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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743620/reviewing-the-functional-basis-of-the-syntactic-merge-mechanism-for-language-a-coordinate-based-activation-likelihood-estimation-meta-analysis
#1
REVIEW
Emiliano Zaccarella, Marianne Schell, Angela D Friederici
The ability to create structures out of single words is a key aspect of human language. This combinatorial capacity relies on a low-level syntactic mechanism-Merge-assembling words into hierarchies. Neuroscience has explored Merge by comparing syntax to word-lists. Here, we first review potential issues with the word-lists materials. We then perform an activation likelihood estimation (ALE) on the reported foci, to reveal functional convergence for Merge at whole-brain level. Finally, we run probabilistic tractography on an independent population to observe how these convergent activations anatomically connect...
July 22, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732352/cerebral-blood-flow-changes-in-remitted-early-and-late-onset-depression-patients
#2
Wenxiang Liao, Ze Wang, Xiangrong Zhang, Hao Shu, Zan Wang, Duan Liu, Zhijun Zhang
Abnormal cerebral blood flow (CBF) is reportedly associated with major depressive disorder (MDD). We have investigated CBF changes in early-onset depression (EOD) and late-onset depression (LOD), and their impact on cognitive function. Thirty-two remitted EOD patients, 32 remitted LOD patients, and 43 age-matched healthy controls were recruited, and the pulsed arterial spin labeling data were scanned under 3.0T MRI and processed through voxel-by-voxel statistical analysis. Compared to healthy controls, LOD patients had decreased normalized CBF in the bilateral precuneus, cuneus, right fronto-cingulate-striatal areas, and right temporal, occipital and parietal lobes, but increased normalized CBF in the left frontal and temporal cortices and the cingulate gyrus...
July 12, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728080/neural-correlates-underlying-the-comprehension-of-deceitful-and-ironic-communicative-intentions
#3
Francesca M Bosco, Alberto Parola, Maria C Valentini, Rosalba Morese
Neuroimaging studies have shown that a left fronto-temporo-parietal cerebral network is recruited in the comprehension of both deceitful and ironic speech acts. However, no studies to date have directly compared neural activation during the comprehension of these pragmatic phenomena. We used fMRI to investigate the existence of common and specific neural circuits underlying the comprehension of the same speech act, uttered with different communicative intentions, i.e., of being sincere, deceitful or ironic...
June 27, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721443/a-diffusion-spectrum-imaging-based-tractographic-study-into-the-anatomical-subdivision-and-cortical-connectivity-of-the-ventral-external-capsule-uncinate-and-inferior-fronto-occipital-fascicles
#4
Sandip S Panesar, Fang-Cheng Yeh, Christopher P Deibert, David Fernandes-Cabral, Vijayakrishna Rowthu, Pinar Celtikci, Emrah Celtikci, William D Hula, Sudhir Pathak, Juan C Fernández-Miranda
PURPOSE: The inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF) and uncinate fasciculus (UF) are major fronto-capsular white matter pathways. IFOF connects frontal areas of the brain to parieto-occipital areas. UF connects ventral frontal areas to anterior temporal areas. Both fascicles are thought to subserve higher language and emotion roles. Controversy pertaining to their connectivity and subdivision persists in the literature, however. METHODS: High-definition fiber tractography (HDFT) is a non-tensor tractographic method using diffusion spectrum imaging data...
July 18, 2017: Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714891/structural-and-functional-neuroimaging-of-visual-hallucinations-in-lewy-body-disease-a-systematic-literature-review
#5
REVIEW
Stefania Pezzoli, Annachiara Cagnin, Oliver Bandmann, Annalena Venneri
Patients with Lewy body disease (LBD) frequently experience visual hallucinations (VH), well-formed images perceived without the presence of real stimuli. The structural and functional brain mechanisms underlying VH in LBD are still unclear. The present review summarises the current literature on the neural correlates of VH in LBD, namely Parkinson's disease (PD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Following a systematic literature search, 56 neuroimaging studies of VH in PD and DLB were critically reviewed and evaluated for quality assessment...
July 15, 2017: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713746/unicoronal-craniosynostosis-and-plagiocephaly-correction-with-fronto-orbital-bone-remodeling-and-advancement
#6
S M Balaji
The standard surgical treatment for unilateral coronal synostosis is fronoto-orbital advancement. The technique is known for its high recurrence rate and established plagiocephaly remains a challenge. In this case report, the management of a 5-year-old with unicoronal plagiocephaly correction with fronto-orbital bone remodeling and advancement is presented. The previous surgery done at 6 months of age resulted in failure with establishment of hypertelorism and sudden progressive diminishing vision. Furthermore, temporal hallowing was evident in the imaging technique...
January 2017: Annals of Maxillofacial Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704562/cerebral-18f-fdg-pet-in-macrophagic-myofasciitis-an-individual-svm-based-approach
#7
Paul Blanc-Durand, Axel Van Der Gucht, Eric Guedj, Mukedaisi Abulizi, Mehdi Aoun-Sebaiti, Lionel Lerman, Antoine Verger, François-Jérôme Authier, Emmanuel Itti
INTRODUCTION: Macrophagic myofasciitis (MMF) is an emerging condition with highly specific myopathological alterations. A peculiar spatial pattern of a cerebral glucose hypometabolism involving occipito-temporal cortex and cerebellum have been reported in patients with MMF; however, the full pattern is not systematically present in routine interpretation of scans, and with varying degrees of severity depending on the cognitive profile of patients. Aim was to generate and evaluate a support vector machine (SVM) procedure to classify patients between healthy or MMF 18F-FDG brain profiles...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28704424/examining-distinct-working-memory-processes-in-children-and-adolescents-using-fmri-results-and-validation-of-a-modified-brown-peterson-paradigm
#8
Vanessa Siffredi, Pierre Barrouillet, Megan Spencer-Smith, Maarten Vaessen, Vicki Anderson, Patrik Vuilleumier
Verbal working memory (WM) comprises different processes (encoding, maintenance, retrieval) that are often compromised in brain diseases, but their neural correlates have not yet been examined in childhood and adolescence. To probe WM processes and associated neural correlates in developmental samples, and obtain comparable effects across different ages and populations, we designed an adapted Brown-Peterson task (verbal encoding and retrieval combined with verbal and visual concurrent tasks during maintenance) to implement during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28702354/white-matter-integrity-in-dyskinetic-cerebral-palsy-relationship-with-intelligence-quotient-and-executive-function
#9
Olga Laporta-Hoyos, Kerstin Pannek, Júlia Ballester-Plané, Lee B Reid, Élida Vázquez, Ignacio Delgado, Leire Zubiaurre-Elorza, Alfons Macaya, Pilar Póo, Mar Meléndez-Plumed, Carme Junqué, Roslyn Boyd, Roser Pueyo
BACKGROUND: Dyskinetic cerebral palsy (CP) is one of the most disabling motor types of CP and has been classically associated with injury to the basal ganglia and thalamus. Although cognitive dysfunction is common in CP, there is a paucity of published quantitative analyses investigating the relationship between white matter (WM) microstructure and cognition in this CP type. AIMS: This study aims (1) to compare brain WM microstructure between people with dyskinetic CP and healthy controls, (2) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to intelligence and (3) to identify brain regions where WM microstructure is related to executive function in people with dyskinetic CP and (4) to identify brain regions where the correlations are different between controls and people with CP in IQ and executive functions...
2017: NeuroImage: Clinical
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700143/consequences-of-brain-tumour-resection-on-emotion-recognition
#10
Giulia Mattavelli, Alberto Pisoni, Alessandra Casarotti, Alessandro Comi, Giada Sera, Marco Riva, Alberto Bizzi, Marco Rossi, Lorenzo Bello, Costanza Papagno
Emotion processing impairments are common in patients undergoing brain surgery for fronto-temporal tumour resection, with potential consequences on social interactions. However, evidence is controversial concerning side and site of lesions causing such deficits. This study investigates visual and auditory emotion recognition in brain tumour patients with the aim of clarifying which lesion sites are related to impairments in emotion processing from different modalities. Thirty-four patients were evaluated, before and after surgery, on facial expression and emotional prosody recognition; voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM) analyses were performed on patients' post-surgery MRI images...
July 12, 2017: Journal of Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28677108/design-fluency-and-neuroanatomical-correlates-in-54-neurosurgical-patients-with-lesions-to-the-right-hemisphere
#11
Dario Marin, Eleonora Madotto, Franco Fabbro, Miran Skrap, Barbara Tomasino
We addressed the neuroanatomical correlates of 54 right-brain-damaged neurosurgical patients on visuo-spatial design fluency, which is a measure of the ability to generate/plan a series of new abstract combinations in a flexible way. 22.2% of the patients were impaired. They failed the task because they did not use strategic behavior, in particular they used rotational strategy to a significantly lower extent and produced a significantly higher rate of perseverative errors. Overall performance did not correlate with neuropsychological tests, suggesting that proficient performance was independent of other cognitive domains...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuro-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28676035/white-matter-damage-in-maintenance-hemodialysis-patients-a-diffusion-tensor-imaging-study
#12
David A Drew, Bang-Bon Koo, Rafeeque Bhadelia, Daniel E Weiner, Sarah Duncan, Maria Mendoza-De la Garza, Aditi Gupta, Hocine Tighiouart, Tammy Scott, Mark J Sarnak
BACKGROUND: Patients treated with dialysis have high rates of brain infarcts, brain atrophy, and white matter disease. There are limited data regarding the presence of more subtle damage to brain white matter. METHODS: In the Cognition and Dialysis Study, we compared brain structure using diffusion tensor imaging in hemodialysis (HD) patients to individuals without known kidney disease, using tract based spatial statistics (TBSS) to compare Fractional Anisotropy (FA) and Mean Diffusivity (MD)...
July 5, 2017: BMC Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28675999/subduing-the-green-eyed-monster-bridging-the-psychopharmacological-and-psychosocial-treatment-perspective-in-understanding-pathological-jealousy
#13
Farah Deena Abdul Samad, Hatta Sidi, Jaya Kumar, Srijit Das, Marhani Midin, Nurul Hazwani Hatta
Human being is not spared from a broad-ranged emotional state, including being jealous. Jealousy has both affective-cognitive and behavioural-evaluative dimension where the person perceives, or experiences a real threat on a valued relationship. As this complex emotion becomes irrational and not amenable to reason, it later transforms into a dangerously 'green-eyed monster'. This perilous situation which is viewed as pathological jealousy is a form of delusion, which is maintained by a fixed and false reasoning in an originally entrusted intimate relationship...
July 4, 2017: Current Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669543/fronto-parietal-cortical-circuits-encode-accumulated-evidence-with-a-diversity-of-timescales
#14
Benjamin B Scott, Christine M Constantinople, Athena Akrami, Timothy D Hanks, Carlos D Brody, David W Tank
Decision-making in dynamic environments often involves accumulation of evidence, in which new information is used to update beliefs and select future actions. Using in vivo cellular resolution imaging in voluntarily head-restrained rats, we examined the responses of neurons in frontal and parietal cortices during a pulse-based accumulation of evidence task. Neurons exhibited activity that predicted the animal's upcoming choice, previous choice, and graded responses that reflected the strength of the accumulated evidence...
July 19, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28668221/human-neuroimaging-reveals-the-subcomponents-of-grasping-reaching-and-pointing-actions
#15
Cristiana Cavina-Pratesi, Jason D Connolly, Simona Monaco, Teresa D Figley, A David Milner, Thomas Schenk, Jody C Culham
Although the neural underpinnings of visually guided grasping and reaching have been well delineated within lateral and medial fronto-parietal networks (respectively), the contributions of subcomponents of visuomotor actions have not been explored in detail. Using careful subtraction logic, here we investigated which aspects of grasping, reaching, and pointing movements drive activation across key areas within visuomotor networks implicated in hand actions. For grasping tasks, we find activation differences based on the precision required (fine > coarse grip: anterior intraparietal sulcus, aIPS), the requirement to lift the object (grip + lift > grip: aIPS; dorsal premotor cortex, PMd; and supplementary motor area, SMA), and the number of digits employed (3-/5- vs...
June 6, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664294/rare-causes-of-early-onset-dystonia-parkinsonism-with-cognitive-impairment-a-de-novo-psen-1-mutation
#16
Miryam Carecchio, Marina Picillo, Lorella Valletta, Antonio E Elia, Tobias B Haack, Autilia Cozzolino, Annalisa Vitale, Barbara Garavaglia, Arcangela Iuso, Caterina F Bagella, Sabina Pappatà, Paolo Barone, Holger Prokisch, Luigi Romito, Valeria Tiranti
Mutations in PSEN1 are responsible for familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) inherited as autosomal dominant trait, but also de novo mutations have been rarely reported in sporadic early-onset dementia cases. Parkinsonism in FAD has been mainly described in advanced disease stages. We characterized a patient presenting with early-onset dystonia-parkinsonism later complicated by dementia and myoclonus. Brain MRI showed signs of iron accumulation in the basal ganglia mimicking neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA) as well as fronto-temporal atrophy...
July 2017: Neurogenetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660843/rapidly-progressive-fronto-temporal-dementia-ftd-associated-with-frontotemporal-lobar-degeneration-ftld-in-the-presence-of-fused-in-sarcoma-fus-protein-a-rare-sporadic-and-aggressive-form-of-ftd
#17
Nicholas I Bradfield, Catriona McLean, John Drago, David G Darby, David Ames
Fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) associated with Fused in Sarcoma (FUS) protein accumulation is an uncommon cause of FTD with a distinct syndrome of young age onset behavioral variant FTD, without a family history of FTD and caudate atrophy. We present a sporadic case of a 61-year-old patient with mixed features of both behavioral variant FTD with later semantic language dissolution associated with pathologically proven FUS. He was older than usual for FUS pathology, his course was rapidly progressive, and he had atypical language features...
June 29, 2017: International Psychogeriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660355/left-spatial-neglect-evoked-by-electrostimulation-of-the-right-inferior-fronto-occipital-fasciculus
#18
Guillaume Herbet, Yordanka N Yordanova, Hugues Duffau
Left spatial neglect is a debilitating condition that may occur after lesion of many cortical territories in the right hemisphere. At the subcortical level, the second and third branches of the right superior longitudinal fasciculus has emerged as strong candidates in conveying information exchanges within the attention networks as their damage has been repeatedly associated to spatial neglect in neuromodulation and neuropsychological studies. Yet, a few cases of spatial neglect have also been observed after damage to the right inferior fronto-occipital fasciculus (IFOF), suggesting an involvement of this associative connectivity in spatial attention...
June 28, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28659773/increased-alpha-band-functional-connectivity-following-the-quadrato-motor-training-a-longitudinal-study
#19
Stefano Lasaponara, Federica Mauro, Filippo Carducci, Patrizio Paoletti, Mario Tombini, Carlo C Quattrocchi, Carlo A Mallio, Yuri Errante, Laura Scarciolla, Tal D Ben-Soussan
Quadrato Motor Training (QMT) is a new training paradigm, which was found to increase cognitive flexibility, creativity and spatial cognition. In addition, QMT was reported to enhance inter- and intra-hemispheric alpha coherence as well as Fractional Anisotropy (FA) in a number of white matter pathways including corpus callosum. Taken together, these results seem to suggest that electrophysiological and structural changes induced by QMT may be due to an enhanced interplay and communication of the different brain areas within and between the right and the left hemisphere...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658249/similar-white-matter-changes-in-schizophrenia-and-bipolar-disorder-a-tract-based-spatial-statistics-study
#20
Letizia Squarcina, Marcella Bellani, Maria Gloria Rossetti, Cinzia Perlini, Giuseppe Delvecchio, Nicola Dusi, Marco Barillari, Mirella Ruggeri, Carlo A Altamura, Alessandra Bertoldo, Paolo Brambilla
Several strands of evidence reported a significant overlapping, in terms of clinical symptoms, epidemiology and treatment response, between the two major psychotic disorders-Schizophrenia (SCZ) and Bipolar Disorder (BD). Nevertheless, the shared neurobiological correlates of these two disorders are far from conclusive. This study aims toward a better understanding of possible common microstructural brain alterations in SCZ and BD. Magnetic Resonance Diffusion data of 33 patients with BD, 19 with SCZ and 35 healthy controls were acquired...
2017: PloS One
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