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bacterial multiresistance

Amanda Karine de Sousa, Janaína Esmeraldo Rocha, Taciano Gonçalves de Souza, Thiago Sampaio de Freitas, Jaime Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
The antimicrobial activity of psychotropic drugs, especially those of the class of mainly phenothiazines has been previously reported. Other drugs, including verapamil and trifluoperazine demonstrated to be effective against multidrug-resistant strains. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressant drugs that have presented significant activity against resistant bacterial resistance, but the antibacterial effect as well the antibiotic modulating properties of fluoxetine remain to be elucidated...
July 26, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jucélia Barbosa da Silva, Martha Eunice de Bessa, Oscar Alejandro Santos Mayorga, Vívian Tomasco Andrade, Ygor Ferreira Garcia da Costa, Renata de Freitas Mendes, Adriana Lúcia Pires Ferreira, Elita Scio, Maria Silvana Alves
Vernonia condensata Baker is traditionally used to treat several inflammatory and infectious processes. So, this study evaluated the antibiotic, synergistic and antibiofilm effects, and the mode of action of ethyl acetate fraction from V. condensata leaves (Vc-EAF) against Staphylococcus aureus. Five S. aureus ATCC® and five methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) routine strains were used to determine Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration. The combinatory effect was evaluated by checkerboard and time kill methods; the mode of action through the bacterial cell viability and leakage of compounds absorbing at 280 nm; and the antibiofilm action by quantifying the percentage of adhesion inhibition...
July 24, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Laurent Poirel, Jean-Yves Madec, Agnese Lupo, Anne-Kathrin Schink, Nicolas Kieffer, Patrice Nordmann, Stefan Schwarz
Multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli has become a worrying issue that is increasingly observed in human but also in veterinary medicine worldwide. E. coli is intrinsically susceptible to almost all clinically relevant antimicrobial agents, but this bacterial species has a great capacity to accumulate resistance genes, mostly through horizontal gene transfer. The most problematic mechanisms in E. coli correspond to the acquisition of genes coding for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (conferring resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins), carbapenemases (conferring resistance to carbapenems), 16S rRNA methylases (conferring pan-resistance to aminoglycosides), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (conferring resistance to [fluoro]quinolones), and mcr genes (conferring resistance to polymyxins)...
July 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Vinícius Cardoso-Brito, Ana Cláudia S Raposo, Thaís T Pires, Melissa H Pinna, Arianne P Oriá
PURPOSE: To describe the aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora of 3 especies of free-living and under human care sea turtles and determine its antimicrobial susceptibility in vitro. METHOD: Thirty-six sea turtles (72 eyes), juveniles and adults, 7 free-living Chelonia mydas and 8 Chelonia mydas, 4 Caretta caretta, 11 Eretmochelys imbricata, and 6 Lepidochelys olivacea under human care, were evaluated. Conjunctival cultures were collected for identification of aerobic bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxacillin, polymyxin B, tetracycline, and tobramycin using antibiotic disks...
June 28, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Axel Hollmann, Melina Martinez, Patricia Maturana, Liliana C Semorile, Paulo C Maffia
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacterial species, including multiresistant bacteria; however, toxicity is the major barrier to convert antimicrobial peptides into active drugs. A profound and proper understanding of the complex interactions between these peptides and biological membranes using biophysical tools and model membranes seems to be a key factor in the race to develop a suitable antimicrobial peptide therapy for clinical use...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Montserrat Lopez-Carrizales, Karla Itzel Velasco, Claudia Castillo, Andrés Flores, Martín Magaña, Gabriel Alejandro Martinez-Castanon, Fidel Martinez-Gutierrez
The increase in the prevalence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics has become one of the main health problems worldwide, thus threatening the era of antibiotics most frequently used in the treatment of infections. The need to develop new therapeutic strategies against multidrug resistant microorganisms, such as the combination of selected antimicrobials, can be considered as a suitable alternative. The in vitro activities of two groups of conventional antimicrobial agents alone and in combination with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were investigated against a set of ten multidrug resistant clinical isolate and two references strains by MIC assays and checkerboard testing, as well as their cytotoxicity, which was evaluated on human fibroblasts by MTT assay at the same concentration of the antimicrobial agents alone and in combination...
June 19, 2018: Antibiotics
Anna Vickers, Shazad Mushtaq, Neil Woodford, Michel Doumith, David M Livermore
Pyrrolocytosines RX-04A to -D are designed to bind to the bacterial 50S ribosomal subunit differently from currently used antibiotics. The four analogs had broad anti-Gram-negative activity: RX-04A-the most active analog-inhibited 94.7% of clinical Enterobacteriaceae , Acinetobacter baumannii , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa at 0.5 to 4 μg/ml, with no MICs of >8 μg/ml. MICs for multidrug-resistant (MDR) carbapenemase producers were up to 2-fold higher than those for control strains; values were highest for one Serratia isolate with porin and efflux lesions...
August 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Live L Nesse, Roger Simm
Bacteria have the ability to adapt to changing environments through rapid evolution mediated by modification of existing genetic information, as well as by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). This makes bacteria a highly successful life form when it comes to survival. Unfortunately, this genetic plasticity may result in emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and virulence genes, and even the creation of multiresistant "superbugs" which may pose serious threats to public health. As bacteria commonly reside in biofilms, there has been an increased interest in studying these phenomena within biofilms in recent years...
2018: Advances in Applied Microbiology
Maryury Brown-Jaque, Lirain Rodriguez Oyarzun, Thais Cornejo-Sánchez, Maria T Martín-Gómez, Silvia Gartner, Javier de Gracia, Sandra Rovira, Antonio Alvarez, Joan Jofre, Juan J González-López, Maite Muniesa
Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a chronic disease in which the bacterial colonization of the lung is linked to an excessive inflammatory response that leads to respiratory failure. The microbiology of CF is complex. Staphylococcus aureus is the first bacterium to colonize the lungs in 30% of pediatric CF patients, and 80% of adult patients develop a chronic Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection, but other microorganisms can also be found. The use of antibiotics is essential to treat the disease, but antibiotic performance is compromised by resistance mechanisms...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Rishi Bolia, Anshu Srivastava, Rungmei Marak, Surender K Yachha, Ujjal Poddar
Background and aims: Risk of infections is increased in patients with Acute Liver Failure (ALF) and Decompensated Chronic Liver Disease (DCLD). We evaluated the frequency, site, type and risk-factors for bacterial infections in children with ALF and DCLD and its effect on outcome. Methods: ALF or DCLD children were enrolled prospectively. Clinical and laboratory details were recorded. Cultures (blood, urine and ascites) and chest X-ray were done at admission followed by weekly surveillance cultures...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Luka Bielen, Robert Likić, Viktorija Erdeljić, Ivana Mareković, Nataša Firis, Marijana Grgić-Medić, Ana Godan, Ivan Tomić, Blaženka Hunjak, Alemka Markotić, Danijela Bejuk, Vladimira Tičić, Silvana Balzar, Branka Bedenić
AIM: To determine in vitro susceptibility of multiresistant bacterial isolates to fosfomycin. METHODS: In this prospective in vitro study (local non-random sample, level of evidence 3), 288 consecutively collected multiresistant bacterial isolates from seven medical centers in Croatia were tested from February 2014 until October 2016 for susceptibility to fosfomycin and other antibiotics according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute methodology. Susceptibility to fosfomycin was determined by agar dilution method, while disc diffusion was performed for in vitro testing of other antibiotics...
April 30, 2018: Croatian Medical Journal
Selina Winter, Mirja Christine Nolff, Sven Reese, Andrea Meyer-Lindenberg
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the bacterial contamination rate and to compare the efficacy of polyhexanide, cold argon plasma and saline at reducing bacterial bio-burden in dog bite wounds. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Dogs with bite-wound injuries were included when surgical debridement was pursued with subsequent treatment using either polyhexanide-biguanide lavage (A), cold argon plasma treatment (B) or saline lavage (C). Culture swabs were taken after debridement as well as after lavageor argon treatment...
April 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Cornelius Domhan, Philipp Uhl, Anna Meinhardt, Stefan Zimmermann, Christian Kleist, Thomas Lindner, Karin Leotta, Walter Mier, Michael Wink
As evolutionarily optimised defence compounds, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) represent a powerful tool against bacterial infections. Ranalexin, an AMP found in the skin of the American bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana), is primarily active against Gram-positive bacteria, with minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 8-16 mg/L, but shows weaker activity against Gram-negative bacteria (MICs > 64 mg/L). By substitution of six N-terminal amino acids by saturated fatty acids [decanoic acid (C10:0) to myristic acid (C14:0)], lipopeptide derivatives with enhanced antimicrobial activity were developed...
July 2018: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
Mateus Trinconi Cunha, Maria Aparecida Murça, Stanley Nigro, Giselle Burlamaqui Klautau, Mauro José Costa Salles
BACKGROUND: Conventional local treatment for medullary osteomyelitis (OM) includes insertion of antibiotic-loaded polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) cement. Nevertheless, PMMA may delivery irregular concentration of antibiotic to surrounding tissue. We aimed to compare the in vitro antibacterial activity of Bioactive Glass (BAG) S53P4, which is a compound showing local antibacterial activity, to that of antibiotic-loaded PMMA against multidrug resistant bacteria from OM isolates. METHODS: We studied convenience samples of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms obtained from patients presenting OM and prosthetic joint infection (PJI)...
April 3, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
J Prieto Amorin, M Lopez, K Rando, J Castelli, J Medina Presentado
BACKGROUND: Postoperative pulmonary complications are major cause of morbidity and mortality in patients receiving liver transplantation (LT), particularly bacterial pneumonia occurring within the first 100 days after transplantation. Our aim in this study was to determine the incidence, microorganisms involved, associated factors, and morbidity of bacterial pneumonia presenting in the first 100 days posttransplant. METHODS: We performed a cohort study in which patients receiving liver transplantation were included prospectively in our national database (Database of Infections in Transplantation of Solid Organs)...
March 2018: Transplantation Proceedings
Mao-Sheng Huang, Ching-Chang Cheng, Shu-Ying Tseng, Yi-Ling Lin, Hui-Min Lo, Po-Wen Chen
Recent reports have shown that food-borne or commensal bacteria can function as reservoirs of antibiotic resistance. However, the antibiotic susceptibility of bacterial isolates of most milk samples or the total bacterial counts (TBC) in human milk from healthy donors, are not fully understood in Taiwan. Thus, five healthy mothers were randomly recruited each month, and totally 30 mothers without any symptoms of infection were recruited over 6 months. Milk samples were then harvested and analyzed immediately after collection...
March 25, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
María L Breser, Verónica Felipe, Luciana P Bohl, María S Orellano, Paula Isaac, Agustín Conesa, Virginia E Rivero, Silvia G Correa, Ismael D Bianco, Carina Porporatto
Bovine mastitis affects the health of dairy cows and the profitability of herds worldwide. Coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) are the most frequently isolated pathogens in bovine intramammary infection. Based on the wide range of antimicrobial, mucoadhesive and immunostimulant properties demonstrated by chitosan, we have evaluated therapy efficiency of chitosan incorporation to cloxacillin antibiotic as well as its effect against different bacterial lifestyles of seven CNS isolates from chronic intramammary infections...
March 23, 2018: Scientific Reports
Christoph Klinger, Berrett Dengler, Thomas Bauer, Ralf S Mueller
A 4-year-old ball python was presented 3 weeks after multiple bite wounds from a prey rat with large skin lesions, a concurrent deep bacterial pyoderma and clinical signs for septicemia, including neurolo -gical symptoms. Affected tissue separated from the underlying muscular layer revealing parts of the muscles. Clinical examination and cyto -logy was consistent with bacterial pyoderma; septicemia was an additional tentative clinical diagnosis. Empirical lincomycin and marbo -floxacin (bacterial culture revealed a multi-resistant Stenotrophomonas maltophilia susceptible to fluoroquinolones) treatment improved the patient's general condition but skin wounds deteriorated to multifocal eschars with intracellular rods...
February 2018: Tierärztliche Praxis. Ausgabe K, Kleintiere/Heimtiere
Herbert Galler, Gebhard Feierl, Christian Petternel, Franz F Reinthaler, Doris Haas, Juliana Habib, Clemens Kittinger, Josefa Luxner, Gernot Zarfel
Wastewater contains different kinds of contaminants, including antibiotics and bacterial isolates with human-generated antibiotic resistances. In industrialized countries most of the wastewater is processed in wastewater treatment plants which do not only include commercial wastewater, but also wastewater from hospitals. Three multiresistant pathogens-extended spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-harbouring Enterobacteriaceae (Gram negative bacilli), methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and vancomycin resistant Enterococci (VRE)-were chosen for screening in a state of the art wastewater treatment plant in Austria...
March 9, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Andrés E Marcoleta, Macarena A Varas, Javiera Ortiz-Severín, Leonardo Vásquez, Camilo Berríos-Pastén, Andrea V Sabag, Francisco P Chávez, Miguel L Allende, Carlos A Santiviago, Octavio Monasterio, Rosalba Lagos
Multiresistant and invasive hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains have become one of the most urgent bacterial pathogen threats. Recent analyses revealed a high genomic plasticity of this species, harboring a variety of mobile genetic elements associated with virulent strains, encoding proteins of unknown function whose possible role in pathogenesis have not been addressed. K. pneumoniae virulence has been studied mainly in animal models such as mice and pigs, however, practical, financial, ethical and methodological issues limit the use of mammal hosts...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
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