oxidative stress, inflammation and androgen receptor (AR) signaling play a pivotal role in the initiation, development and progression of prostate cancer (PCa). Numerous papers in the literature have documented the interconnection between oxidative stress and inflammation; and how antioxidants can combat the inflammation. It has been shown in the literature that both oxidative stress and inflammation regulate AR, the key receptor involved in the transition of PCa to castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC)...
September 25, 2018: Cancers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30246639/phytochemical-anti-diabetic-and-cardiovascular-properties-of-urtica-dioica-l-urticaceae-a-review
#4
Mohammed El Haouari, Juan A Rosado
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) have become the main cause of morbidity and death worldwide. In addition, current anti-diabetic and cardiovascular therapy is based on conventional drugs that have limited effectiveness and adverse side effects. In this regard, the role of medicinal herbs as a complementary or an alternative medicine is of great interest. Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae), which is the focus of this review, has been widely used in traditional medicine to treat a variety of ailments, including, diabetes, hypertension and prostate cancer...
September 24, 2018: Mini Reviews in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30088418/in-vitro-evaluation-of-cytotoxic-activities-of-marketed-herbal-products-in-ghana
#5
Sylvester Languon, Isaac Tuffour, Emmanuel Ekow Quayson, Regina Appiah-Opong, Osbourne Quaye
There are numerous herbal products on the Ghanaian market that are purported to cure various ailments, including cancer. However, scientific investigations on efficacy and toxicity of most of these products are not done. The aim of the study was to assess the anticancer potentials of herbal products on the Ghanaian market. Antiproliferative effects of Kantinka BA (K-BA), Kantinka Herbaltics (K-HER), Centre of Awareness (COA), a stomach (STO) and multicancer (MUT) product were evaluated in vitro using liver (Hep G2), breast (MCF-7), prostate (PC-3 and LNCaP), and blood (Jurkat) cancer cell lines...
January 2018: Journal of evidence-based integrative medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030299/therapeutic-potential-of-leelamine-a-novel-inhibitor-of-androgen-receptor-and-castration-resistant-prostate-cancer
#6
Krishna B Singh, Xinhua Ji, Shivendra V Singh
Clinical management of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) resulting from androgen deprivation therapy remains challenging. CRPC is driven by aberrant activation of androgen receptor (AR) through mechanisms ranging from its amplification, mutation, post-translational modification, and expression of splice variants (e.g., AR-V7). Herein, we present experimental evidence for therapeutic vulnerability of CRPC to a novel phytochemical, leelamine (LLM), derived from pine tree bark. Exposure of human prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP (an androgen-responsive cell line with mutant AR), C4-2B (an androgen-insensitive variant of LNCaP), and 22Rv1 (a CRPC cell line with expression of AR-Vs), and a murine prostate cancer cell line Myc-CaP to plasma achievable concentrations of LLM resulted in ligand-dependent (LNCaP) and ligand-independent (22Rv1) growth inhibition in vitro that was accompanied by downregulation of mRNA and/or protein levels of full-length AR as well as its splice variants, including AR-V7...
October 2018: Molecular Cancer Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30030079/reverse-screening-on-indicaxanthin-from-opuntia-ficus-indica-as-natural-chemoactive-and-chemopreventive-agent
#7
Marco Tutone, Alessia Virzì, Anna Maria Almerico
Indicaxanthin is a bioactive and bioavailable betalain pigment extracted from Opuntia ficus indica fruits. Indicaxanthin has pharmacokinetic proprieties, rarely found in other phytochemicals, and it has been demonstrated that it provides a broad-spectrum of pharmaceutical activity, exerting anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, and neuromodulator effects. The discovery of the Indicaxanthin physiological targets plays an important role in understanding the biochemical mechanism. In this study, combined reverse pharmacophore mapping, reverse docking, and text-based database search identified Inositol Trisphosphate 3-Kinase (ITP3K-A), Glutamate carboxypeptidase II (GCPII), Leukotriene-A4 hydrolase (LTA4H), Phosphoserine phosphatase (HPSP), Phosphodiesterase 4D (PDE4D), AMPA receptor (GluA3 and GluA2 subunits) and Kainate receptor (GluK1 isoform) as potential targets for Indicaxanthin...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29985715/the-prevention-and-therapy-of-osteoporosis-a-review-on-emerging-trends-from-hormonal-therapy-to-synthetic-drugs-to-plant-based-bioactives
#8
Twinkle Gupta, Nilanjan Das, Sabiha Imran
Osteoporosis is one of the major health problems worldwide. It is characterized by increased bone fragility and loss of bone matter due to the action of osteoclast cells, which are associated with modified hormone levels and factors such as aging. Bisphosphonates are the primary treatment for osteoporosis. Apart from bisphosphonates, hormone therapy, calcitonin treatment, selective estrogen receptor modulators (SERMs), and strontium ranelate (SR) are some of the other treatments available for osteoporosis. However, these treatments have some side effects, such as oily skin, fluid retention, nausea, long-term toxicity, and even prostate cancer in males, and thus natural therapies that incur fewer side effects are sought...
July 9, 2018: Journal of Dietary Supplements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451459/apiaceous-vegetables-and-cruciferous-phytochemicals-reduced-phip-dna-adducts-in-prostate-but-not-in-pancreas-of-wistar-rats
#9
Jae Kyeom Kim, Marissa A McCormick, Cynthia M Gallaher, Daniel D Gallaher, Sabrina P Trudo
We previously showed rats fed with apiaceous vegetables, but not with their putative chemopreventive phytochemicals, reduced colonic DNA adducts formed by 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP), a dietary procarcinogen. We report here the effects of feeding apiaceous and cruciferous vegetables versus their purified predominant phytochemicals, either alone or combined, on prostate and pancreatic PhIP-DNA adduct formation. In experiment I, male Wistar rats received three supplemented diets: CRU (cruciferous vegetables), API (apiaceous vegetables), and CRU+API (both types of vegetables)...
February 2018: Journal of Medicinal Food
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29428929/improvements-in-self-reported-lower-urinary-tract-symptoms-with-prostate-health-supplement
#10
Isaac Eliaz, Elaine Weil, Barry Wilk
Context • Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) produces lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) that diminish quality of life. Conventional treatments are often accompanied by adverse side effects. By contrast, consumers of phytochemicals-based dietary supplements often report a reduction in symptoms without side effects. The field needs studies that quantify the strength and character of perceived benefits. Objectives • The study intended to quantify the character and strength of perceived improvements in LUTS in men, after the consumption of a prostate health supplement...
February 10, 2018: Alternative Therapies in Health and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421513/dihydro-%C3%AE-agarofurans-from-the-roots-of-the-australian-endemic-rainforest-tree-maytenus-bilocularis-act-as-leucine-transport-inhibitors
#11
Mario Wibowo, Qian Wang, Jeff Holst, Jonathan M White, Andreas Hofmann, Rohan A Davis
Phytochemical studies of the roots of the Australian plant, Maytenus bilocularis, resulted in the identification of six previously undescribed dihydro-β-agarofuran sesquiterpenoids, bilocularins D-I, along with three known natural products, namely 1α,2α,6β,15-tetraacetoxy-9β-benzoyloxydihydro-β-agarofuran, pristimerin, and celastrol. The structures of all compounds were characterized via analysis of 1D/2D NMR and MS data. The absolute configuration of bilocularin D was defined by X-ray crystallography analysis...
April 2018: Phytochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383876/histone-methyltransferase-setd7-regulates-nrf2-signaling-pathway-by-phenethyl-isothiocyanate-and-ursolic-acid-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#12
Chao Wang, Limin Shu, Chengyue Zhang, Wenji Li, Renyi Wu, Yue Guo, Yuqing Yang, Ah-Ng Kong
SCOPE: This study aims to investigate the role of the epigenetic regulator SET domain-containing lysine methyltransferase 7 (Setd7) in regulating the antioxidant Nrf2 pathway in prostate cancer (PCa) cells and examines the effects of two phytochemicals, phenethyl isothiocyanate (PEITC) and ursolic acid (UA). METHODS AND RESULTS: Lentivirus-mediated shRNA knockdown of Setd7 in LNCaP and PC-3 cells decreases the expression of downstream Nrf2 targets, such as NAD(P)H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (Nqo1) and glutathione S-transferase theta 2 (Gstt2)...
January 30, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375725/four-new-c-19-diterpenoid-alkaloids-from-delphinium-elatum
#13
Hiroshi Yamashita, Megumi Katoh, Akane Kokubun, Ayano Uchimura, Sakina Mikami, Ayana Takeuchi, Kyousuke Kaneda, Yuji Suzuki, Megumi Mizukami, Masuo Goto, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Koji Wada
Diterpenoid alkaloids with remarkable chemical properties and biological activities are frequently found in plants of the genera Aconitum , Delphinium , and Garrya . Accordingly, several C19 -diterpenoid alkaloid components from Delphinium elatum cv. Pacific Giant, as well as their derivatives, exhibited cytotoxic activity against lung, prostate, nasopharyngeal, and vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines. Four new C19 -diterpenoid alkaloids, elapacigine ( 1 ), N -deethyl- N -formylpaciline ( 2 ), N -deethyl- N -formylpacinine ( 3 ), and N -formyl-4,19-secoyunnadelphinine ( 4 ), together with 11 known C19 -diterpenoid alkaloids were isolated in a phytochemical investigation on the seeds of D...
April 2018: Phytochemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29375002/bioactive-compounds-of-the-mediterranean-diet-and-prostate-cancer
#14
Olga López-Guarnido, Noelia Urquiza-Salvat, Maria Saiz, David Lozano-Paniagua, Lourdes Rodrigo, Manrique Pascual-Geler, Jose Antonio Lorente, Maria Jesus Alvarez-Cubero, Ana Rivas
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this review is to examine the evidence on the effects of bioactive constituents of the Mediterranean diet (MeDi) on prostate cancer (PCa) risk. METHODS: The search for articles came from extensive research in the following databases: PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science. We used the search terms "Mediterranean diet," "lycopene," "vitamin E," "vitamin C," "Selenium," "resveratrol," "prostate cancer," and combinations, such as "lycopene and prostate cancer" or "resveratrol and prostate cancer...
January 27, 2018: Aging Male: the Official Journal of the International Society for the Study of the Aging Male
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29258490/cytotoxic-antioxidative-genotoxic-and-antigenotoxic-effects-of-horchata-beverage-of-south-ecuador
#15
Natalia Bailon-Moscoso, Fani Tinitana, Ruth Martínez-Espinosa, Andrea Jaramillo-Velez, Alejandra Palacio-Arpi, Jessica Aguilar-Hernandez, Juan Carlos Romero-Benavides
BACKGROUND: "Horchata" is an herbal mixture infusion consumed in Southern Ecuador; 66% of its plants are anti-inflammatory medicinal plant, and 51% are analgesics. Anti-inflammatory substances can prevent carcinogenesis mediated by cytotoxic effects and can prevent DNA damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate the cytotoxicity and apoptotic/antigenotoxic effects of horchata as well as its mechanism. METHODS: Nine different varieties of horchata were prepared in the traditional way and then freeze-dried...
December 19, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29166892/in-vitro-cytotoxic-activity-of-medicinal-plants-from-nigeria-ethnomedicine-on-rhabdomyosarcoma-cancer-cell-line-and-hplc-analysis-of-active-extracts
#16
Omonike O Ogbole, Peter A Segun, Adekunle J Adeniji
BACKGROUND: Cancer is a leading cause of death world-wide, with approximately 17.5 million new cases and 8.7 million cancer related deaths in 2015. The problems of poor selectivity and severe side effects of the available anticancer drugs, have demanded the need for the development of safer and more effective chemotherapeutic agents. The present study was aimed at determining the cytotoxicities of 31 medicinal plants extracts, used in Nigerian ethnomedicine for the treatment of cancer...
November 22, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29164416/high-throughput-and-direct-measurement-of-androgen-levels-using-turbulent-flow-chromatography-liquid-chromatography-triple-quadrupole-mass-spectrometry-tfc-lc-tqms-to-discover-chemicals-that-modulate-dihydrotestosterone-production-in-human-prostate-cancer-cells
#17
Kyungsu Kang, Lei Peng, Yu-Jin Jung, Joo Yeon Kim, Eun Ha Lee, Hee Ju Lee, Sang Min Kim, Sang Hyun Sung, Cheol-Ho Pan, Yongsoo Choi
OBJECTIVES: To develop a high-throughput screening system to measure the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in cultured human prostate cancer cells using turbulent flow chromatography liquid chromatography-triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (TFC-LC-TQMS). RESULTS: After optimizing the cell reaction system, this method demonstrated a screening capability of 103 samples, including 78 single compounds and 25 extracts, in less than 12 h without manual sample preparation...
February 2018: Biotechnology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29062885/arctigenin-inhibits-prostate-tumor-cell-growth-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#18
Piwen Wang, Walter Solorzano, Tanya Diaz, Clara E Magyar, Susanne M Henning, Jaydutt V Vadgama
The low bioavailability of most phytochemicals limits their translation to humans. We investigated whether arctigenin, a novel anti-inflammatory lignan from the seeds of Arctium lappa , has favorable bioavailability/potency against prostate cancer. The anticarcinogenic activity of arctigenin was investigated both in vitro using the androgen-sensitive LNCaP and LAPC-4 human prostate cancer cells and pre-malignant WPE1-NA22 cells, and in vivo using xenograft mouse models. Arctigenin at lower doses (< 2μM) significantly inhibited the proliferation of LNCaP and LAPC-4 cells by 30-50% at 48h compared to control, and inhibited WPE1-NA22 cells by 75%, while did not affect normal prostate epithelial cells...
June 2017: Clinical Nutrition Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052027/four-new-diterpenoid-alkaloids-from-aconitum-japonicum-subsp-subcuneatum
#19
Hiroshi Yamashita, Keiko Takeda, Machiko Haraguchi, Yuki Abe, Natsumi Kuwahara, Shota Suzuki, Ayaka Terui, Takumi Masaka, Naoko Munakata, Mariko Uchida, Masashi Nunokawa, Kyousuke Kaneda, Masuo Goto, Kuo-Hsiung Lee, Koji Wada
Diterpenoid alkaloids with remarkable chemical properties and biological activities are frequently found in plants of the genera Aconitum, Delphinium, and Garrya. Accordingly, several diterpenoid alkaloid constituents of Aconitum and Delphinium plants as well as their derivatives exhibited cytotoxic activity against lung, prostate, nasopharyngeal, and vincristine-resistant nasopharyngeal cancer cell lines. Four new C19 -diterpenoid alkaloids, 14-anisoyllasianine (1), 14-anisoyl-N-deethylaconine (2), N-deethylaljesaconitine A (3), and N-deethylnevadensine (4), together with 17 known C19 - and C20 -diterpenoid alkaloids, were isolated in a phytochemical investigation of rhizoma of Aconitum japonicum THUNB...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Medicines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29042289/current-evidence-on-the-effect-of-dietary-polyphenols-intake-on-chronic-diseases
#20
REVIEW
Chiara Costa, Aristidis Tsatsakis, Charalampos Mamoulakis, Michele Teodoro, Giusi Briguglio, Emanuela Caruso, Dimitris Tsoukalas, Denisa Margina, Efthimios Dardiotis, Demetrios Kouretas, Concettina Fenga
Polyphenols are secondary metabolites of plants. They comprise several antioxidant compounds and they are generally considered to be involved in the defense against human chronic diseases. During the last years, there has been growing scientific interest in their potential health benefits. In this comprehensive review, we focus on the current evidence defining the position of their dietary intake in the prevention/treatment of human chronic diseases, including prostate cancer and other types of cancer, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease; we also discuss their ability to modulate multiple signalling transduction pathways involved in the pathophysiology of these diseases...
December 2017: Food and Chemical Toxicology
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