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bacterial multiresistance

Yara Faustino Pereira, Maria do Socorro Costa, Saulo Relison Tintino, Janaína Esmeraldo Rocha, Fábio Fernandes Galvão Rodrigues, Maria Karine de Sá Barreto Feitosa, Irwin Rose Alencar de Menezes, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho, José Galberto Martins da Costa, Erlânio Oliveira de Sousa
Mauritia flexuosa (buriti) is a typical Brazilian palm tree found in swampy regions with many plant forms. The fruit has various purposes with the pulps to the seeds being used for ice creams, sweets, creams, jellies, liqueurs, and vitamin production. A physicochemical characterization of the fixed pulp oil and its antibacterial and aminoglycoside antibiotic modifying activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative multiresistant bacterial strains were performed using broth microdilution assays. Physical properties, such as moisture, pH, acidity, peroxide index, relative density, and refractive index, indicated oil stability and chemical quality...
December 10, 2018: Pathogens
María Esther Garza-Montúfar, Pablo Daniel Treviño-Valdez, Laura Hermila De la Garza-Salinas
Background: The urinary tract infections are the third cause of infections in Mexico. The inappropriate use of antibiotic has generated the presence of multidrugresistant bacteria. Objective: To identify the bacterial resistance patterns of the hospital and to detect the present comorbidities that can modify the evolution of urinary tract infection for proper empirical management. Methods: Non-comparative cross-sectional study, positive urine cultures were reviewed in the period from December 2015 to May 2016, in outpatients of urology in the hospital...
November 30, 2018: Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social
Yanpeng Chen, Changwei Lei, Lei Zuo, Linghan Kong, Zhuangzhuang Kang, Jinxin Zeng, Xiuzhong Zhang, Hongning Wang
Objectives: To characterize the presence and genetic environment of the multiresistance gene cfr in bacterial isolates from a swine farm. Methods: A total of 97 bacterial isolates, recovered from 32 faecal swabs obtained on one farm, were tested for the presence of the cfr gene by PCR. Species identification of the one cfr-positive strain was conducted using the BD PhoenixTM 100 Automated Microbiology System. Susceptibility testing was carried out by broth microdilution...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
Lukas Wisgrill, Sarah Lepuschitz, Marion Blaschitz, Judith Rittenschober-Böhm, Magda Diab-El Schahawi, Sören Schubert, Alexander Indra, Angelika Berger
BACKGROUND: The Gram-negative bacterium Klebsiella pneumoniae is a frequent pathogen causing outbreaks in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Some Enterobacteriaceae can acquire the ability to sequester iron from infected tissue by secretion of iron-chelating compounds such as yersiniabactin. Here we describe an outbreak and clinical management of infections due to a highly virulent yersiniabactin-producing, non-multiresistant Klebsiella pneumoniae strain in a NICU. Outbreak investigation and effectiveness assessment of multidisciplinary infection control measurements to prevent patient-to-patient transmission of highly-pathogenic Klebsiella pneumoniae were undertaken...
November 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Somia Debbabi, Marie-Christine Groleau, Myriam Létourneau, Chitra Narayanan, Laura-Lee Gosselin, Mustapha Iddir, Jacinthe Gagnon, Nicolas Doucet, Eric Déziel, David Chatenet
The Pituitary Adenylate Cyclase-Activating Polypeptide (PACAP), a polycationic, amphiphilic and helical neuropeptide, is well known for its neuroprotective actions and cell penetrating properties. In the present study, we evaluated the potent antibacterial property of PACAP38 and related analogs against various bacterial strains. Interestingly, PACAP38 and related analogs can inhibit the growth of various bacteria including Escherichia coli (JM109), Bacillus subtilis (PY79), and the pathogenic Burkholderia cenocepacia (J2315)...
2018: PloS One
Tuomas Aro, Anu Kantele
IntroductionAntimicrobial resistance is increasing rapidly in countries with low hygiene levels and poorly controlled antimicrobial use. The spread of resistant bacteria poses a threat to healthcare worldwide. Refugees and migrants from high-prevalence countries may add to a rise in multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria in low-prevalence countries. However, respective data are scarce.MethodsWe retrospectively collected microbiological and clinical data from asylum seekers and refugees treated at Helsinki University Hospital between January 2010 and August 2017...
November 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Carol Davies-Sala, Saumya Jani, Angeles Zorreguieta, Marcelo E Tolmasky
The bacterial ribonuclease P or RNase P holoenzyme is usually composed of a catalytic RNA subunit, M1, and a cofactor protein, C5. This enzyme was first identified for its role in maturation of tRNAs by endonucleolytic cleavage of the pre-tRNA. The RNase P endonucleolytic activity is characterized by having structural but not sequence substrate requirements. This property led to development of EGS technology, which consists of utilizing a short antisense oligonucleotide that when forming a duplex with a target RNA induces its cleavage by RNase P...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sergio Béjar-Serrano, Pablo Del Pozo, Margarita Fernández-de la Varga, Salvador Benlloch
INTRODUCTION: Infections in cirrhotic patients caused by multidrug-resistant bacteria are currently increasing and are associated with greater morbidity and mortality. OBJECTIVES: To assess the epidemiology, risk factors and prognoses of infections caused by multidrug-resistant bacterial infections in cirrhotic patients. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Retrospective study on patients with liver cirrhosis who developed an infection during hospitalisations between July 2014 and August 2016 at our centre (Hospital Universitari i Politècnic La Fe, Valencia, Spain)...
October 17, 2018: Gastroenterología y Hepatología
Yue Wang, Ji Lu, Likai Mao, Jie Li, Zhiguo Yuan, Philip L Bond, Jianhua Guo
Antibiotic resistance is a severe global threat for public health, causing around 700,000 deaths per year. Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is one of the most significant pathways to disseminate antibiotic resistance. It is commonly acknowledged that sub-minimum inhibition concentrations of antibiotics are major contributors in promoting antibiotic resistance through HGT. Pharmaceuticals are occurring in our environments at increased levels, yet little is known whether non-antibiotic pharmaceuticals cause or accelerate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance...
October 5, 2018: ISME Journal
Paul Nayim, Armelle T Mbaveng, Brice E N Wamba, Aimé G Fankam, Joachim K Dzotam, Victor Kuete
This work was designed to investigate the antibacterial activities of methanol extracts from thirteen Cameroonian edible plants and their antibiotic-potentiating effects against Gram-negative multidrug-resistant (MDR) phenotypes. The broth microdilution method was used to evaluate the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the extracts, as well as their antibiotic-potentiating activities. The phytochemical screening of the extracts was carried out according to the standard methods...
2018: TheScientificWorldJournal
Karine Lena Meneghetti, Micaela do Canto Canabarro, Letícia Muner Otton, Thaís Dos Santos Hain, Mercedes Passos Geimba, Gertrudes Corção
BACKGROUND: Bacterial contamination remains the major problem in skin banks, even after antimicrobial treatment, and results in high rates of tissue discarding. This study aimed to analyze bacterial contamination in 32 human skin allografts from the skin bank of Dr. Roberto Corrêa Chem from the Hospital Complex Santa Casa de Misericórdia de Porto Alegre. These samples were already discarded due to microbial contamination. The identification of the bacteria isolated from skin allografts was performed by matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight...
September 24, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Fabíola Fernandes Galvão Rodrigues, Aracélio Viana Colares, Carla de Fatima Alves Nonato, Fabío Fernandes Galvão-Rodrigues, Magaly Lima Mota, Maria Flaviana Bezerra Moraes Braga, José Galberto Martins da Costa
Vanillosmopsis arborea Barker (Asteraceae), commonly known as "candeeiro" is an endemic tree to the Caatinga biome, in northeast Brazil. The major component of its essential oil is α-bisabolol, a monocyclic sesquiterpene alcohol with several biological activities reported. In this study, the antimicrobial activity of the essential oil of V. arborea was investigated in comparison with its major component α-bisabol. The antimicrobial activity was performed against Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 12692, Candida albicans (CA) INCQS 40006, Candida krusei (CK) INCQS 40095, Candida tropicalis (CT) INCQS 40042, and multiresistant bacterial strains Staphylococcus aureus 03 and Escherichia coli 08 by the microdilution method and direct contact modulation...
September 13, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Carl-Fredrik Flach, Maja Genheden, Jerker Fick, D G Joakim Larsson
There is concern that sewage treatment plants (STPs) serve as hotspots for emergence and selection of antibiotic resistant bacteria. However, field studies investigating resistance selection by comparing bacterial populations in influents and effluents have produced variable and sometimes contradictive results. Also, large taxonomic changes between influents and effluents make interpretation of studies measuring relative gene abundances ambiguous. The aim here was to investigate whether within-species selection occurs by conducting a comprehensive screening of Escherichia coli isolated from composite influent and effluent samples collected at Scandinavia's largest STP, accompanied by analyses of antibiotics residues...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Thomas Pech, Alexander Kania, Wiebke Fehlberg, Jörg C Kalff, Klaus-Jürgen Walgenbach, Kay-Hendrik Busch
BACKGROUND: After median sternotomy in cardiac surgery, deep sternal wound infections develop in 0.8 - 8% of patients, resulting in prolonged hospital stay and increased morbidity and mortality. Our treatment strategy combines radical surgical debridement, removal of extraneous material and reconstruction of large and deep defects by a pedicled M. latissimus dorsi flap. With retrospective analysis of patient characteristics and pre- und perioperative data we could identify risk factors in regard to proper wound healing and bleeding complications...
August 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Richard Moreau, Laure Elkrief, Christophe Bureau, Jean-Marc Perarnau, Thierry Thévenot, Faouzi Saliba, Alexandre Louvet, Pierre Nahon, Adrien Lannes, Rodolphe Anty, Sophie Hillaire, Blandine Pasquet, Violaine Ozenne, Marika Rudler, Isabelle Ollivier-Hourmand, Marie Angèle Robic, Louis d'Alteroche, Vincent Di Martino, Marie-Pierre Ripault, Arnaud Pauwels, Jean-Didier Grangé, Nicolas Carbonell, Jean-Pierre Bronowicki, Audrey Payancé, Pierre-Emmanuel Rautou, Dominique Valla, Nathalie Gault, Didier Lebrec
BACKGROUND & AIMS: There is debate over the effects of long-term oral fluoroquinolone therapy in patients with advanced cirrhosis. We performed a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the effects of long-term treatment with the fluoroquinolone norfloxacin on survival of patients with cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a double-blind trial of 291 patients with Child-Pugh class C cirrhosis who had not received recent fluoroquinolone therapy. The study was performed at 18 clinical sites in France from April 2010 through November 2014...
August 23, 2018: Gastroenterology
Amanda Karine de Sousa, Janaína Esmeraldo Rocha, Taciano Gonçalves de Souza, Thiago Sampaio de Freitas, Jaime Ribeiro-Filho, Henrique Douglas Melo Coutinho
The antimicrobial activity of psychotropic drugs, especially those of the class of mainly phenothiazines has been previously reported. Other drugs, including verapamil and trifluoperazine demonstrated to be effective against multidrug-resistant strains. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are antidepressant drugs that have presented significant activity against resistant bacterial resistance, but the antibacterial effect as well the antibiotic modulating properties of fluoxetine remain to be elucidated...
October 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Jucélia Barbosa da Silva, Martha Eunice de Bessa, Oscar Alejandro Santos Mayorga, Vívian Tomasco Andrade, Ygor Ferreira Garcia da Costa, Renata de Freitas Mendes, Adriana Lúcia Pires Ferreira, Elita Scio, Maria Silvana Alves
Vernonia condensata Baker is traditionally used to treat several inflammatory and infectious processes. So, this study evaluated the antibiotic, synergistic and antibiofilm effects, and the mode of action of ethyl acetate fraction from V. condensata leaves (Vc-EAF) against Staphylococcus aureus. Five S. aureus ATCC® and five methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) routine strains were used to determine Minimal Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Bactericidal Concentration. The combinatory effect was evaluated by checkerboard and time kill methods; the mode of action through the bacterial cell viability and leakage of compounds absorbing at 280 nm; and the antibiofilm action by quantifying the percentage of adhesion inhibition...
October 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Laurent Poirel, Jean-Yves Madec, Agnese Lupo, Anne-Kathrin Schink, Nicolas Kieffer, Patrice Nordmann, Stefan Schwarz
Multidrug resistance in Escherichia coli has become a worrying issue that is increasingly observed in human but also in veterinary medicine worldwide. E. coli is intrinsically susceptible to almost all clinically relevant antimicrobial agents, but this bacterial species has a great capacity to accumulate resistance genes, mostly through horizontal gene transfer. The most problematic mechanisms in E. coli correspond to the acquisition of genes coding for extended-spectrum β-lactamases (conferring resistance to broad-spectrum cephalosporins), carbapenemases (conferring resistance to carbapenems), 16S rRNA methylases (conferring pan-resistance to aminoglycosides), plasmid-mediated quinolone resistance (PMQR) genes (conferring resistance to [fluoro]quinolones), and mcr genes (conferring resistance to polymyxins)...
July 2018: Microbiology Spectrum
Vinícius Cardoso-Brito, Ana Cláudia S Raposo, Thaís T Pires, Melissa H Pinna, Arianne P Oriá
PURPOSE: To describe the aerobic conjunctival bacterial flora of 3 especies of free-living and under human care sea turtles and determine its antimicrobial susceptibility in vitro. METHOD: Thirty-six sea turtles (72 eyes), juveniles and adults, 7 free-living Chelonia mydas and 8 Chelonia mydas, 4 Caretta caretta, 11 Eretmochelys imbricata, and 6 Lepidochelys olivacea under human care, were evaluated. Conjunctival cultures were collected for identification of aerobic bacteria and antimicrobial susceptibility testing for ciprofloxacin, chloramphenicol, gentamicin, neomycin, oxacillin, polymyxin B, tetracycline, and tobramycin using antibiotic disks...
June 28, 2018: Veterinary Ophthalmology
Axel Hollmann, Melina Martinez, Patricia Maturana, Liliana C Semorile, Paulo C Maffia
Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising novel antibiotics since they have shown antimicrobial activity against a wide range of bacterial species, including multiresistant bacteria; however, toxicity is the major barrier to convert antimicrobial peptides into active drugs. A profound and proper understanding of the complex interactions between these peptides and biological membranes using biophysical tools and model membranes seems to be a key factor in the race to develop a suitable antimicrobial peptide therapy for clinical use...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
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