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Fronto temporal

Jakub Limanowski, Felix Blankenburg
Spatially and temporally congruent visuotactile stimulation of a fake hand together with one's real hand may result in an illusory self-attribution of the fake hand. Although this illusion relies on a representation of the two touched body parts in external space, there is tentative evidence that, for the illusion to occur, the seen and felt touches also need to be congruent in an anatomical reference frame. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging and a somatotopical, virtual reality-based setup to isolate the neuronal basis of such a comparison...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Govinda R Poudel, Carrie R H Innes, Richard D Jones
Even when it is critical to stay awake, such as when driving, sleep deprivation weakens one's ability to do so by substantially increasing the propensity for microsleeps. Microsleeps are complete lapses of consciousness but, paradoxically, are associated with transient increases in cortical activity. But do microsleeps provide a benefit in terms of attenuating the need for sleep? And is the neural response to microsleeps altered by the degree of homeostatic drive to sleep? In this study, we continuously monitored eye-video, visuomotor responsiveness, and brain activity via fMRI in 20 healthy subjects during a 20-min visuomotor tracking task following a normally-rested night and a sleep-restricted (4-h) night...
March 16, 2018: NeuroImage
Jie Zhang, Xuehu Wei, Sangma Xie, Zhen Zhou, Desheng Shang, Renjie Ji, Yamei Yu, Fangping He, Yue Du, Xiangming Ye, Benyan Luo
In the dual-route language model, the dorsal pathway is known for sound-to-motor mapping, but the role of the ventral stream is controversial. With the goal of enhancing our understanding of language models, this study investigated the diffusion characteristics of candidate tracts in aphasic patients. We evaluated 14 subacute aphasic patients post-stroke and 11 healthy controls with language assessment and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping found multiple linguistic associations for the ventral stream, while automated fiber quantification (AFQ) showed, via reduced fractional anisotropy (FA) and axial diffusivity with increased radial diffusivity (all corrected p  < 0...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
A Llobet, N Nieto, A Damecourt, S Galmiche, M de Boutray
INTRODUCTION: The omental free flap is an effective tool for craniofacial reconstruction. However it is generally under-utilised by a large number of practitioners. This paper's goal is to increase awareness of this free flap's accessibility and to demonstrate that it can be an attractive option for reconstructive surgery. CLINICAL REPORT: This article outlines the details of a 57-year-old patient who required coverage of a fronto-parietal wound with dura mater exposure...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Stomatology, Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Dong Zhang, Pengcheng Xu, Hongyu Qiao, Xin Liu, Liangping Luo, Wenhua Huang, Heye Zhang, Changzheng Shi
BACKGROUND: Cerebrovascular events are frequently associated with hemodynamic disturbance caused by internal carotid artery (ICA) stenosis. It is challenging to determine the ischemia-related carotid stenosis during the intervention only using digital subtracted angiography (DSA). Inspired by the performance of well-established FFRct technique in hemodynamic assessment of significant coronary stenosis, we introduced a pressure-based carotid arterial functional assessment (CAFA) index generated from computational fluid dynamic (CFD) simulation in DSA data, and investigated its feasibility in the assessment of hemodynamic disturbance preliminarily using pressure-wired measurement and arterial spin labeling (ASL) MRI as references...
March 12, 2018: Biomedical Engineering Online
Christina Artemenko, Mojtaba Soltanlou, Ann-Christine Ehlis, Hans-Christoph Nuerk, Thomas Dresler
BACKGROUND: Arithmetic processing in adults is known to rely on a frontal-parietal network. However, neurocognitive research focusing on the neural and behavioral correlates of arithmetic development has been scarce, even though the acquisition of arithmetic skills is accompanied by changes within the fronto-parietal network of the developing brain. Furthermore, experimental procedures are typically adjusted to constraints of functional magnetic resonance imaging, which may not reflect natural settings in which children and adolescents actually perform arithmetic...
March 10, 2018: Behavioral and Brain Functions: BBF
Karl Roessler, Burkhard S Kasper, Roland Coras, Soheil Arinrad, Michael Scholz, Hajo H Hamer, Ingmar Blümcke, Michael Buchfelder
BACKGROUND: Temporal lobe resection (TLR) including amygdalo-hippocampectomy (AHE) is the most frequent performed procedure in epilepsy surgery. Due to close anatomical relationship of the mesial temporal structures and the midbrain and choroidal fissure, the risk of severe complications like postoperative stroke is up to 2.5%. METHODS: We developed a modification of the classical technique for AHE by early entering the choroidal fissure for identification of crus cerebri, posterior cerebri artery and oculomotor nerve via the anterior part of the fronto- mesial temporal horn cleft...
March 7, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Diana A Olszewska, Terri McVeigh, Emer M Fallon, Gregory M Pastores, Tim Lynch
Genetics is the backbone of Neurology, where a number of disorders have a genetic aetiology and are complex, requiring a dedicated Neurogenetics clinic. Genetics in the Republic of Ireland is under-resourced, with the lowest number of consultants per million of population in Europe. In November 2014, we established the monthly adult Neurogenetics clinic in Ireland, staffed by 2 consultants and 2 registrars from each speciality. We see patients with complex rare neurological conditions that may potentially have an underlying genetic basis, in the presence or absence of a family history...
March 9, 2018: Irish Journal of Medical Science
Masayoshi Kurachi, Tsutomu Takahashi, Tomiki Sumiyoshi, Takashi Uehara, Michio Suzuki
Background: A recent review reported that the median proportion of patients recovering from schizophrenia was 13.5% and that this did not change over time. Various factors including the duration of untreated psychosis, cognitive impairment, negative symptoms, and morphological changes in the brain influence the functional outcome of schizophrenia. The authors herein reviewed morphological changes in the brain of schizophrenia patients, effects of early intervention, and a direction of developing novel therapeutics to achieve significant improvement of the functional outcome...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Marisa Koini, Marco Duering, Benno G Gesierich, Serge A R B Rombouts, Stefan Ropele, Fabian Wagner, Christian Enzinger, Reinhold Schmidt
Loss of grey-matter volume with advancing age affects the entire cortex. It has been suggested that atrophy occurs in a network-dependent manner with advancing age rather than in independent brain areas. The relationship between networks of structural covariance (SCN) disintegration and cognitive functioning during normal aging is not fully explored. We, therefore, aimed to (1) identify networks that lose GM integrity with advancing age, (2) investigate if age-related impairment of integrity in GM networks associates with cognitive function and decreasing fine motor skills (FMS), and (3) examine if GM disintegration is a mediator between age and cognition and FMS...
March 6, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Ramesh Sharanappa Doddamani, Rajesh Kumar Meena, Selvam Murali Mohan, Neelam Krishnan Venkatramanaa
Trigeminal schwannomas (TSs) are extremely rare tumors in childhood, particularly in the absence of neurofibromatosis. Although multi-staged surgical strategies have been reported in the literature, safe and single stage microsurgical removal is possible. We report a rare case of dumbbell TS, in a 9-year-old girl in whom single stage complete removal was done using fronto-temporo-orbito-zygomatic craniotomy and sub temporal approach.
January 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
Dawn H W Lau, Naomi Hartopp, Natalie J Welsh, Sarah Mueller, Elizabeth B Glennon, Gábor M Mórotz, Ambra Annibali, Patricia Gomez-Suaga, Radu Stoica, Sebastien Paillusson, Christopher C J Miller
Fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are two related and incurable neurodegenerative diseases. Features of these diseases include pathological protein inclusions in affected neurons with TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), dipeptide repeat proteins derived from the C9ORF72 gene, and fused in sarcoma (FUS) representing major constituent proteins in these inclusions. Mutations in C9ORF72 and the genes encoding TDP-43 and FUS cause familial forms of FTD/ALS which provides evidence to link the pathology and genetics of these diseases...
February 28, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Ross Ferguson, Vasanta Subramanian
Angiogenin (ANG), a member of the RNase superfamily (also known as RNase 5) has neurotrophic, neuroprotective and angiogenic activities. Recently it has also been shown to be important in stem cell homeostasis. Mutations in ANG are associated with neurodegenerative diseases such as Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) and Fronto-temporal dementia (FTD). ANG is a secreted protein which is taken up by cells and translocated to the nucleus. However, the import pathway/s through which ANG is taken up is/are still largely unclear...
2018: PloS One
Sarah E Scullion, Gareth R I Barker, E Clea Warburton, Andrew D Randall, Jonathan T Brown
Neurodegenerative diseases affecting cognitive dysfunction, such as Alzheimer's disease and fronto-temporal dementia, are often associated impairments in the visual recognition memory system. Recent evidence suggests that synaptic plasticity, in particular long term depression (LTD), in the perirhinal cortex (PRh) is a critical cellular mechanism underlying recognition memory. In this study, we have examined novel object recognition and PRh LTD in rTg4510 mice, which transgenically overexpress tauP301L . We found that 8-9 month old rTg4510 mice had significant deficits in long- but not short-term novel object recognition memory...
February 26, 2018: Neurochemical Research
Layla T Ghaffari, Alexander Starr, Andrew T Nelson, Rita Sattler
Neurological diseases, including dementias such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) and degenerative motor neuron diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are responsible for an increasing fraction of worldwide fatalities. Researching these heterogeneous diseases requires models that endogenously express the full array of genetic and epigenetic factors which may influence disease development in both familial and sporadic patients. Here, we discuss the two primary methods of developing patient-derived neurons and glia to model neurodegenerative disease: reprogramming somatic cells into induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), which are differentiated into neurons or glial cells, or directly converting (DC) somatic cells into neurons (iNeurons) or glial cells...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Laura Prieto Del Val, Jose L Cantero, Daniel Baena, Mercedes Atienza
In mild cognitive impairment (MCI), the APOE4 genotype is associated with accelerated memory decline, likely due to the impact of neuropathology on main cerebral networks required for successful memory retrieval and/or to decreased capacity for recruiting secondary networks that might compensate for that brain damage. Here, we tested this hypothesis in twenty-six healthy older adults and thirty-four MCI patients, of which sixteen were APOE4 carriers. Compared to controls, MCI showed hippocampal volume reduction, cortical thinning in frontal, temporal and parietal regions, and dysfunctional EEG oscillations across fronto-temporal networks...
February 2, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
Béatrice Garcin, Marika Urbanski, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten, Richard Levy, Emmanuelle Volle
Categorization is the mental operation by which the brain classifies objects and events. It is classically assessed using semantic and non-semantic matching or sorting tasks. These tasks show a high variability in performance across healthy controls and the cerebral bases supporting this variability remain unknown. In this study we performed a voxel-based morphometry study to explore the relationships between semantic and shape categorization tasks and brain morphometric differences in 50 controls. We found significant correlation between categorization performance and the volume of the gray matter in the right anterior middle and inferior temporal gyri...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Fabrizio Biundo, Dolores Del Prete, Hong Zhang, Ottavio Arancio, Luciano D'Adamio
Tau plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative disorders: mutations in the gene encoding for tau (MAPT) are linked to Fronto-temporal Dementia (FTD) and hyper-phosphorylated aggregates of tau forming neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs) that constitute a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer disease (AD) and FTD. Accordingly, tau is a favored therapeutic target for the treatment of these diseases. Given the criticality of tau to dementia's pathogenesis and therapy, it is important to understand the physiological function of tau in the central nervous system...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Maddalena Boccia, Antonella Di Vita, Liana Palermo, Giorgia Committeri, Laura Piccardi, Cecilia Guariglia
The ability of seeing with the mind's eye, the visual mental imagery, is peculiarly compromised in patients with representational neglect. Representational neglect affects the processing of the left side of a mental image and may selectively concern the ability to imagine places and/or objects. Right-brain damaged patients with representational neglect for places (RN+) lose the ability to imagine themselves within a familiar place and fail in transforming an egocentric representation of the environment into an allocentric one and vice-versa...
February 13, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Benjamin Masserano, Albert S Woo, Gary B Skolnick, Sybill D Naidoo, Mark R Proctor, Matthew D Smyth, Kamlesh B Patel
OBJECTIVE: To compare postoperative temporal expansion in patients treated with fronto-orbital advancement or endoscopy-assisted craniectomy with cranial orthotic therapy. DESIGN: This is a retrospective, multicenter cohort study of patients with unilateral coronal craniosynostosis (UCS). SETTING: Computed tomographic (CT) scans were drawn from UCS patients treated at Boston Children's Hospital or St Louis Children's Hospital. PATIENTS: The study included 56 patients with UCS after fronto-orbital advancement (n = 32) or endoscopic repair (n = 24) and 10 age-matched controls...
March 2018: Cleft Palate-craniofacial Journal
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