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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29793156/mechanical-properties-of-the-human-scalp-in-tension
#1
Lisa Falland-Cheung, Mario Scholze, Pamela F Lozano, Benjamin Ondruschka, Darryl C Tong, Paul A Brunton, J Neil Waddell, Niels Hammer
Mechanical properties of the human scalp have not been investigated to a great extent with limited information available. The purpose of this study was to provide new baseline material data for human scalp tissue of various ages, which can be applied to experimental and constitutive models, such as in the area of impact biomechanics. This study used specimens from the left and right temporal, fronto-parietal and occipital regions of the human scalp. It investigated the tensile behavior of scalp tissue using tissues harvested from unfixed, fresh cadavers...
May 17, 2018: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29787449/functional-connectivity-during-monitoring-for-visuomotor-incongruence
#2
Yoshihiro Ohashi, Takanori Kochiyama, Katsuya Tsuneyoshi, Yoshitaka Ohi-Gashi, Toshiya Murai, Keita Ueda
Previous human studies on monitoring for visuomotor incongruence emphasized the contribution of the fronto-parietal network and revealed significant activation of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and the right rostral inferior parietal lobule. Using functional MRI, this study investigated the brain regions involved in explicit monitoring for incongruence between motor intention and visual and/or proprioceptive information, particularly focusing on the fronto-parietal network. During in-phase bimanual movements, a static image of the participant's own hands was randomly inserted within real-time visual feedback of the movements to produce a mismatch between the actual performance and the visual input...
May 21, 2018: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29782329/longitudinal-fmri-study-of-language-recovery-after-a-left-hemispheric-ischemic-stroke
#3
Rodolphe Nenert, Jane B Allendorfer, Amber M Martin, Christi Banks, Jennifer Vannest, Scott K Holland, Kimberly W Hart, Christopher J Lindsell, Jerzy P Szaflarski
BACKGROUND: Recovery from stroke-induced aphasia is typically protracted and involves complex functional reorganization. The relative contributions of the lesioned and non-lesioned hemispheres to this process have been examined in several cross-sectional studies but longitudinal studies involving several time-points and large numbers of subjects are scarce. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to address the gaps in the literature by longitudinally studying the evolution of post-stroke lateralization and localization of language-related fMRI activation in the first year after single left hemispheric ischemic stroke...
2018: Restorative Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29777824/brain-network-segregation-and-integration-during-an-epoch-related-working-memory-fmri-experiment
#4
Peter Fransson, Björn C Schiffler, William Hedley Thompson
The characterization of brain subnetwork segregation and integration has previously focused on changes that are detectable at the level of entire sessions or epochs of imaging data. In this study, we applied time-varying functional connectivity analysis together with temporal network theory to calculate point-by-point estimates in subnetwork segregation and integration during an epoch-based (2-back, 0-back, baseline) working memory fMRI experiment as well as during resting-state. This approach allowed us to follow task-related changes in subnetwork segregation and integration at a high temporal resolution...
May 16, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745545/-tract-based-spatial-statistics-analysis-on-the-white-matter-of-patients-with-temporal-lobe-epilepsy-and-automatic-recognition
#5
Di Zhao, Shengwen Guo, Congling Wu, Chunren Lai, Lina Cheng, Wensheng Wang
This study aims to determine the salient brain regions with abnormal changes in white matter structures from diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images of the patients with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), and to discriminate the patients with TLE from normal controls (NCs). Firstly, the DTI images from 50 subjects (28 NCs and 22 TLE) were acquired. Secondly, the four measures including the fractional anisotropy (FA), the mean diffusivity (MD), the axial diffusivity (AD) and the radial diffusivity (RD) were calculated...
August 1, 2017: Sheng Wu Yi Xue Gong Cheng Xue za Zhi, Journal of Biomedical Engineering, Shengwu Yixue Gongchengxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29744565/different-patterns-of-confabulation-in-left-visuo-spatial-neglect
#6
Gianfranco Dalla Barba, Marta Brazzarola, Claudia Barbera, Sara Marangoni, Francesco Causin, Paolo Bartolomeo, Michel Thiebaut de Schotten
Confabulating patients produce statements and actions that are unintentionally incongruous to their history, background, present and future situation. Here we present the very unusual case of a patient with right hemisphere damage and signs of left visual neglect, who, when presented with visual stimuli, confabulated both for consciously undetected and for consciously detected left-sided details. Advanced anatomical investigation suggested a disconnection between the parietal and the temporal lobes in the right hemisphere...
May 9, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29738432/neuroimmunology-research-a-report-from-the-cuban-network-of-neuroimmunology
#7
María de Los Angeles Robinson-Agramonte, Lourdes Lorigados Pedre, Orlando Ramón Serrano-Barrera
Neuroimmunology can be traced back to the XIX century through the descriptions of some of the disease’s models (e.g., multiple sclerosis and Guillain Barret syndrome, amongst others). The diagnostic tools are based in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) analysis developed by Quincke or in the development of neuroimmunotherapy with the earlier expression in Pasteur’s vaccine for rabies. Nevertheless, this field, which began to become delineated as an independent research area in the 1940s, has evolved as an innovative and integrative field at the shared edges of neurosciences, immunology, and related clinical and research areas, which are currently becoming a major concern for neuroscience and indeed for all of the scientific community linked to it...
May 8, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29733867/spatiotemporal-commonalities-of-fronto-parietal-activation-in-attentional-orienting-triggered-by-supraliminal-and-subliminal-gaze-cues-an-event-related-potential-study
#8
Shota Uono, Wataru Sato, Reiko Sawada, Takanori Kochiyama, Toichi Motomi
Eye gaze triggers attentional shifts with and without conscious awareness. It remains unclear whether the spatiotemporal patterns of electric neural activity are the same for conscious and unconscious attentional shifts. Thus, the present study recorded event-related potentials (ERPs) and evaluated the neural activation involved in attentional orienting induced by subliminal and supraliminal gaze cues. Nonpredictive gaze cues were presented in the central field of vision, and participants were asked to detect a subsequent peripheral target...
May 4, 2018: Biological Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730484/current-perspectives-on-the-cerebellum-and-reading-development
#9
REVIEW
Travis A Alvarez, Julie A Fiez
The dominant neural models of typical and atypical reading focus on the cerebral cortex. However, Nicolson et al. (2001) proposed a model, the cerebellar deficit hypothesis, in which the cerebellum plays an important role in reading. To evaluate the evidence in support of this model, we qualitatively review the current literature and employ meta-analytic tools examining patterns of functional connectivity between the cerebellum and the cerebral reading network. We find evidence for a phonological circuit with connectivity between the cerebellum and a dorsal fronto-parietal pathway, and a semantic circuit with cerebellar connectivity to a ventral fronto-temporal pathway...
May 3, 2018: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29730251/effects-of-prefrontal-theta-burst-stimulation-on-brain-function-in-treatment-resistant-depression-a-randomized-sham-controlled-neuroimaging-study
#10
Cheng-Ta Li, Mu-Hong Chen, Chi-Hung Juan, Ren-Shyan Liu, Wei-Chen Lin, Ya-Mei Bai, Tung-Ping Su
BACKGROUND: Theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation (TBS) can quickly modulate brain activity and can be used to treat treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Whole-brain analytical research has revealed that left high-frequency PFC rTMS modulates brain activity in anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the fronto-cingulo-temporal circuit. We aimed to investigate whether the prefrontal TBS's antidepressant mechanisms involve these regions. METHODS: We designed a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled neuroimaging study to investigate different mechanisms of TBS [i...
April 23, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29725293/female-advantage-in-automatic-change-detection-of-facial-expressions-during-a-happy-neutral-context-an-erp-study
#11
Qi Li, Shiyu Zhou, Ya Zheng, Xun Liu
Sex differences in conscious emotional processing represent a well-known phenomenon. The present event-related potential (ERP) study examined sex differences in the automatic change detection of facial expressions, as indexed by the visual mismatch negativity (vMMN). As paid volunteers, 19 females and 19 males were presented peripherally with a passive emotional oddball sequence in a happy-neutral context and a fearful-neutral context while they performed a visual detection task in the center of the visual field...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29723523/the-physiological-and-pathological-biophysics-of-phase-separation-and-gelation-of-rna-binding-proteins-in-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-and-fronto-temporal-lobar-degeneration
#12
Peter St George-Hyslop, Julie Qiaojin Lin, Akinori Miyashita, Emma C Phillips, Seema Qamar, Suzanne J Randle, GuoZhen Wang
Many RNA binding proteins, including FUS, contain moderately repetitive, low complexity, intrinsically disordered domains. These sequence motifs have recently been found to underpin reversible liquid: liquid phase separation and gelation of these proteins, permitting them to reversibly transition from a monodispersed state to liquid droplet- or hydrogel-like states. This function allows the proteins to serve as scaffolds for the formation of reversible membraneless intracellular organelles such as nucleoli, stress granules and neuronal transport granules...
April 30, 2018: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29720037/brain-s-compensatory-response-to-drug-induced-cognitive-impairment
#13
Immanuel Babu Henry Samuel, Christopher Barkley, Susan E Marino, Chao Wang, Sahng-Min Han, Angela K Birnbaum, Jean E Cibula, Mingzhou Ding
INTRODUCTION: Topiramate (TPM), a frequently prescribed antiseizure medication, can cause severe cognitive side-effects. Though these side-effects have been studied behaviorally, the underlying neural mechanisms are unknown. In a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled, crossover study of TPM's impact on cognition, nine healthy volunteers completed three study sessions: a no-drug baseline session and two sessions during which they received either TPM or placebo. Electroencephalogram was recorded during each session while subjects performed a working-memory task with three memory-loads...
May 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29713297/metabolic-and-electrophysiological-changes-associated-to-clinical-improvement-in-two-severely-traumatized-subjects-treated-with-emdr-a-pilot-study
#14
Marco Pagani, Gianluca Castelnuovo, Andrea Daverio, Patrizia La Porta, Leonardo Monaco, Fabiola Ferrentino, Agostino Chiaravalloti, Isabel Fernandez, Giorgio Di Lorenzo
Neuroimaging represents a powerful tool to investigate the neurobiological correlates of Eye Movements Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR). The impact of EMDR on cortical and sub-cortical brain regions has been proven by several investigations demonstrating a clear association between symptoms disappearance and changes in cortical structure and functionality. The aim of this study was to assess by electroencephalography (EEG) and for the first time by positron emission tomography (PET) the changes occurring after EMDR therapy in two cases of psychological trauma following brain concussion and comatose state due to traffic accident...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29707778/electroconvulsive-therapy-increases-brain-volume-in-major-depression-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#15
REVIEW
K Gbyl, P Videbech
OBJECTIVE: The main purpose of this review was to synthesise evidence on ECT's effects on brain's structure. METHOD: A systematic literature review of longitudinal studies of depressed patients treated with ECT using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and meta-analysis of ECT's effect on hippocampal volume. RESULTS: Thirty-two studies with 467 patients and 285 controls were included. The MRI studies did not find any evidence of ECT-related brain damage...
April 29, 2018: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29705713/the-neural-markers-of-mri-to-differentiate-depression-and-panic-disorder
#16
REVIEW
Chien-Han Lai
Depression and panic disorder (PD) share the common pathophysiology from the perspectives of neurotransmitters. The relatively high comorbidity between depression and PD contributes to the substantial obstacles to differentiate from depression and PD, especially for the brain pathophysiology. There are significant differences in the diagnostic criteria between depression and PD. However, the paradox of similar pathophysiology and different diagnostic criteria in these two disorders were still the issues needing to be addressed...
April 26, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700906/endogenously-generated-gamma-band-oscillations-in-early-visual-cortex-a-neurofeedback-study
#17
Nina Merkel, Michael Wibral, Gareth Bland, Wolf Singer
Human subjects were trained with neurofeedback (NFB) to enhance the power of narrow-band gamma oscillations in circumscribed regions of early visual cortex. To select the region and the oscillation frequency for NFB training, gamma oscillations were induced with locally presented drifting gratings. The source and frequency of these induced oscillations were determined using beamforming methods. During NFB training the power of narrow band gamma oscillations was continuously extracted from this source with online beamforming and converted into the pitch of a tone signal...
April 26, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29700893/action-and-semantic-tool-knowledge-effective-connectivity-in-the-underlying-neural-networks
#18
Nina N Kleineberg, Anna Dovern, Ellen Binder, Christian Grefkes, Simon B Eickhoff, Gereon R Fink, Peter H Weiss
Evidence from neuropsychological and imaging studies indicate that action and semantic knowledge about tools draw upon distinct neural substrates, but little is known about the underlying interregional effective connectivity. With fMRI and dynamic causal modeling (DCM) we investigated effective connectivity in the left-hemisphere (LH) while subjects performed (i) a function knowledge and (ii) a value knowledge task, both addressing semantic tool knowledge, and (iii) a manipulation (action) knowledge task. Overall, the results indicate crosstalk between action nodes and semantic nodes...
April 26, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29691949/fronto-parietal-subnetworks-flexibility-compensates-for-cognitive-decline-due-to-mental-fatigue
#19
Fumihiko Taya, Stavros I Dimitriadis, Andrei Dragomir, Julian Lim, Yu Sun, Kian Foong Wong, Nitish V Thakor, Anastasios Bezerianos
Fronto-parietal subnetworks were revealed to compensate for cognitive decline due to mental fatigue by community structure analysis. Here, we investigate changes in topology of subnetworks of resting-state fMRI networks due to mental fatigue induced by prolonged performance of a cognitively demanding task, and their associations with cognitive decline. As it is well established that brain networks have modular organization, community structure analyses can provide valuable information about mesoscale network organization and serve as a bridge between standard fMRI approaches and brain connectomics that quantify the topology of whole brain networks...
April 24, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682852/novel-in-silico-multivariate-mapping-of-intrinsic-and-anticorrelated-connectivity-to-neurocognitive-functional-maps-supports-the-maturational-hypothesis-of-adhd
#20
Nina de Lacy, Ian Kodish, Srinivas Rachakonda, Vince D Calhoun
From childhood to adolescence, strengthened coupling in frontal, striatal and parieto-temporal regions associated with cognitive control, and increased anticorrelation between task-positive and task-negative circuits, subserve the reshaping of behavior. ADHD is a common condition peaking in adolescence and regressing in adulthood, with a wide variety of cognitive control deficits. Alternate hypotheses of ADHD emphasize lagging circuitry refinement versus categorical differences in network function. However, quantifying the individual circuit contributions to behavioral findings, and relative roles of maturational versus categorical effects, is challenging in vivo or in meta-analyses using task-based paradigms within the same pipeline, given the multiplicity of neurobehavioral functions implicated...
April 22, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
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