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bacterial multiresistance

Yue Wang, Ji Lu, Likai Mao, Jie Li, Zhiguo Yuan, Philip L Bond, Jianhua Guo
Antibiotic resistance is a severe global threat for public health, causing around 700,000 deaths per year. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is one of the most significant pathways to disseminate antibiotic resistance. It is commonly acknowledged that sub-minimum inhibition concentrations of antibiotics are major contributors in promoting antibiotic resistance through HGT. Pharmaceuticals are occurring in our environments at increased levels, yet little is known whether non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals cause or accelerate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance...
October 5, 2018: ISME Journal
Paul Nayim, Armelle T Mbaveng, Brice E N Wamba, Aimé G Fankam, Joachim K Dzotam, Victor Kuete
This work was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts from thirteen Cameroonian edible plants and their antibiotic-potentiating effects against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts, as well as their antibiotic-potentiating activities. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out according to the standard methods...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
Karine Lena Meneghetti, Micaela do Canto Canabarro, Letícia Muner Otton, Thaís Dos Santos Hain, Mercedes Passos Geimba, Gertrudes Corção
BACKGROUND: Bacterial contamination remains the major problem in skin banks, even after antimicrobial treatment, and results in high rates of tissue discarding. This study aimed to analyze bacterial contamination in 32 human skin allografts from the skin bank of Dr. Roberto Corrêa Chem from the Hospital Complex Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre. These samples were already discarded due to microbial contamination. The identification of the bacteria isolated from skin allografts was performed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight...
September 24, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Fabíola Fernandes Galvão Rodrigues, Aracélio Viana Colares, Carla de Fatima Alves Nonato, Fabío Fernandes Galvão-Rodrigues, Magaly Lima Mota, Maria Flaviana Bezerra Moraes Braga, José Galberto Martins da Costa
Vanillosmopsis arborea Barker (Asteraceae), commonly known as "candeeiro" is an endemic tree to the Caatinga biome, in northeast Brazil. The major component of its essential oil is α-bisabolol, a monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol with several biological activities reported. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of V. arborea was investigated in comparison with its major component α-bisabol. The antimicrobial activity was performed against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12692, Candida albicans (CA) INCQS 40006, Candida krusei (CK) INCQS 40095, Candida tropicalis (CT) INCQS 40042, and multiresistant bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus 03 and Escherichia coli 08 by the microdilution method and direct contact modulation...
September 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Carl-Fredrik Flach, Maja Genheden, Jerker Fick, D G Joakim Larsson
There is concern that sewage treatment plants (STPs) serve as hotspots for emergence and selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, field studies investigating resistance selection by comparing bacterial populations in influents and effluents have produced variable and sometimes contradictive results. Also, large taxonomic changes between influents and effluents make interpretation of studies measuring relative gene abundances ambiguous. The aim here was to investigate whether within-species selection occurs by conducting a comprehensive screening of Escherichia coli isolated from composite influent and effluent samples collected at Scandinavia's largest STP, accompanied by analyses of antibiotics residues...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Thomas Pech, Alexander Kania, Wiebke Fehlberg, Jörg C Kalff, Klaus-Jürgen Walgenbach, Kay-Hendrik Busch
BACKGROUND: After median sternotomy in cardiac surgery, deep sternal wound infections develop in 0.8 - 8% of patients, resulting in prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity and mortality. Our treatment strategy combines radical surgical debridement, removal of extraneous material and reconstruction of large and deep defects by a pedicled M. latissimus dorsi flap. With retrospective analysis of patient characteristics and pre- und perioperative data we could identify risk factors in regard to proper wound healing and bleeding complications...
August 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Richard Moreau, Laure Elkrief, Christophe Bureau, Jean-Marc Perarnau, Thierry Thévenot, Faouzi Saliba, Alexandre Louvet, Pierre Nahon, Adrien Lannes, Rodolphe Anty, Sophie Hillaire, Blandine Pasquet, Violaine Ozenne, Marika Rudler, Isabelle Ollivier-Hourmand, Marie Angèle Robic, Louis d'Alteroche, Vincent Di Martino, Marie-Pierre Ripault, Arnaud Pauwels, Jean-Didier Grangé, Nicolas Carbonell, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Audrey Payancé, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Dominique Valla, Nathalie Gault, Didier Lebrec
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is debate over the effects of long-term oral fluoroquinolone therapy in patients with advanced cirrhosis. We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment with the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin on survival of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a double-blind trial of 291 patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis who had not received recent fluoroquinolone therapy; the study was performed at 18 clinical sites in France from April 2010 through November 2014...
August 22, 2018: Gastroenterology
Amanda Karine de Sousa, Janaína Esmeraldo Rocha, Taciano Gonçalves de Souza, Thiago Sampaio de Freitas, Jaime Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
The antimicrobial activity of psychotropic drugs, especially those of the class of mainly phenothiazines has been previously reported. Other drugs, including verapamil and trifluoperazine demonstrated to be effective against multidrug-resistant strains. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressant drugs that have presented significant activity against resistant bacterial resistance, but the antibacterial effect as well the antibiotic modulating properties of fluoxetine remain to be elucidated...
October 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jucélia Barbosa da Silva, Martha Eunice de Bessa, Oscar Alejandro Santos Mayorga, Vívian Tomasco Andrade, Ygor Ferreira Garcia da Costa, Renata de Freitas Mendes, Adriana Lúcia Pires Ferreira, Elita Scio, Maria Silvana Alves
Vernonia condensata Baker is traditionally used to treat several inflammatory and infectious processes. So, this study evaluated the antibiotic, synergistic and antibiofilm effects, and the mode of action of ethyl acetate fraction from V. condensata leaves (Vc-EAF) against Staphylococcus aureus. Five S. aureus ATCC® and five methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) routine strains were used to determine Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration. The combinatory effect was evaluated by checkerboard and time kill methods; the mode of action through the bacterial cell viability and leakage of compounds absorbing at 280 nm; and the antibiofilm action by quantifying the percentage of adhesion inhibition...
October 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Laurent Poirel, Jean-Yves Madec, Agnese Lupo, Anne-Kathrin Schink, Nicolas Kieffer, Patrice Nordmann, Stefan Schwarz
Multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli has become a worrying issue that is increasingly observed in human but also in veterinary medicine worldwide. E. coli is intrinsically susceptible to almost all clinically relevant antimicrobial agents, but this bacterial species has a great capacity to accumulate resistance genes, mostly through horizontal gene transfer. The most problematic mechanisms in E. coli correspond to the acquisition of genes coding for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (conferring resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins), carbapenemases (conferring resistance to carbapenems), 16S rRNA methylases (conferring pan-resistance to aminoglycosides), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (conferring resistance to [fluoro]quinolones), and mcr genes (conferring resistance to polymyxins)...
July 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Vinícius Cardoso-Brito, Ana Cláudia S Raposo, Thaís T Pires, Melissa H Pinna, Arianne P Oriá
PURPOSE: To describe the aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora of 3 especies of free-living and under human care sea turtles and determine its antimicrobial susceptibility in vitro. METHOD: Thirty-six sea turtles (72 eyes), juveniles and adults, 7 free-living Chelonia mydas and 8 Chelonia mydas, 4 Caretta caretta, 11 Eretmochelys imbricata, and 6 Lepidochelys olivacea under human care, were evaluated. Conjunctival cultures were collected for identification of aerobic bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxacillin, polymyxin B, tetracycline, and tobramycin using antibiotic disks...
June 28, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Axel Hollmann, Melina Martinez, Patricia Maturana, Liliana C Semorile, Paulo C Maffia
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacterial species, including multiresistant bacteria; however, toxicity is the major barrier to convert antimicrobial peptides into active drugs. A profound and proper understanding of the complex interactions between these peptides and biological membranes using biophysical tools and model membranes seems to be a key factor in the race to develop a suitable antimicrobial peptide therapy for clinical use...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Montserrat Lopez-Carrizales, Karla Itzel Velasco, Claudia Castillo, Andrés Flores, Martín Magaña, Gabriel Alejandro Martinez-Castanon, Fidel Martinez-Gutierrez
The increase in the prevalence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become one of the main health problems worldwide, thus threatening the era of antibiotics most frequently used in the treatment of infections. The need to develop new therapeutic strategies against multidrug resistant microorganisms, such as the combination of selected antimicrobials, can be considered as a suitable alternative. The in vitro activities of two groups of conventional antimicrobial agents alone and in combination with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated against a set of ten multidrug resistant clinical isolate and two references strains by MIC assays and checkerboard testing, as well as their cytotoxicity, which was evaluated on human fibroblasts by MTT assay at the same concentration of the antimicrobial agents alone and in combination...
June 19, 2018: Antibiotics
Anna Vickers, Shazad Mushtaq, Neil Woodford, Michel Doumith, David M Livermore
Pyrrolocytosines RX-04A to -D are designed to bind to the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit differently from currently used antibiotics. The four analogs had broad anti-Gram-negative activity: RX-04A-the most active analog-inhibited 94.7% of clinical Enterobacteriaceae , Acinetobacter baumannii , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 0.5 to 4 μg/ml, with no MICs of >8 μg/ml. MICs for multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase producers were up to 2-fold higher than those for control strains; values were highest for one Serratia isolate with porin and efflux lesions...
August 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Live L Nesse, Roger Simm
Bacteria have the ability to adapt to changing environments through rapid evolution mediated by modification of existing genetic information, as well as by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This makes bacteria a highly successful life form when it comes to survival. Unfortunately, this genetic plasticity may result in emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and even the creation of multiresistant "superbugs" which may pose serious threats to public health. As bacteria commonly reside in biofilms, there has been an increased interest in studying these phenomena within biofilms in recent years...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Maryury Brown-Jaque, Lirain Rodriguez Oyarzun, Thais Cornejo-Sánchez, Maria T Martín-Gómez, Silvia Gartner, Javier de Gracia, Sandra Rovira, Antonio Alvarez, Joan Jofre, Juan J González-López, Maite Muniesa
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disease in which the bacterial colonization of the lung is linked to an excessive inflammatory response that leads to respiratory failure. The microbiology of CF is complex. Staphylococcus aureus is the first bacterium to colonize the lungs in 30% of pediatric CF patients, and 80% of adult patients develop a chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, but other microorganisms can also be found. The use of antibiotics is essential to treat the disease, but antibiotic performance is compromised by resistance mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rishi Bolia, Anshu Srivastava, Rungmei Marak, Surender K Yachha, Ujjal Poddar
Background and aims: Risk of infections is increased in patients with Acute Liver Failure (ALF) and Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease (DCLD). We evaluated the frequency, site, type and risk-factors for bacterial infections in children with ALF and DCLD and its effect on outcome. Methods: ALF or DCLD children were enrolled prospectively. Clinical and laboratory details were recorded. Cultures (blood, urine and ascites) and chest X-ray were done at admission followed by weekly surveillance cultures...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Luka Bielen, Robert Likić, Viktorija Erdeljić, Ivana Mareković, Nataša Firis, Marijana Grgić-Medić, Ana Godan, Ivan Tomić, Blaženka Hunjak, Alemka Markotić, Danijela Bejuk, Vladimira Tičić, Silvana Balzar, Branka Bedenić
AIM: To determine in vitro susceptibility of multiresistant bacterial isolates to fosfomycin. METHODS: In this prospective in vitro study (local non-random sample, level of evidence 3), 288 consecutively collected multiresistant bacterial isolates from seven medical centers in Croatia were tested from February 2014 until October 2016 for susceptibility to fosfomycin and other antibiotics according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. Susceptibility to fosfomycin was determined by agar dilution method, while disc diffusion was performed for in vitro testing of other antibiotics...
April 30, 2018: Croatian Medical Journal
Selina Winter, Mirja Christine Nolff, Sven Reese, Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bacterial contamination rate and to compare the efficacy of polyhexanide, cold argon plasma and saline at reducing bacterial bio-burden in dog bite wounds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dogs with bite-wound injuries were included when surgical debridement was pursued with subsequent treatment using either polyhexanide-biguanide lavage (A), cold argon plasma treatment (B) or saline lavage (C). Culture swabs were taken after debridement as well as after lavageor argon treatment...
April 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Cornelius Domhan, Philipp Uhl, Anna Meinhardt, Stefan Zimmermann, Christian Kleist, Thomas Lindner, Karin Leotta, Walter Mier, Michael Wink
As evolutionarily optimised defence compounds, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a powerful tool against bacterial infections. Ranalexin, an AMP found in the skin of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), is primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8-16 mg/L, but shows weaker activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 64 mg/L). By substitution of six N-terminal amino acids by saturated fatty acids [decanoic acid (C10:0) to myristic acid (C14:0)], lipopeptide derivatives with enhanced antimicrobial activity were developed...
July 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
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