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Stem Cell banking

Maram Abdaljaleel, Elyse J Singer, William H Yong
Biobanks are storage places for biospecimens that can be used for current and future scientific research. Biospecimens are exceptional sources of biological data that can be potentially translated from molecular and genetic information to clinically relevant treatment modalities. Examples of such biospecimens include, but are not limited to, blood, skin, hair, saliva, stem cells, DNA, and RNA. The volume of biospecimens worldwide continues to grow at an extraordinary rate posing a challenge for biobanks to manage this growth...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Irina Neganova, Lewis Cotts, Peter Banks, Katja Gassner, Lyle Armstrong, Graham Ladds, Majlinda Lako
Direct reprogramming of human somatic cells toward induced pluripotent stem cells holds great promise for regenerative medicine and basic biology. We used a high-throughput siRNA screening assay in the initiation phase of reprogramming for 784 genes belonging to kinase and phosphatase families and identified 68 repressors and 22 effectors. Six new candidates belonging to the family of the G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) were identified suggesting an important role for this key signalling pathway during somatic cell induced reprogramming...
December 4, 2018: Stem Cells
Haiyan Yu, Xiaoling Yuan, Lifeng Liu, Tian Wang, Dianrong Gong
Multiple system atrophy is a sporadic progressive degenerative disease which is characterized by multiple central nervous systems involved. So far, there is no effective medicine to cure MSA. The main research direction of treatment includes immunization transplantation and cytotherapy. Human umbilical cord blood is the residue of blood in the placenta and umbilical cord after fetal delivery. It is the most abundant cell bank and its usage is not limited to treat hematological diseases. The researches about hUCB-MNC treatment on MSA are increasing gradually...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Immunology
Shoichi Iriguchi, Shin Kaneko
Recent outstanding clinical results demonstrated by engineered T cells, including chimeric antigen receptors, have already facilitated further researches that broaden their applicability. One such direction is to explore new T cell sources for allogeneic "off-the-shelf" adoptive immunotherapy. Human pluripotent stem cells may serve as an alternative cell source for this purpose due to its unique features of infinite propagation ability and pluripotency. Here, we describe the current state of engineered T cell transfer with the focus on cell manufacturing processes and the potentials and challenges of induced-pluripotent stem cell-derived T cells as a starting material to construct off-the-shelf T cell bank...
November 28, 2018: Cancer Science
Bitan Saha, H Krishna Kumar, Manash P Borgohain, Rajkumar P Thummer
Soldiers involved in combat operations worldwide may be subjected to a wide array of tissue-specific injuries of varying degrees, thereby undergoing complicated medical treatments and prolonged rehabilitations. In many cases involving inadequate recovery, soldiers are further mentally traumatized as they can no longer serve their beloved country. In addition, many severe injuries can lead to soldiers being incapacitated for life and unable to perform even the most basic day-to-day activities. Present therapy for combat injuries is majorly aimed at alleviating pain and limiting further tissue damage from secondary infections...
October 2018: Medical Journal, Armed Forces India
Heidi Hongisto, Meri Vattulainen, Tanja Ilmarinen, Alexandra Mikhailova, Heli Skottman
Corneal limbal epithelial stem cells (LESCs) are responsible for continuously renewing the corneal epithelium, and thus maintaining corneal homeostasis and visual clarity. Human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived LESCs provide a promising cell source for corneal cell replacement therapy. Undefined, xenogeneic culture and differentiation conditions cause variation in research results and impede the clinical translation of hPSC-derived therapeutics. This protocol provides a reproducible and efficient method for hPSC-LESC differentiation under xeno- and feeder cell-free conditions...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Mary Hagedorn, Zoltan Varga, Ronald B Walter, Terrence R Tiersch
The genetic resources of aquatic biomedical model organisms are the products of millions of years of evolution, decades of scientific development, and hundreds of millions of dollars of research funding investment. Genetic resources (e.g., specific alleles, transgenes, or combinations) of each model organism can be considered a form of scientific wealth that can be accumulated and exchanged, typically in the form of live animals or germplasm. Large-scale maintenance of live aquatic organisms that carry these genetic resources is inefficient, costly, and risky...
October 31, 2018: Cryobiology
Shogo Ohkoshi, Haruka Hirono, Taka Nakahara, Hiroshi Ishikawa
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) as a source for regenerative medicine are now the subject of much clinical attention. There are high expectations due to their safety, low tumorigenic risk, and low ethical concerns. MSC therapy has been approved for acute graft-versus host diseases since 2015. Tooth-derived MSCs are known to have a great potential in their proliferation and differentiation capacities, even when compared with bone-marrow-derived MSCs. In particular, stem cells from human exfoliated deciduous teeth (SHEDs) are the best candidates for personal cell banking (dental pulp cell bank), because they can be obtained less invasively in the natural process of individual growth...
October 27, 2018: World Journal of Hepatology
Michelle L Saetersmoen, Quirin Hammer, Bahram Valamehr, Dan S Kaufman, Karl-Johan Malmberg
Cell therapy is emerging as a very promising therapeutic modality against cancer, spearheaded by the clinical success of chimeric antigen receptor (CAR) modified T cells for B cell malignancies. Currently, FDA-approved CAR-T cell products are based on engineering of autologous T cells harvested from the patient, typically using a central manufacturing facility for gene editing before the product can be delivered to the clinic and infused to the patients. For a broader implementation of advanced cell therapy and to reduce costs, it would be advantageous to use allogeneic "universal" cell therapy products that can be stored in cell banks and provided upon request, in a manner analogous to biopharmaceutical drug products...
October 25, 2018: Seminars in Immunopathology
Sarah A Tracy, Azra Ahmed, John C Tigges, Maria Ericsson, Anoop K Pal, David Zurakowski, Dario O Fauza
BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Exosomes may constitute a more practical alternative to live cells in select stem cell-based therapies. We sought to compare exosomes from two mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sources relevant to perinatal and pediatric diseases. METHODS: Exosomes were isolated by reagent-enhanced centrifugation from cell culture media of banked human bone marrow (bm) and amniotic fluid (af) MSCs after serum starvation. Characterization was by flow exometry for tetraspanin markers CD9, CD63, and CD81, transmission electron microscopy for size and morphology, and tunable resistive pulse sensing for size distribution and concentration...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
Faezeh Shekari, Chia-Li Han, Jaesuk Lee, Mehdi Mirzaei, Vivek Gupta, Paul A Haynes, Bonghee Lee, Hossein Baharvand, Yu-Ju Chen, Ghasem Hosseini Salekdeh
Human embryonic stem cells (hESCs) have unique biological features and attributes that make them attractive in various areas of biomedical research. With heightened applications, there is an ever increasing need for advancement of proteome analysis. Membrane proteins are one of the most important subset of hESC proteins as they can be used as surface markers. Areas covered: This review discusses commonly used surface markers of hESCs, and provides in-depth analysis of available hESC membrane proteome reports and the existence of these markers in many other cell types, especially cancer cells...
November 2018: Expert Review of Proteomics
Cecylia Jendyk, Agnieszka Drosdzol-Cop, Agnieszka Nowak-Brzezińska, Marcin Sadłocha, Rafał Stojko, Żaneta Jastrzȩbska-Stojko
The aim of the study was to analyze the influence of oxygene partial pressure (p02), base excess (BE) and buffer base (BB) parameters of cord blood obtained perinatally on quantity of obtained cells and focus on the perfect donor criteria. The study included 50 pregnant women aged between 18 and 38 years in which spontaneous labors and elective cesarean sections were performed. Umbilical cord blood was collected immediately after the women were delivered of newborns. The cells were analyzed in the Polish Stem Cells Bank in Warsaw...
October 19, 2018: Cell and Tissue Banking
Bruna Codispoti, Massimo Marrelli, Francesco Paduano, Marco Tatullo
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are well known for their great potential in clinical applications. In fact, MSCs can differentiate into several cell lineages and show paracrine behavior by releasing endogenous factors that stimulate tissue repair and modulate local immune response. Each MSC type is affected by specific biobanking issues-technical issues as well as regulatory and ethical concerns-thus making it quite tricky to safely and commonly use MSC banking for swift regenerative applications. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) include a group of 150⁻1000 nm vesicles that are released by budding from the plasma membrane into biological fluids and/or in the culture medium from varied and heterogenic cell types...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Shokoofeh Hajihashemi, Fariba Noedoost, Jan M C Geuns, Ivica Djalovic, Kadambot H M Siddique
Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a sweet medicinal herb that is cultivated worldwide. This study aimed to identify the genotypic responses and function of nine cultivars of S. rebaudiana (accession numbers 1-9 from the EUSTAS Stevia Gene Bank) to low temperature. Plants were grown in vitro and incubated under controlled conditions at 5° or 25°C for 1 month. Cold stress significantly decreased the maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv /Fm ) in all cultivars, which was more pronounced in cultivars 5, 6, 8, and 9...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Xiaozhang Zhang, Gang Zhao, Yuan Cao, Zeeshan Haider, Meng Wang, Jianping Fu
Constructs of magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels microencapsulated with stem cells are of great interest as smart materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Due to the short shelf life of such biocomposites at an ambient temperature, their long-term storage and banking at cryogenic temperatures are essential for the "off-the-shelf" availability of such biocomposites for widespread clinical applications. However, high-quality cryogenic recovery of stem cell-nanocomposite hydrogel constructs has not yet been achieved due to the damage to cells and/or microstructures of hydrogel constructs caused by ice formation, particularly during warming from cryogenic temperatures...
November 20, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Satoshi Takahashi
Recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation suffering from severe immunosuppression and immune dysregulation because of GVHD or other causes are at higher risk of viral infection. Often, cytomegalovirus and EB virus are reactivated from their latent state in these patients ; viral infections thus remain a primary cause of severe morbidity and mortality. Since the 1990s, virus-specific T cells have been generated by different methods using immunogenic epitope peptides or EBV-LCL from transplant donors, and studies have demonstrated the efficacy of these methods...
2018: [Rinshō Ketsueki] the Japanese Journal of Clinical Hematology
Lisa Peberdy, Jeanine Young, Debbie Louise Massey, Lauren Kearney
BACKGROUND: For over 25 years cord blood has been used as an alternative to bone marrow for therapeutic use in conditions of the blood, immune system and metabolic disorders. Parents can decide if they would like to privately store their infant's cord blood for later use if needed or to publicly donate it. Parents need to be aware of the options that exist for their infant's cord blood and have access to the relevant information to inform their choice. The aim of this paper is to identify parent's knowledge and awareness of cord blood donation, private banking options and stem cell use, and parent sources and preferred sources of this information...
October 10, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Chenxu Li, Shubin Chen, Yulai Zhou, Yifan Zhao, Pengfei Liu, Jinglei Cai
The development of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS cells) has raised the prospect of patient-specific treatments for various diseases. Theoretically, iPS cell technology avoids the limitations of human embryonic stem cells (ES cells), including poor establishment, ethical issues, and immune rejection of allogeneic transplantation. However, the immunogenicity of iPS cells has attracted the attention of researchers, and it remains unclear whether iPS cells and their derivatives will be recognized as a patient's own cells...
November 1, 2018: Life Sciences
Timothy R Olsen, Jon A Rowley
RoosterBio, Inc. (MD, USA) is a privately held stem cell tools and technology company focused on accelerating the development of a sustainable regenerative medicine industry, one customer at a time. RoosterBio's products are high-volume and well-characterized adult human mesenchymal stem/stromal cells (hMSCs) paired with highly engineered media systems. RoosterBio has aimed to simplify and standardize how stem cells are purchased, expanded and used in the development of regenerative medicine products. To this end, RoosterBio supplies off-the-shelf cGMP hMSC working cell banks with bioprocess media that mimic the format and formulation of the research grade counterparts, radically simplifying and shortening product development and clinical translation...
October 2018: Regenerative Medicine
M Meissner-Roloff, L Gaggia, M Vermeulen, A F H Mazanderani, N M du Plessis, H C Steel, M S Pepper
The probability of a Black African finding a matched unrelated donor for a hematopoietic stem cell transplant is minimal due to the high degree of genetic diversity amongst individuals of African origin. This problem could be resolved in part by the establishment of a public cord blood (CB) stem cell bank. The high prevalence of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) amongst women attending antenatal clinics in sub-Saharan Africa together with the risk of mother-to-child transmission increases the risk of transplant transmissible infection...
2018: Global health, epidemiology and genomics
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