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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29142322/bilateral-5%C3%A2-hz-transcranial-alternating-current-stimulation-on-fronto-temporal-areas-modulates-resting-state-eeg
#1
Aurora D'Atri, Claudia Romano, Maurizio Gorgoni, Serena Scarpelli, Valentina Alfonsi, Michele Ferrara, Fabio Ferlazzo, Paolo Maria Rossini, Luigi De Gennaro
Rhythmic non-invasive brain stimulations are promising tools to modulate brain activity by entraining neural oscillations in specific cortical networks. The aim of the study was to assess the possibility to influence the neural circuits of the wake-sleep transition in awake subjects via a bilateral transcranial alternating current stimulation at 5 Hz (θ-tACS) on fronto-temporal areas. 25 healthy volunteers participated in two within-subject sessions (θ-tACS and sham), one week apart and in counterbalanced order...
November 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29121108/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-multimodal-eeg-fnirs-signals-in-the-loss-and-recovery-of-consciousness-under-sedation-using-midazolam-and-propofol
#2
Seul-Ki Yeom, Dong-Ok Won, Seong In Chi, Kwang-Suk Seo, Hyun Jeong Kim, Klaus-Robert Müller, Seong-Whan Lee
On sedation motivated by the clinical needs for safety and reliability, recent studies have attempted to identify brain-specific signatures for tracking patient transition into and out of consciousness, but the differences in neurophysiological effects between 1) the sedative types and 2) the presence/absence of surgical stimulations still remain unclear. Here we used multimodal electroencephalography-functional near-infrared spectroscopy (EEG-fNIRS) measurements to observe electrical and hemodynamic responses during sedation simultaneously...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115193/personality-modulates-amygdala-and-insula-connectivity-during-humor-appreciation-an-event-related-fmri-study
#3
Philipp Berger, Florian Bitsch, Arne Nagels, Benjamin Straube, Irina Falkenberg
Previous research and theory implicate that personality traits, such as extraversion and neuroticism, influence the processing of humor, as indicated by alterations in the activation of fronto-temporal and mesocorticolimbic brain regions during humor processing. In the current study, we sought to complement these findings by testing whether inter-individual differences in functional connectivity of humor-related brain regions are modulated by stable personality characteristics during humor processing. Using fMRI techniques, we studied 19 healthy subjects during the processing of standardized humorous and neutral cartoons...
November 8, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29114302/contrecoup-extradural-hematoma-with-coronal-suture-diastasis
#4
Pratap Chandra Nath, Sudhansu Sekhar Mishra, Manmath Kumar Dhir, Rama Chandra Deo, Bikash Ranjan Behera, Sitansu Kumar Rout
Extradural hematoma (EDH) generally occurs in the site of impact, that is, coup injury site. EDH is associated with fracture of skull in many a times due to direct impact. However, EDH in counter coup site is a rare occurrence. Hardly, yet, 12 cases have been reported including this case. Here, we reported a case of a 22-year-old male of contrecoup acute EDH who had sustained head injury due to fall from bike. Physical examination revealed direct impact at the left occipito-parietal region with laceration of scalp and bruise with transient loss of consciousness at the time of injury...
October 2017: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29113386/chemotherapy-induced-changes-of-cerebral-activity-in-resting-state-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-and-cerebral-white-matter-in-diffusion-tensor-imaging
#5
Caiqin Mo, Hailong Lin, Fangmeng Fu, Lin Lin, Jie Zhang, Meng Huang, Chuan Wang, Yunjing Xue, Qing Duan, Weiwen Lin, Xiangjin Chen
While chemotherapy related cognitive disorder has been described in many studies, but we still lack relatively reliable and objective diagnostic tools, and there are few similar studies in Asian patients. We recruited Asian breast cancer patients to perform a cohort study to uncover chemotherapy related cognitive disorder by using resting-state functioning magnetic resonance imaging (RS-fMRI) and magnetic resonance diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) combined with neuropsychologic assessments. This is the first prospective study which combines RS-fMRI and DTI to detect chemotherapy related cognitive disorder...
October 6, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29110334/frontotemporal-dementia-with-trans-activation-response-dna-binding-protein-43-presenting-with-catatonic-syndrome
#6
Ryohei Watanabe, Ito Kawakami, Mitsumoto Onaya, Shinji Higashi, Nobutaka Arai, Haruhiko Akiyama, Masato Hasegawa, Tetsuaki Arai
Catatonia is a clinical syndrome characterized by symptoms such as immobility, mutism, stupor, stereotypy, echophenomena, catalepsy, automatic obedience, posturing, negativism, gegenhalten and ambitendency. This syndrome occurs mostly in mood disorder and schizophrenic patients, and is related to neuronal dysfunction involving the frontal lobe. Some cases of frontotemporal dementia (FTD) with catatonia have been reported, but these cases were not examined by autopsy. Here, we report on a FTD case which showed catatonia after the first episode of brief psychotic disorder...
November 7, 2017: Neuropathology: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Neuropathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29101022/lsd-modulates-effective-connectivity-and-neural-adaptation-mechanisms-in-an-auditory-oddball-paradigm
#7
REVIEW
Christopher Timmermann, Meg J Spriggs, Mendel Kaelen, Robert Leech, David J Nutt, Rosalyn J Moran, Robin L Carhart-Harris, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
Under the predictive coding framework, perceptual learning and inference are dependent on the interaction between top-down predictions and bottom-up sensory signals both between and within regions in a network. However, how such feedback and feedforward connections are modulated in the state induced by lysergic acid diethylamide (LSD) is poorly understood. In this study, an auditory oddball paradigm was presented to healthy participants (16 males, 4 female) under LSD and placebo, and brain activity was recorded using magnetoencephalography (MEG)...
October 31, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100659/the-sander-parallelogram-illusion-dissociates-action-and-perception-despite-control-for-the-litany-of-past-confounds
#8
Robert L Whitwell, Melvyn A Goodale, Kate E Merritt, James T Enns
The two visual systems hypothesis proposes that human vision is supported by a occipito-temporal network for the conscious visual perception of the world, and a fronto-parietal network for visually-guided, object-directed actions. Two specific claims about the fronto-parietal network's role in sensorimotor control have generated much data and controversy: (1) the network relies primarily on the absolute metrics of target objects, which it rapidly transforms into effector-specific frames of reference to guide the fingers, hands, and limbs, and (2) the network is largely unaffected by scene-based information extracted by the occipito-temporal network for those same targets...
October 5, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100305/cerebral-blood-flow-changes-in-remitted-early-and-late-onset-depression-patients
#9
Wenxiang Liao, Ze Wang, Xiangrong Zhang, Hao Shu, Zan Wang, Duan Liu, Zhijun Zhang
Abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reportedly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). We have investigated CBF changes in early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD), and their impact on cognitive function. Thirty-two remitted EOD patients, 32 remitted LOD patients, and 43 age-matched healthy controls were recruited, and the pulsed arterial spin labeling data were scanned under 3.0T MRI and processed through voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis. Compared to healthy controls, LOD patients had decreased normalized CBF in the bilateral precuneus, cuneus, right fronto-cingulate-striatal areas, and right temporal, occipital and parietal lobes, but increased normalized CBF in the left frontal and temporal cortices and the cingulate gyrus...
September 29, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29081745/changes-of-functional-and-directed-resting-state-connectivity-are-associated-with-neuronal-oscillations-apoe-genotype-and-amyloid-deposition-in-mild-cognitive-impairment
#10
Lars Michels, Muthuraman Muthuraman, Abdul R Anwar, Spyros Kollias, Sandra E Leh, Florian Riese, Paul G Unschuld, Michael Siniatchkin, Anton F Gietl, Christoph Hock
The assessment of effects associated with cognitive impairment using electroencephalography (EEG) power mapping allows the visualization of frequency-band specific local changes in oscillatory activity. In contrast, measures of coherence and dynamic source synchronization allow for the study of functional and effective connectivity, respectively. Yet, these measures have rarely been assessed in parallel in the context of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and furthermore it has not been examined if they are related to risk factors of Alzheimer's disease (AD) such as amyloid deposition and apolipoprotein ε4 (ApoE) allele occurrence...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079343/from-meaning-to-categorization-the-hierarchical-recruitment-of-brain-circuits-selective-for-action-verbs
#11
Riccardo Dalla Volta, Pietro Avanzini, Doriana De Marco, Maurizio Gentilucci, Maddalena Fabbri-Destro
Sensorimotor and affective brain systems are known to be involved in language processing. However, to date it is still debated whether this involvement is a crucial step of semantic processing or, on the contrary, it is dependent on the specific context or strategy adopted to solve a task at hand. The present electroencephalographic (EEG) study is aimed at investigating which brain circuits are engaged when processing written verbs. By aligning event-related potentials (ERPs) both to the verb onset and to the motor response indexing the accomplishment of a semantic task of categorization, we were able to dissociate the relative stimulus-related and response-related cognitive components at play, respectively...
October 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068973/rigid-external-distractor-aided-advancement-after-simultaneously-performed-lefort-iii-osteotomy-and-fronto-orbital-advancement
#12
Ali-Farid Safi, Matthias Kreppel, Martin Kauke, Andrea Grandoch, Hans-Joachim Nickenig, Joachim Zöller
Due to the complex development of the craniofacial skull, corrective surgery is a major challenge for patients with severe craniofaciostenosis. Although fronto-orbital advancement and simultaneous LeFort-III osteotomy in combination with distraction osteogenesis have been reported as a safe and successful method to obtain good esthetic and functional results, there is a lack of studies evaluating this method.Our retrospective study included 12 patients with syndromic craniofaciostenosis, who were primarily treated at our department in accordance with a standardized treatment protocol, consisting of a simultaneous fronto-orbital advancement with LeFort-III osteotomy in combination with a rigid external distractor (RED-II)...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29068968/isolated-intraorbital-frontosphenoidal-synostosis
#13
Paul A Mittermiller, Kristen W Yeom, Robert M Menard
Unilateral anterior plagiocephaly is most commonly the result of deformational plagiocephaly or unilateral coronal synostosis, a premature fusion of the frontoparietal suture. However, other sutures within the coronal ring have been implicated in producing anterior cranial asymmetries. These fusions can occur in isolation or in concert with adjacent sutures. The frontosphenoidal suture is one such suture within the coronal ring that has been involved both concomitantly with and independently of frontoparietal suture fusion...
October 24, 2017: Journal of Craniofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29063240/corticobasal-degeneration-key-emerging-issues
#14
F Ali, K A Josephs
Corticobasal degeneration (CBD) was first described by Rebeiz et al. in 1967, and was called corticodentatonigral degeneration with neuronal achromasia [1]. Since then, our knowledge of the clinical features and underlying tau pathology has grown tremendously. Clinical antemortem diagnosis of CBD pathology remains challenging and has led to the development of revised diagnostic criteria. As various clinical phenotypes may have CBD pathology, accurate prevalence studies are lacking. Recently, pooled prevalence of fronto-temporal lobar degeneration, PSP and CBS was reported as 10...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29061700/development-of-the-visual-word-form-area-requires-visual-experience-evidence-from-blind-braille-readers
#15
Judy S Kim, Shipra Kanjlia, Lotfi B Merabet, Marina Bedny
Learning to read causes the development of a letter- and word-selective region known as the visual word form area (VWFA) within the human ventral visual object stream. Why does a reading-selective region develop at this anatomical location? According to one hypothesis, the VWFA develops at the nexus of visual inputs from retinotopic cortices and linguistic input from the fronto-temporal language network because reading involves extracting linguistic information from visual symbols. Surprisingly, the anatomical location of the VWFA is also active when blind individuals read Braille by touch, suggesting that vision is not required for the development of the VWFA...
October 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059596/association-of-postoperative-delirium-with-markers-of-neurodegeneration-and-brain-amyloidosis-a-pilot-study
#16
Elena Rolandi, Enrica Cavedo, Michela Pievani, Samantha Galluzzi, Federica Ribaldi, Christopher Buckley, Colm Cunningham, Ugo Paolo Guerra, Monica Musarra, Sabrina Morzenti, Silvia Magnaldi, Mirko Patassini, Flavio Terragnoli, Luca Matascioli, Simone Franzoni, Giorgio Annoni, Lucio Carnevali, Giuseppe Bellelli, Giovanni B Frisoni
The aim of the study was to investigate the association between postoperative delirium (POD) and in vivo markers of Alzheimer's disease pathology in nondemented hip fracture surgery patients. POD was assessed with the Confusion Assessment Method. Amyloid load was quantified on (18)F-Flutemetamol positron emission tomography images as standardized uptake value ratio. Secondary outcome measures were gray matter volumes, white matter integrity, and functional connectivity at rest. All the patients with POD (POD+, N = 5) were amyloid negative (standardized uptake value ratio <0...
September 28, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29055645/bite-force-and-electromyography-evaluation-after-cranioplasty-in-patients-with-craniosynostosis
#17
Markus Martini, Valentin Wiedemeyer, Nils Heim, Martina Messing-Jünger, Sabine Linsen
OBJECTIVE: This long-term follow-up investigation aimed to assess masticatory muscle function in 15 patients with craniosynostosis with detachment of the temporal muscle during fronto-orbital advancement 6 years after cranioplasty compared with a non-operative stomatognathic healthy cohort in the same age group (n = 25). STUDY DESIGN: The follow-up assessment for the operated children occurred on average 5.2 ± 1.7 years after surgery at the age of 7 ± 1...
September 21, 2017: Oral Surgery, Oral Medicine, Oral Pathology and Oral Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054427/common-brain-networks-for-distinct-deficits-in-visual-neglect-a-combined-structural-and-tractography-mri-approach
#18
Monica N Toba, Raffaella Migliaccio, Bénédicte Batrancourt, Clémence Bourlon, Christophe Duret, Pascale Pradat-Diehl, Bruno Dubois, Paolo Bartolomeo
Visual neglect is a heterogeneous, multi-component syndrome resulting from right hemisphere damage. Neglect patients do not pay attention to events occurring on their left side, and have a poor functional outcome. The intra-hemispheric location of lesions producing neglect is debated, because studies using different methods reported different locations in the grey matter and in the white matter of the right hemisphere. These reported locations show various patterns of overlapping with the fronto-parietal attention networks demonstrated by functional neuroimaging...
October 18, 2017: Neuropsychologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050641/white-matter-pathways-in-persistent-developmental-stuttering-lessons-from-tractography
#19
Vered Kronfeld-Duenias, Oren Civier, Ofer Amir, Ruth Ezrati-Vinacour, Michal Ben-Shachar
PURPOSE: Fluent speech production relies on the coordinated processing of multiple brain regions. This highlights the role of neural pathways that connect distinct brain regions in producing fluent speech. Here, we aim to investigate the role of the white matter pathways in persistent developmental stuttering (PDS), where speech fluency is disrupted. METHODS: We use diffusion weighted imaging and tractography to compare the white matter properties between adults who do and do not stutter...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Fluency Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048247/spatio-temporal-dynamics-of-the-mirror-neuron-system-during-social-intentions
#20
Stephanie Cacioppo, Mylene Bolmont, George Monteleone
Previous research has shown that specific goals and intentions influence a person's allocation of social attention. From a neural viewpoint, a growing body of evidence suggests that the inferior fronto-parietal network, including the mirror neuron system, plays a role in the planning and the understanding of motor intentions. However, it is unclear whether and when the mirror neuron system plays a role in social intentions. Combining a behavioral task with electrical neuroimaging in 22 healthy male participants, the current study investigates whether the temporal brain dynamic of the mirror neuron system differs during two types of social intentions i...
October 27, 2017: Social Neuroscience
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