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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527090/stroke-like-attack-first-episode-of-sporadic-hemiplegic-migraine
#1
Enrico Ferrante, Valentina Prone, Marco Longoni, Elio Clemente Agostoni
Hemiplegic migraine (HM) is a rare migraine with aura; it can be familiar or sporadic. A 46-years-old man presented left migraine followed by right hemiparesis with bilateral plantar flexion of cutaneous plantar reflex (CPR). Brain CT and CT-angiography were normal. The next day patient got worse. The EEG showed left fronto-temporal cuspidate delta waves and brain MRI showed a minimal hyperintensity at T2-sequences in the left frontal cortex with a minor representation of the cortical veins at susceptibility weighted imaging sequences...
May 2017: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28525569/comparative-effects-of-methylphenidate-modafinil-and-mdma-on-response-inhibition-neural-networks-in-healthy-subjects
#2
André Schmidt, Felix Müller, Patrick C Dolder, Yasmin Schmid, Davide Zanchi, Matthias E Liechti, Stefan Borgwardt
Background: Psychostimulants such as methylphenidate (MPH) and modafinil are increasingly used by healthy people for cognitive enhancement purposes, whereas the acute effect of 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ecstasy) on cognitive functioning in healthy subjects remains unclear. This study directly compared the acute effects of MPH, modafinil and MDMA on the neural mechanisms underlying response inhibition in healthy subjects. Methods: Using a double-blind within-subject placebo-controlled cross-over design, MPH, modafinil and MDMA were administrated to 21 healthy subjects, while performing a Go/No-Go event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging task to assess brain activation during motor response inhibition...
May 19, 2017: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28514490/brain-ultrasound-rehearsal-before-surgery-a-pilot-cadaver-study
#3
Carlo Giussani, Matteo Riva, Valentin Djonov, Simone Beretta, Francesco Prada, Erik Sganzerla
Introduction It has been shown that brain ultrasonography (US) is an efficient tool for improving three-dimensional (3D) spatial orientation during neurosurgical interventions. However, it necessitates specific training as it is highly operator-dependent. To date, neurosurgeons have relied solely on intraoperative practice to improve their mastery of brain US; this has obvious limitations. Herein, we consider whether a study of brain US on human cadavers could enable a training platform for neurosurgeons and residents to be developed...
May 17, 2017: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28505211/fronto-temporal-interactions-are-functionally-relevant-for-semantic-control-in-language-processing
#4
Max Wawrzyniak, Felix Hoffstaedter, Julian Klingbeil, Anika Stockert, Katrin Wrede, Gesa Hartwigsen, Simon B Eickhoff, Joseph Classen, Dorothee Saur
Semantic cognition, i.e. processing of meaning is based on semantic representations and their controlled retrieval. Semantic control has been shown to be implemented in a network that consists of left inferior frontal (IFG), and anterior and posterior middle temporal gyri (a/pMTG). We aimed to disrupt semantic control processes with continuous theta burst stimulation (cTBS) over left IFG and pMTG and to study whether behavioral effects are moderated by induced alterations in resting-state functional connectivity...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501758/modulating-anosognosia-for-hemiplegia-the-role-of-dangerous-actions-in-emergent-awareness
#5
Daniela D'Imperio, Cristina Bulgarelli, Sara Bertagnoli, Renato Avesani, Valentina Moro
Anosognosia for hemiplegia is a lack of awareness of motor deficits following a right hemisphere lesion. Residual forms of awareness co-occur with an explicit denial of hemiplegia. The term emergent awareness refers to a condition in which awareness of motor deficits is reported verbally during the actual performance of an action involving the affected body part. In this study, two tasks were used to explore the potential effects of i) attempting actions which are impossible for sufferers of hemiplegia and ii) attempting actions which are potentially dangerous...
April 21, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495307/event-related-potentials-during-encoding-comparing-unitization-to-relational-processing
#6
Hsiao-Wei Tu, Emma E Alty, Rachel A Diana
Context details are typically encoded into episodic memory via arbitrary associations to the relevant item, known as relational binding. Subsequent retrieval of those context details is primarily supported by recollection. Research suggests that context retrieval can rely on familiarity if the context details are "unitized" and thereby encoded as features of the item itself in a single new representation. With most investigations into unitization focusing on the contributions of familiarity and recollection during retrieval, little is known about unitization during encoding...
May 8, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28484383/when-playing-is-a-problem-an-atypical-case-of-alien-hand-syndrome-in-a-professional-pianist
#7
Arantxa Alfaro, Ángela Bernabeu, Francisco J Badesa, Nicolas García, Eduardo Fernández
Alien hand syndrome (AHS) is a neurological illness characterized by limb movements which are carried out without being aware of it. Many patients describe these movements as aggressive and some perceive a strong feeling of estrangement and go so far as to deny ownership. The sense of body ownership is the perception that parts of one's body pertain to oneself, despite it is moving or not and if movement is intentional or unintentional. These anomalous self-experiences may arise in patients with focal brain lesions and provide unique opportunities to disclose the neural components underlying self-body perception...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28483096/electroencephalogram-alpha-to-theta-ratio-over-left-fronto-temporal-region-correlates-with-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia
#8
Sayantanava Mitra, Shamsul Haque Nizamie, Nishant Goyal, Sai Krishna Tikka
BACKGROUND: Negative symptoms impair outcomes on occupational functioning, social interaction and interpersonal relationships in patients with schizophrenia. Past researchers have reported reduced alpha and increased theta and delta spectral powers on quantitative EEG recordings in those with prominent negative symptoms. AIM: Present analysis aimed at exploring the relationships between lower-frequency EEG powers and negative symptoms, in schizophrenia, over a period of naturalistic antipsychotic treatment...
April 2017: Asian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28482338/non-melanoma-skin-cancers-of-the-fronto-temporal-area-preferentially-localize-in-the-proximity-of-arterial-blood-vessels
#9
François Kuonen, Michel Gilliet, Patrick Perrier
BACKGROUND: Squamous cell carcinomas and basal cell carcinomas are both induced by chronic UV exposure. However, their predilection for specific areas of the face remains unexplained. Regional factors such as arterial blood flow may explain specific tumor localization. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether in the fronto-temporal area of the face there is a preferential localization of non-melanoma skin cancer (NMSC) at sites of arterial blood vessels. METHODS: Twenty-two patients with NMSC of the fronto-temporal area were selected for this study...
May 9, 2017: Dermatology: International Journal for Clinical and Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469563/the-role-of-associative-cortices-and-hippocampus-during-movement-perturbations
#10
Matthew S D Kerr, Pierre Sacré, Kevin Kahn, Hyun-Joo Park, Mathew Johnson, James Lee, Susan Thompson, Juan Bulacio, Jaes Jones, Jorge González-Martínez, Catherine Liégeois-Chauvel, Sridevi V Sarma, John T Gale
Although motor control has been extensively studied, most research involving neural recordings has focused on primary motor cortex, pre-motor cortex, supplementary motor area, and cerebellum. These regions are involved during normal movements, however, associative cortices and hippocampus are also likely involved during perturbed movements as one must detect the unexpected disturbance, inhibit the previous motor plan, and create a new plan to compensate. Minimal data is available on these brain regions during such "robust" movements...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463749/right-fronto-temporal-activation-differs-between-chinese-first-episode-and-recurrent-major-depression-disorders-during-a-verbal-fluency-task-a-near-infrared-spectroscopy-study
#11
Jiuju Wang, Bin Lv, Wenxiang Quan, Taeko N Wydell, Ju Tian, Pengfei Wang, Jin Liu, Wentian Dong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 28, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28458140/resting-state-brain-network-function-in-major-depression-depression-symptomatology-antidepressant-treatment-effects-future-research
#12
REVIEW
Janis Brakowski, Simona Spinelli, Nadja Dörig, Oliver Gero Bosch, Andrei Manoliu, Martin Grosse Holtforth, Erich Seifritz
The alterations of functional connectivity brain networks in major depressive disorder (MDD) have been subject of a large number of studies. Using different methodologies and focusing on diverse aspects of the disease, research shows heterogeneous results lacking integration. Disrupted network connectivity has been found in core MDD networks like the default mode network (DMN), the central executive network (CEN), and the salience network, but also in cerebellar and thalamic circuitries. Here we review literature published on resting state brain network function in MDD focusing on methodology, and clinical characteristics including symptomatology and antidepressant treatment related findings...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452647/a-case-of-fronto-temporal-dementia-ftd-masquerading-as-mood-disorder
#13
Sarah Pospos, Min Xi, Guanjie Chen, Ruiguo Zhang, Qingrong Tan, Andrius Baskys
A 56-year old Chinese female was referred to an academic medical center with atypical, treatment-resistant depression that continued for approximately 3 years after her sister's death. Comprehensive evaluation including neurocognitive testing, EEG, spinal tap, HIV testing and brain MRI revealed behavioral variant of fronto-temporal dementia (bvFTD) with significant frontal and temporal lobe atrophy.This patient's unusual clinical presentation emphasizes the overlap between depression and bvFTD, and underlines the importance of prompt, accurate diagnosis to minimize often-ineffective pharmacological interventions and caregiver burnout...
December 23, 2016: Clinical Gerontologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446874/age-related-differences-in-reorganization-of-functional-connectivity-for-a-dual-task-with-increasing-postural-destabilization
#14
Cheng-Ya Huang, Linda L Lin, Ing-Shiou Hwang
The aged brain may not make good use of central resources, so dual task performance may be degraded. From the brain connectome perspective, this study investigated dual task deficits of older adults that lead to task failure of a suprapostural motor task with increasing postural destabilization. Twelve younger (mean age: 25.3 years) and 12 older (mean age: 65.8 years) adults executed a designated force-matching task from a level-surface or a stabilometer board. Force-matching error, stance sway, and event-related potential (ERP) in the preparatory period were measured...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442422/effects-of-low-frequency-rtms-treatment-on-brain-networks-for-inner-speech-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-auditory-verbal-hallucinations
#15
Leonie Bais, Edith Liemburg, Ans Vercammen, Richard Bruggeman, Rikus Knegtering, André Aleman
INTRODUCTION: Efficacy of repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) targeting the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) for the treatment of auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) remains under debate. We assessed the influence of a 1Hz rTMS treatment on neural networks involved in a cognitive mechanism proposed to subserve AVH. METHODS: Patients with schizophrenia (N=24) experiencing medication-resistant AVH completed a 10-day 1Hz rTMS treatment. Participants were randomized to active stimulation of the left or bilateral TPJ, or sham stimulation...
April 22, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438968/neural-mechanisms-of-cognitive-dissonance-revised-an-eeg-study
#16
Marco Colosio, Anna Shestakova, Vadim V Nikulin, Evgeny Blagovechtchenski, Vasily Klucharev
Cognitive dissonance theory suggests that our preferences are modulated by the mere act of choosing. A choice between two similarly valued alternatives creates psychological tension (cognitive dissonance) that is reduced by a post-decisional reevaluation of the alternatives. We measured EEG of human subjects during rest and free-choice paradigm. Our study demonstrates that choices associated with stronger cognitive dissonance trigger a larger negative fronto-central evoked response similar to error-related negativity (ERN), which has in turn been implicated in general performance monitoring...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436342/comparison-of-neural-substrates-of-temporal-discounting-between-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-with-obsessive-compulsive-disorder
#17
C O Carlisi, L Norman, C M Murphy, A Christakou, K Chantiluke, V Giampietro, A Simmons, M Brammer, D G Murphy, D Mataix-Cols, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) share abnormalities in hot executive functions such as reward-based decision-making, as measured in the temporal discounting task (TD). No studies, however, have directly compared these disorders to investigate common/distinct neural profiles underlying such abnormalities. We wanted to test whether reward-based decision-making is a shared transdiagnostic feature of both disorders with similar neurofunctional substrates or whether it is a shared phenotype with disorder-differential neurofunctional underpinnings...
April 24, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434153/machine-learning-xgboost-analysis-of-language-networks-to-classify-patients-with-epilepsy
#18
L Torlay, M Perrone-Bertolotti, E Thomas, M Baciu
Our goal was to apply a statistical approach to allow the identification of atypical language patterns and to differentiate patients with epilepsy from healthy subjects, based on their cerebral activity, as assessed by functional MRI (fMRI). Patients with focal epilepsy show reorganization or plasticity of brain networks involved in cognitive functions, inducing 'atypical' (compared to 'typical' in healthy people) brain profiles. Moreover, some of these patients suffer from drug-resistant epilepsy, and they undergo surgery to stop seizures...
April 22, 2017: Brain Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428769/individualized-repetitive-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-treatment-in-chronic-tinnitus
#19
Peter M Kreuzer, Timm B Poeppl, Rainer Rupprecht, Veronika Vielsmeier, Astrid Lehner, Berthold Langguth, Martin Schecklmann
BACKGROUND: Prefrontal and temporo-parietal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus have shown significant but only moderate effectiveness with high interindividual variability in treatment response. This open-label pilot study was designed to examine the general feasibility of an individualized fronto-temporal rTMS protocol and to explore what criteria are needed for a more detailed evaluation in randomized clinical studies. METHODS: During the first session of a 2-week rTMS protocol, we applied different rTMS protocols to the left and right temporo-parietal and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in 25 tinnitus patients...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427413/adiponectin-levels-in-the-serum-and-cerebrospinal-fluid-of-amyotrophic-lateral-sclerosis-patients-possible-influence-on-neuroinflammation
#20
Patrizia Bossolasco, Raffaella Cancello, Alberto Doretti, Claudia Morelli, Vincenzo Silani, Lidia Cova
BACKGROUND: Adiponectin (APN) is a key player in energy homeostasis strictly associated with cerebrovascular and neurodegenerative diseases. Since APN also belongs to anti-inflammatory-acting adipokines and may influence both neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative processes, we decided to study the APN levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative diseases. METHODS: We assessed APN levels by ELISA immunoassay in both the serum and cerebrospinal fluid of a cohort of familial and sporadic ALS patients, characterized by normal body mass index and absence of dysautonomic symptoms...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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