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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541713/an-in-vivo-rnai-mini-screen-in-drosophila-cancer-models-reveals-novel-potential-wnt-targets-in-liver-cancer
#1
İpek Even, İzzet Akiva, Necla Birgül İyison
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Aberrant activation of the Wnt/β-catenin signaling, which arises from the accumulation of mutant β-catenin in the cell, is one of the most common driving forces in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We previously identified several genes that are regulated on the overexpression of β-catenin in the HCC cell line that are suggested to be novel Wnt/β-catenin targets playing effective roles in cancer. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the roles of these putative target genes in tumorigenesis with an in vivo analysis in Drosophila...
December 12, 2018: Turkish Journal of Gastroenterology: the Official Journal of Turkish Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30541625/identification-of-tcerg1-as-a-new-genetic-modulator-of-tdp-43-production-in-drosophila
#2
Marine Pons, Silvia Prieto, Laetitia Miguel, Thierry Frebourg, Dominique Campion, Carles Suñé, Magalie Lecourtois
TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43) is a ubiquitously expressed DNA-/RNA-binding protein that has been linked to numerous aspects of the mRNA life cycle. Similar to many RNA-binding proteins, TDP-43 expression is tightly regulated through an autoregulatory negative feedback loop. Cell function and survival depend on the strict control of TDP-43 protein levels. TDP-43 has been identified as the major constituent of ubiquitin-positive inclusions in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Frontotemporal Lobar Degeneration (FTLD)...
December 12, 2018: Acta Neuropathologica Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30538141/atp13a2-facilitates-hdac6-recruitment-to-lysosome-to-promote-autophagosome-lysosome-fusion
#3
Ruoxi Wang, Jieqiong Tan, Tingting Chen, Hailong Han, Runyi Tian, Ya Tan, Yiming Wu, Jingyi Cui, Fang Chen, Jie Li, Lu Lv, Xinjie Guan, Shuai Shang, Jiahong Lu, Zhuohua Zhang
Mutations in ATP13A2 cause Kufor-Rakeb syndrome, an autosomal recessive form of juvenile-onset atypical Parkinson's disease (PD). Recent work tied ATP13A2 to autophagy and other cellular features of neurodegeneration, but how ATP13A2 governs numerous cellular functions in PD pathogenesis is not understood. In this study, the ATP13A2-deficient mouse developed into aging-dependent phenotypes resembling those of autophagy impairment. ATP13A2 deficiency impaired autophagosome-lysosome fusion in cultured cells and in in vitro reconstitution assays...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30530503/drak-stk17a-drives-neoplastic-glial-proliferation-through-modulation-of-mrlc-signaling
#4
Alexander S Chen, Joanna Wardwell-Ozgo, Nilang N Shah, Deidre Wright, Christina L Appin, Krishanthan Vigneswaran, Daniel J Brat, Harley I Kornblum, Renee D Read
Glioblastoma (GBM) and lower grade gliomas (LGG) are the most common primary malignant brain tumors and are resistant to current therapies. Genomic analyses reveal that signature genetic lesions in GBM and LGG include copy gain and amplification of chromosome 7, amplification, mutation, and overexpression of receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK) such as EGFR, and activating mutations in components of the PI-3 kinase (PI3K) pathway. In Drosophila melanogaster, constitutive co-activation of RTK and PI3K signaling in glial progenitor cells recapitulates key features of human gliomas...
December 10, 2018: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30529096/expression-of-mammalian-ash1-and-ash4-in-drosophila-reveals-opposing-functional-roles-in-neurogenesis
#5
Boyuan Sun, Jianbo Tu, Qing Liang, Xinyi Cheng, Xiaolan Fan, Ying Li, Richard W R Wallbank, Mingyao Yang
To investigate whether the members of the mammalian Achaete-Scute Complex homologue (ASH) gene family have evolved functional differences, we used the patterning of bristles as a phenotypic marker. Drosophila uses a single genetic locus - the Achaete-Scute Complex - to demarcate the regions of the body where bristles can form. We found 4-5 Achaete-Scute Complex homologue genes (ASH) in the mammalian genome, which are homologous with scute in Drosophila. Although ASH2 and ASH3 have gained new functions during evolution, the function of ASH4 and its evolutionary changes are still unclear...
December 7, 2018: Gene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30528775/mir-219-represses-expression-of-dfmr1-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#6
Chao Wang, Liang Ge, Jianban Wu, Xuan Wang, Liudi Yuan
AIMS: Fragile X mental retardation protein (FMRP) plays a vital role in mRNA trafficking and translation inhibition to regulate the synthesis of local proteins in neuronal axons and dendritic terminals. However, there are no reports on microRNA (miRNA)-mediated regulation of FMRP levels in Drosophila. Here, we aimed to identify miRNAs regulating FMRP levels in Drosophila. MAIN METHODS: Using online software, we predicted and selected 11 miRNAs potentially acting on the Drosophila fragile X mental retardation 1 (dFMR1) transcript...
December 5, 2018: Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526271/long-noncoding-rna-smrg-regulates-drosophila-macrochaetes-by-antagonizing-scute-through-e-spl-m%C3%AE
#7
Mengbo Xu, Yuanhang Xiang, Xiaojun Liu, Baoyan Bai, Runsheng Chen, Li Liu, Meixia Li
It is obvious that the majority of cellular transcripts are long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs). Although studies suggested that lncRNAs participate in many biological processes through diverse mechanisms, however, little is known about their effects on epidermal mechanoreceptors. Here, we identified one novel Drosophila lncRNA, Scutellar Macrochaetes Regulatory Gene (SMRG), which regulates scutellar macrochaetes that act as mechanoreceptors by antagonizing the proneural gene scute (sc), through the repressor Enhancer-of-split mβ (E(spl)mβ)...
December 11, 2018: RNA Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30526176/protective-mechanism-of-wnt4-gene-on-parkinson-s-disease-pd-transgenic-drosophila-1
#8
Wei Wu, Yanyin Han, Xiaoli Fan, Li Qinghu, Li Sun
The main pathological change of Parkinson's disease (PD) is progressive degeneration and necrosis of dopaminergic neurons in the midbrain, forming a Lewy body in many of the remaining neurons. Studies have found that in transgenic Drosophila, mutations in the PTEN-inducible kinase 1 (PINK1) gene may cause indirect flight muscle defects in Drosophila, and mitochondrial structural dysfunction as well. In this study, Wnt4 gene overexpression and knockdown were performed in PINK1 mutant PD transgenic Drosophila, and the protective effect of Wnt4 gene on PD transgenic Drosophila and its possible mechanism were explored...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506978/the-ddx5-dbp2-subfamily-of-dead-box-rna-helicases
#9
REVIEW
Zheng Xing, Wai Kit Ma, Elizabeth J Tran
The mammalian DEAD-box RNA helicase DDX5, its paralog DDX17, and their orthologs in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Drosophila melanogaster, namely Dbp2 and Rm62, define a subfamily of DEAD-box proteins. Members from this subfamily share highly conserved protein sequences and cellular functions. They are involved in multiple steps of RNA metabolism including mRNA processing, microRNA processing, ribosome biogenesis, RNA decay, and regulation of long noncoding RNA activities. The DDX5/Dbp2 subfamily is also implicated in transcription regulation, cellular signaling pathways, and energy metabolism...
December 2, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30497778/dual-comprehensive-approach-to-decipher-the-drosophila-toll-pathway-ex-vivo-rnai-screenings-and-immunoprecipitation-mass-spectrometry
#10
Hirotaka Kanoh, Hiroyuki Kato, Yamato Suda, Aki Hori, Shoichiro Kurata, Takayuki Kuraishi
The Drosophila Toll pathway is involved in embryonic development, innate immunity, and cell-cell interactions. However, compared to the mammalian Toll-like receptor innate immune pathway, its intracellular signaling mechanisms are not fully understood. We have previously performed a series of ex vivo genome-wide RNAi screenings to identify genes required for the activation of the Toll pathway. In this study, we have conducted an additional genome-wide RNAi screening using the overexpression of Tube, an adapter molecule in the Toll pathway, and have performed a co-immunoprecipitation assay to identify components present in the dMyd88-Tube complex...
November 26, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30483774/mycn-is-amplified-during-s-phase-and-c%C3%A2-myb-is-involved-in-controlling-mycn-expression-and-amplification-in-mycn%C3%A2-amplified-neuroblastoma-cell-lines
#11
Nevim Aygun, Oguz Altungoz
Neuroblastoma derived from primitive sympathetic neural precursors is a common type of solid tumor in infants. MYCN proto‑oncogene bHLH transcription factor (MYCN) amplification and 1p36 deletion are important factors associated with the poor prognosis of neuroblastoma. Expression levels of MYCN and c‑MYB proto‑oncogene transcription factor (c‑myb) decline during the differentiation of neuroblastoma cells; E2F transcription factor 1 (E2F1) activates the MYCN promoter. However, the underlying mechanism of MYCN overexpression and amplification requires further investigation...
November 22, 2018: Molecular Medicine Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30478335/coordinated-regulation-of-axonal-microtubule-organization-and-transport-by-drosophila-neurexin-and-bmp-pathway
#12
Swati Banerjee, Maeveen Riordan
Neurexins are well known trans-synaptic cell adhesion molecules that are required for proper synaptic development and function across species. Beyond synapse organization and function, little is known about other roles Neurexins might have in the nervous system. Here we report novel phenotypic consequences of mutations in Drosophila neurexin (dnrx), which alters axonal microtubule organization and transport. We show that dnrx mutants display phenotypic similarities with the BMP receptor wishful thinking (wit) and one of the downstream effectors, futsch, which is a known regulator of microtubule organization and stability...
November 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30470951/circadian-clock-genes-overexpression-in-drosophila-alters-diet-impact-on-lifespan
#13
Ilya Solovev, Eugenia Shegoleva, Alexander Fedintsev, Mikhail Shaposhnikov, Alexey Moskalev
Diet restriction is one of the most accurately confirmed interventions which extend lifespan. Genes coding circadian core clock elements are known to be the key controllers of cell metabolism especially in aging aspect. The molecular mechanisms standing behind the phenomenon of diet-restriction-mediated life extension are connected to circadian clock either. Here we investigate the effects of protein-rich and low-protein diets on lifespan observed in fruit flies overexpressing core clock genes (cry, per, Clk, cyc and tim)...
November 24, 2018: Biogerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30468769/wolbachia-infection-may-improve-learning-and-memory-capacity-of-drosophila-by-altering-host-gene-expression-through-microrna
#14
Jie Bi, Ya Zheng, Rui-Fang Wang, Hui Ai, Paula R Haynes, Jeremy C Brownlie, Xiao-Qiang Yu, Yu-Feng Wang
Wolbachia are endosymbiotic bacteria present in a wide range of invertebrates. Although their dramatic effects on host reproductive biology have been well studied, little is known about the effects of Wolbachia on the learning and memory capacity (LMC) of hosts, despite their distribution in the host nervous system, including brain. In this study, we found that Wolbachia infection significantly enhanced LMC in both Drosophila melanogaster and D. simulans. Expression of LMC-related genes was significantly increased in the head of D...
November 20, 2018: Insect Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30465696/functional-interplay-between-ribosomal-protein-paralogues-in-the-erpl22-family-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#15
Catherine M Mageeney, Michael G Kearse, Brett W Gershman, Caroline E Pritchard, Jennifer M Colquhoun, Vassie C Ware
Duplicated ribosomal protein (RP) genes in the Drosophila melanogaster eRpL22 family encode structurally-divergent and differentially-expressed rRNA-binding RPs. eRpL22 is expressed ubiquitously and eRpL22-like expression is tissue-restricted with highest levels in the adult male germline. We explored paralogue functional equivalence using the GAL4-UAS system for paralogue knockdown or overexpression and a conditional eRpL22-like knockout in a heat- shock flippase/FRT line. Ubiquitous eRpL22 knockdown with Actin-GAL4 resulted in embryonic lethality, confirming eRpL22 essentiality...
November 22, 2018: Fly
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30461308/dual-role-of-a-c-terminally-truncated-isoform-of-large-tumor-suppressor-kinase-1-in-the-regulation-of-hippo-signaling-and-tissue-growth
#16
Yurika Matsui, Yifan Zhang, Robert F Paulson, Zhi-Chun Lai
The considerable amount of experimental evidence has defined the Hippo pathway as a tumor suppressive pathway and increased expression and/or activity of its oncogenic effectors is frequently observed in cancer. However, clinical studies have failed to attribute cancer development and progression to mutations in the pathway. In explaining this conundrum, we investigated the expression and functions of a C-terminally truncated isoform of large tumor suppressor kinase 1 (LATS1) called short LATS1 (sLATS1) in human cell lines and Drosophila...
November 21, 2018: DNA and Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458702/histone-acetyltransferase-cbp-related-h3k23-acetylation-contributes-to-courtship-learning-in-drosophila
#17
Kai-Le Li, Lei Zhang, Xiao-Mei Yang, Qiang Fang, Xue-Fang Yin, Hui-Min Wei, Ting Zhou, Ya-Bin Li, Xue-Lin Chen, Fan Tang, Yong-Hao Li, Jian-Feng Chang, Wei Li, Feng Sun
BACKGROUND: Histone modifications are critical in regulating neuronal processes. However, the impacts of individual histone modifications on learning and memory are elusive. Here, we investigated the contributions of histone H3 lysine modifications to learning and memory in Drosophila by using histone lysine-to-alanine mutants. RESULTS: Behavioural analysis indicated that compared to the H3WT group, mutants overexpressing H3K23A displayed impaired courtship learning...
November 20, 2018: BMC Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30416997/the-structure-and-biological-function-of-creg
#18
REVIEW
Gaby Ghobrial, Luiz Araujo, Felecia Jinwala, Shaohua Li, Leonard Y Lee
The cellular repressor of E1A-stimulated genes (CREG) is a 220 amino acid glycoprotein structurally similar to oxidoreductases. However, CREG does not have enzymatic activities because it cannot bind to the cofactor flavin mononucleotide. Although CREG can be secreted, it is mainly an intracellular protein localized in the endocytic-lysosomal compartment. It undergoes proteolytic maturation mediated by lysosomal cysteine proteases. Biochemical studies have demonstrated that CREG interacts with mannose-6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor-2 receptor (M6P/IGF2R) and exocyst Sec8...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411843/a-fast-evolving-x-linked-duplicate-of-importin-%C3%AE-2-is-overexpressed-in-sex-ratio-drive-in-drosophila-neotestacea
#19
Kathleen E Pieper, Robert L Unckless, Kelly A Dyer
Selfish genetic elements that manipulate gametogenesis to achieve a transmission advantage are known as meiotic drivers. Sex-ratio X-chromosomes (SR) are meiotic drivers that prevent the maturation of Y-bearing sperm in male carriers to result in the production of mainly female progeny. The spread of an SR chromosome can affect host genetic diversity and genome evolution, and can even cause host extinction if it reaches sufficiently high prevalence. Meiotic drivers have evolved independently many times, though only in a few cases is the underlying genetic mechanism known...
November 9, 2018: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30408770/overexpression-of-cbs-and-cse-genes-affects-lifespan-stress-resistance-and-locomotor-activity-in-drosophila-melanogaster
#20
Mikhail Shaposhnikov, Ekaterina Proshkina, Lyubov Koval, Nadezhda Zemskaya, Alex Zhavoronkov, Alexey Moskalev
Recent experimental studies highlighted the role of hydrogen sulfide (H2 S) in aging and longevity. The cystathionine ß-synthase (CBS) and cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) are the key enzymes responsible for H2 S production. Here we investigated the geroprotective effects of CSE and CBS overexpression in Drosophila . Overexpression of CSE did not affect a lifespan and decrease (mitochondrial form of CSE ) or increase (cytoplasmic form of CSE ) age dynamics of locomotor activity, while overexpression of CBS increase median (by 12...
November 8, 2018: Aging
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