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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335798/3d-morphological-change-of-skull-base-and-fronto-temporal-soft-tissue-in-the-patients-with-unicoronal-craniosynostosis-after-fronto-orbital-advancement
#1
Bin Yang, Jian Ni, Binghang Li
PURPOSE: This study aims to comprehensively evaluate the deformation of the skull base and fronto-temporal soft tissue in the patients with anterior plagiocephaly over 1 year of age by three-dimensional (3D) imaging after fronto-orbital advancement (FOA). METHODS: We quantitatively analyzed the surgical results and outcome of FOA performed in 10 patients with anterior plagiocephaly. The measurements of the skull base and fronto-temporal soft tissue were performed based on 3D computed tomography (CT) scan...
January 15, 2018: Child's Nervous System: ChNS: Official Journal of the International Society for Pediatric Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324911/psychological-consideration-in-patients-with-cerebral-gliomas-candidates-for-intra-operative-radiation-therapy-based-on-tumor-location
#2
Tohid Emami Meybodi, Masoumeh Najafi, Ali Keipourfard, Amir Nikouei, Afsoun Seddighi
OBJECTIVE: Intra-operative Radiation Therapy (IORT) is gaining popularity as an adjuvant option to surgical resection, in treatment of glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) for increasing survival rate, which a highly aggressive cerebral tumor with poor prognosis. Τhe authors plan to investigate the effects of IORT combined with surgical resection on the psychological status of these patients based on tumor location. SUBJECT AND METHODS: From December 2013 to February 2017, we have enrolled 109 patients with high grade cerebral gliomas, documented by Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy (MRS)...
September 2017: Hellenic Journal of Nuclear Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315804/white-matter-tauopathy-transient-functional-loss-and-novel-myelin-remodeling
#3
Joshua Jackson, Gabby Bianco, Angelo O Rosa, Katrina Cowan, Peter Bond, Oleg Anichtchik, Robert Fern
Early white matter (WM) changes are common in dementia and may contribute to functional decline. We here examine this phenomenon in an induced dementia model for the first time. We report a novel and selective form of myelin injury as the first manifestation of tauopathy in the adult central nervous system. Myelin pathology rapidly followed the induction of a P301 tau mutation associated with fronto-temporal dementia in humans (rTG4510 line). Damage involved focal disruption of the ad-axonal myelin lamella and internal oligodendrocyte tongue process, followed by myelin remodeling with features of re-myelination that included myelin thinning and internodal shortening...
January 8, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310446/resting-state-fmri-in-primary-sj%C3%A3-gren-syndrome
#4
Wu Xing, Wei Shi, Yueshuang Leng, Xianting Sun, Tingting Guan, Weihua Liao, Xiaoyi Wang
Background The involvement of the central nervous system in primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS) remains controversial. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a relatively new method that can be applied to investigate the heterogeneity of central nervous system (CNS) involvement in pSS patients through regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis. Purpose To collect data from pSS patients and healthy controls, and use ReHo analysis to elucidate the neurobiological mechanism of CNS involvement in pSS. Material and Methods Fourteen clinically diagnosed pSS patients and 14 age- and gender-matched healthy controls underwent resting-state fMRI...
January 1, 2018: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307007/neurophysiology-and-neurochemistry-of-corticobasal-syndrome
#5
REVIEW
Aditya A Murgai, Mandar S Jog
Corticobasal syndrome is a rare neurodegenerative disorder, which presents with a progressive, asymmetrical, akinetic rigid syndrome and early cortical signs. However, clinical, pathological, and electrophysiological heterogeneity makes the understanding of this syndrome challenging. Corticobasal syndrome can have various pathological substrates including corticobasal degeneration, Alzheimer's disease, Fronto-temporal degeneration with TDP inclusions, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)...
January 6, 2018: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304418/cortical-sources-of-resting-state-electroencephalographic-rhythms-probe-brain-function-in-na%C3%A3-ve-hiv-individuals
#6
Claudio Babiloni, Giuseppe Noce, Alfredo Pennica, Paolo Onorati, Paolo Capotosto, Claudio Del Percio, Paolo Roma, Valentina Correr, Elisa Piccinni, Ginevra Toma, Andrea Soricelli, Francesco Di Campli, Laura Gianserra, Lorenzo Ciullini, Antonio Aceti, Elisabetta Teti, Loredana Sarmati, Gloria Crocetti, Raffaele Ferri, Valentina Catania, Maria Teresa Pascarelli, Massimo Andreoni, Stefano Ferracuti
OBJECTIVE: Here we evaluated the hypothesis that resting state electroencephalographic (EEG) cortical sources correlated with cognitive functions and discriminated asymptomatic treatment-naïve HIV subjects (no AIDS). METHODS: EEG, clinical, and neuropsychological data were collected in 103 treatment-naïve HIV subjects (88 males; mean age 39.8 years ± 1.1 standard error of the mean, SE). An age-matched group of 70 cognitively normal and HIV-negative (Healthy; 56 males; 39...
December 20, 2017: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304183/white-matter-alterations-in-parkinson-s-disease-with-normal-cognition-precede-grey-matter-atrophy
#7
Ivan Rektor, Alena Svátková, Lubomir Vojtíšek, Iva Zikmundová, Jirí Vaníček, András Király, Nikoletta Szabó
INTRODUCTION: While progressive MRI brain changes characterize advanced Parkinson's disease (PD), little has been discovered about structural alterations in the earliest phase of the disease, i.e. in patients with motor symptoms and with normal cognition. Our study aimed to detect grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) changes in PD patients without cognitive impairment. METHODS: Twenty PD patients and twenty-one healthy controls (HC) were tested for attention, executive function, working memory, and visuospatial and language domains...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29301668/brain-structural-correlates-of-subclinical-obsessive-compulsive-symptoms-in-healthy-children
#8
Maria Suñol, Oren Contreras-Rodríguez, Dídac Macià, Gerard Martínez-Vilavella, Ignacio Martínez-Zalacaín, Marta Subirà, Jesús Pujol, Jordi Sunyer, Carles Soriano-Mas
OBJECTIVE: Subclinical obsessive-compulsive (OC) symptoms are frequently observed in children and have been reported to predict a subsequent diagnosis of OC disorder (OCD). Therefore, identifying the putative neurobiological signatures of such risk is crucial, because it would allow for the characterization of the underpinnings of OCD without the interfering effects of chronicity, medication, or comorbidities, especially when interpreted within the context of OCD clinical heterogeneity and taking into account normal neurodevelopmental changes...
January 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289531/epileptic-seizures-are-reduced-by-autonomic-biofeedback-therapy-through-enhancement-of-fronto-limbic-connectivity-a-controlled-trial-and-neuroimaging-study
#9
Yoko Nagai, Julia Aram, Matthias Koepp, Louis Lemieux, Marco Mula, Hugo Critchley, Sanjay Sisodiya, Mara Cercignani
BACKGROUND: Thirty-percent of patients with epilepsy are drug-resistant, and might benefit from effective noninvasive therapeutic interventions. Evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of autonomic biofeedback therapy using galvanic skin response (GSR; an index of sympathetic arousal) in treating epileptic seizures. This study aimed to extend previous controlled clinical trials of autonomic biofeedback therapy with a larger homogeneous sample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, we used neuroimaging to characterize neural mechanisms of change in seizure frequency following the therapy...
December 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285657/inter-individual-variations-and-hemispheric-asymmetries-in-structural-connectivity-patterns-of-the-inferior-fronto-occipital-fascicle-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-tractography-study
#10
François Vassal, Benjamin Pommier, Anna Sontheimer, Jean-Jacques Lemaire
PURPOSE: Precise knowledge of the structural connectivity of white matter fascicles could yield new insights into function and is important for neurosurgical planning. Therefore, we aimed to provide a detailed map of the cortical terminations of the inferior fronto-occipital fascicle (IFOF), with special emphasis on putative inter-individual variations and hemispheric asymmetries. METHODS: Deterministic diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography was used to perform virtual dissection of the IFOF in 20 healthy subjects...
December 28, 2017: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29259547/a-radial-glia-fascicle-leads-principal-neurons-from-the-pallial-subpallial-boundary-into-the-developing-human-insula
#11
Emilio González-Arnay, Miriam González-Gómez, Gundela Meyer
The human insular lobe, in the depth of the Sylvian fissure, displays three main cytoarchitectonic divisions defined by the differentiation of granular layers II and IV. These comprise a rostro-ventral agranular area, an intermediate dysgranular area, and a dorso-caudal granular area. Immunohistochemistry in human embryos and fetuses using antibodies against PCNA, Vimentin, Nestin, Tbr1, and Tb2 reveals that the insular cortex is unique in that it develops far away from the ventricular zone (VZ), with most of its principal neurons deriving from the subventricular zone (SVZ) of the pallial-subpallial boundary (PSB)...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29251830/patterns-of-altered-neural-synchrony-in-the-default-mode-network-in-autism-spectrum-disorder-revealed-with-magnetoencephalography-meg-relationship-to-clinical-symptomatology
#12
Renée Lajiness-O'Neill, Jonathan R Brennan, John E Moran, Annette E Richard, Ana-Mercedes Flores, Casey Swick, Ryan Goodcase, Tiffany Andersen, Kaitlyn McFarlane, Kenneth Rusiniak, Ioulia Kovelman, Neelima Wagley, Maggie Ugolini, Jeremy Albright, Susan M Bowyer
Disrupted neural synchrony may be a primary electrophysiological abnormality in autism spectrum disorders (ASD), altering communication between discrete brain regions and contributing to abnormalities in patterns of connectivity within identified neural networks. Studies exploring brain dynamics to comprehensively characterize and link connectivity to large-scale cortical networks and clinical symptoms are lagging considerably. Patterns of neural coherence within the Default Mode Network (DMN) and Salience Network (SN) during resting state were investigated in 12 children with ASD (MAge  = 9...
December 18, 2017: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250703/plasticity-in-deep-and-superficial-white-matter-a-dti-study-in-world-class-gymnasts
#13
Feng Deng, Ling Zhao, Chunlei Liu, Min Lu, Shufei Zhang, Huiyuan Huang, Lixiang Chen, Xiaoyan Wu, Chen Niu, Yuan He, Jun Wang, Ruiwang Huang
Brain white matter (WM) could be generally categorized into two types, deep and superficial WM. Studies combining these two types WM are important for a better understanding of brain plasticity induced by motor training. In this study, we applied both univariate and multivariate approaches to study gymnastic training-induced plasticity in brain WM. Specifically, we acquired diffusion tensor imaging data from 13 world class gymnasts and 14 non-athlete normal controls, reconstructed brain deep and superficial WM tracts, estimated and compared their fractional anisotropy (FA) difference between the two groups...
December 18, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249960/behavioral-and-neuroimaging-evidence-for-facial-emotion-recognition-in-elderly-korean-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-alzheimer-s-disease-and-frontotemporal-dementia
#14
Soowon Park, Taehoon Kim, Seong A Shin, Yu Kyeong Kim, Bo Kyung Sohn, Hyeon-Ju Park, Jung-Hae Youn, Jun-Young Lee
Background: Facial emotion recognition (FER) is impaired in individuals with frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) when compared to healthy older adults. Since deficits in emotion recognition are closely related to caregiver burden or social interactions, researchers have fundamental interest in FER performance in patients with dementia. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the performance profiles of six facial emotions (i.e., fear, anger, disgust, sadness, surprise, and happiness) and neutral faces measured among Korean healthy control (HCs), and those with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), AD, and FTD...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249956/the-mirror-neurons-network-in-aging-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-disease-a-functional-mri-study
#15
Elisabetta Farina, Francesca Baglio, Simone Pomati, Alessandra D'Amico, Isabella C Campini, Sonia Di Tella, Giulia Belloni, Thierry Pozzo
The aim of the current study is to investigate the integrity of the Mirror Neurons (MN) network in normal aging, Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer disease (AD). Although AD and MCI are considered "cognitive" diseases, there has been increasing recognition of a link between motor function and AD. More recently the embodied cognition hypothesis has also been developed: it postulates that a part of cognition results from the coupling between action and perception representations. MN represent a neuronal population which links perception, action, and cognition, therefore we decided to characterize MN functioning in neurodegenerative cognitive decline...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249945/perceived-conventionality-in-co-speech-gestures-involves-the-fronto-temporal-language-network
#16
Dhana Wolf, Linn-Marlen Rekittke, Irene Mittelberg, Martin Klasen, Klaus Mathiak
Face-to-face communication is multimodal; it encompasses spoken words, facial expressions, gaze, and co-speech gestures. In contrast to linguistic symbols (e.g., spoken words or signs in sign language) relying on mostly explicit conventions, gestures vary in their degree of conventionality. Bodily signs may have a general accepted or conventionalized meaning (e.g., a head shake) or less so (e.g., self-grooming). We hypothesized that subjective perception of conventionality in co-speech gestures relies on the classical language network, i...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228195/structural-connectivity-of-right-frontal-hyperactive-areas-scales-with-stuttering-severity
#17
Nicole E Neef, Alfred Anwander, Christoph Bütfering, Carsten Schmidt-Samoa, Angela D Friederici, Walter Paulus, Martin Sommer
A neuronal sign of persistent developmental stuttering is the magnified coactivation of right frontal brain regions during speech production. Whether and how stuttering severity relates to the connection strength of these hyperactive right frontal areas to other brain areas is an open question. Scrutinizing such brain-behaviour and structure-function relationships aims at disentangling suspected underlying neuronal mechanisms of stuttering. Here, we acquired diffusion-weighted and functional images from 31 adults who stutter and 34 matched control participants...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29228180/longitudinal-structural-and-molecular-neuroimaging-in-agrammatic-primary-progressive-aphasia
#18
Katerina A Tetzloff, Joseph R Duffy, Heather M Clark, Edythe A Strand, Mary M Machulda, Christopher G Schwarz, Matthew L Senjem, Robert I Reid, Anthony J Spychalla, Nirubol Tosakulwong, Val J Lowe, Clifford R Jack, Keith A Josephs, Jennifer L Whitwell
The agrammatic variant of primary progressive aphasia affects normal grammatical language production, often occurs with apraxia of speech, and is associated with left frontal abnormalities on cross-sectional neuroimaging studies. We aimed to perform a detailed assessment of longitudinal change on structural and molecular neuroimaging to provide a complete picture of neurodegeneration in these patients, and to determine how patterns of progression compare to patients with isolated apraxia of speech (primary progressive apraxia of speech)...
December 8, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29224248/is-there-a-pathogenetic-link-between-frontal-fibrosing-alopecia-androgenetic-alopecia-and-fibrosing-alopecia-in-a-pattern-distribution
#19
A Katoulis, K Diamanti, D Sgouros, A I Liakou, E Bozi, G Avgerinou, I Panayiotides, D Rigopoulos
Frequent coexistence of frontal fibrosing alopecia (FFA) and androgenetic alopecia (AGA) has been reported in the literature, but little attention has been given to the pathogenetic mechanisms underlying this potential association. FFA is characterized by progressive cicatricial fronto-temporal hairline recession, mostly affecting peri-menopausal women. Immune mechanisms seem to play a pivotal pathogenetic role. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
December 10, 2017: Journal of the European Academy of Dermatology and Venereology: JEADV
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29221753/pura-the-gene-encoding-pur-alpha-member-of-an-ancient-nucleic-acid-binding-protein-family-with-mammalian-neurological-functions
#20
REVIEW
Dianne C Daniel, Edward M Johnson
The PURA gene encodes Pur-alpha, a 322 amino acid protein with repeated nucleic acid binding domains that are highly conserved from bacteria through humans. PUR genes with a single copy of this domain have been detected so far in spirochetes and bacteroides. Lower eukaryotes possess one copy of the PUR gene, whereas chordates possess 1-4 PUR family members. Human PUR genes encode Pur-alpha (Pura), Pur-beta (Purb) and two forms of Pur-gamma (Purg). Pur-alpha is a protein that binds specific DNA and RNA sequence elements...
December 5, 2017: Gene
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