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exosome, tumor

Stephen R Thom, Veena M Bhopale, Kevin Yu, Ming Yang
Inflammatory mediators are known to be elevated in association with decompression from elevated ambient pressure, but their role in tissue damage or overt decompression sickness is unclear. Circulating microparticles (MPs) are also know to increase and because interleukin (IL)-1β is packaged within these particles, we hypothesized that IL-1β was responsible for tissue injuries. Here, we demonstrate that elevations of circulating MPs containing up to 9-fold higher concentrations of IL-1β occur while mice are exposed to high air pressure (790 kPa), whereas smaller particles carrying proteins specific to exosomes are not elevated...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Virgínea de Araujo Farias, Francisco O'Valle, Santiago Serrano-Saenz, Per Anderson, Eduardo Andrés, Jesús López-Peñalver, Isabel Tovar, Ana Nieto, Ana Santos, Francisco Martín, José Expósito, F Javier Oliver, José Mariano Ruiz de Almodóvar
BACKGROUND: We have recently shown that radiotherapy may not only be a successful local and regional treatment but, when combined with MSCs, may also be a novel systemic cancer therapy. This study aimed to investigate the role of exosomes derived from irradiated MSCs in the delay of tumor growth and metastasis after treatment with MSC + radiotherapy (RT). METHODS: We have measured tumor growth and metastasis formation, of subcutaneous human melanoma A375 xenografts on NOD/SCID-gamma mice, and the response of tumors to treatment with radiotherapy (2 Gy), mesenchymal cells (MSC), mesenchymal cells plus radiotherapy, and without any treatment...
August 15, 2018: Molecular Cancer
Susan Bae, Jeffrey Brumbaugh, Benjamin Bonavida
The tumor microenvironment (TME) is a unique platform of cancer biology that considers the local cellular environment in which a tumor exists. Increasing evidence points to the TME as crucial for either promoting immune tumor rejection or protecting the tumor. The TME includes surrounding blood vessels, the extracellular matrix (ECM), a variety of immune and regulatory cells, and signaling factors. Exosomes have emerged to be molecular contributors in cancer biology, and to modulate and affect the constituents of the TME...
March 2018: Genes & Cancer
Chi Pan, Ines Stevic, Volkmar Müller, Qingtao Ni, Leticia Oliviera Ferrer, Klaus Pantel, Heidi Schwarzenbach
Specific microRNAs (miRNAs) are packaged in exosomes that regulate processes in tumor development and progression. The current study focusses on the influence of exosomal miRNAs in the pathogenesis of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). MiRNA profiles were determined in exosomes from plasma of 106 EOC patients, 8 ovarian cystadenoma patients and 29 healthy women by TaqMan real-time PCR-based miRNA array cards containing 48 different miRNAs. In cell culture experiments the impact of miR-200b and miR-320 was determined on proliferation and apoptosis of ovarian cancer cell lines...
August 14, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Zhenzhen Chen, Liangshun You, Lei Wang, Xianbo Huang, Hui Liu, Ju Ying Wei, Li Zhu, Wenbin Qian
BACKGROUND: Exosomes derived from tumor cells (TEXs) are involved in both immune suppression, angiogenesis, metastasis and anticancer stimulatory, but the biological characteristics and role of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL)-derived exosomes have been less investigated. METHODS: Exosomes (EXOs) were isolated from OCI-LY3, SU-DHL-16, and Raji cells and biological characteristics of EXOs were investigated using electron microscopy, flow cytometry analysis, and Western blot analysis...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Deepika Kumar, Mina L Xu
Lymphoma microenvironment is a complex system composed of stromal cells, blood vessels, immune cells as well as extracellular matrix, cytokines, exosomes, and chemokines. In this review, we describe the function, localization, and interactions between various cellular components. We also summarize their contribution to lymphoma immunity in the era of immunotherapy. Publications were identified from searching Pubmed. Primary literature was carefully evaluated for replicability before incorporating into the review...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Chuchu Shao, Fengming Yang, Suyu Miao, Weitao Liu, Chaoshan Wang, Yongqian Shu, Hua Shen
PURPOSE: Hypoxia is a major regulator of angiogenesis and always influences the release of exosomes in various types of tumors. The present review aimed to assess the role of hypoxia-induced exosomes in the tumor biology. METHODS: The relevant publications were retrieved from PubMed using keywords such as hypoxia, exosome, extracellular vesicles, tumor, cancer, and other similar terms. RESULTS: Recent studies have shown that cancer cells produce more exosomes under hypoxic conditions than do parental cells under normoxic conditions...
August 11, 2018: Molecular Cancer
Xin Chen, Jieru Zhou, Xiaoduan Li, Xinjing Wang, Yingying Lin, Xipeng Wang
Recently, cancer has been considered to be a complex system that includes the tumor microenvironment (TME). Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) are the most common immune-related stromal cells in the TME, and communication between cancer cells and TAMs is crucial for the progression of epithelial ovarian cancer (EOC). In this study, we revealed that exosomes derived from EOC cells remodel macrophages to a tumor-promoted phenotype, namely TAMs. In addition, hypoxic microenvironments have been postulated to facilitate this process in the TME, and hypoxia-inducible factors (HIFs) play an important role in this process...
August 8, 2018: Cancer Letters
U Altanerova, J Jakubechova, K Benejova, P Priscakova, M Pesta, P Pitule, O Topolcan, J Kausitz, M Zduriencikova, V Repiska, C Altaner
The natural behavior of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) and their exosomes in targeting tumors is a promising approach for curative therapy. Human tumor tropic mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) isolated from various tissues and MSCs engineered to express the yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyl transferase suicide fusion gene (yCD::UPRT-MSCs) released exosomes in conditional medium (CM). Exosomes from all tissue specific yCD::UPRT-MSCs contained mRNA of the suicide gene in the exosome's cargo. When the CM was applied to tumor cells, the exosomes were internalized by recipient tumor cells and in the presence of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) effectively triggered dose-dependent tumor cell death by endocytosed exosomes via an intracellular conversion of the prodrug 5-FC to 5-fluorouracil...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Yosuke Takamura, Wataru Aoki, Atsushi Satomura, Seiji Shibasaki, Mitsuyoshi Ueda
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease that causes the chronic inflammation of the joints. Intercellular communication containing synovial fibroblasts seems to play a major role in RA pathogenesis. In this study, to better understand intercellular communication related to RA pathogenesis, we identified exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) derived from synovial fibroblasts. Exosomes were collected from an RA synovial fibroblast (RASF) cell line, namely, MH7A, with or without stimulation by tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)...
2018: PloS One
Julian Gomez-Cambronero
Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is an aggressive subtype of breast cancer that is difficult to treat since cells lack the three receptors (ES, PR, or HER) that the most effective treatments target. We have used a well-established TNBC cell line (MDA-MB-231) from which we found evidence in support for a phospholipase D (PLD)-mediated tumor growth and metastasis: high levels of expression of PLD, as well as the absence of inhibitory miRs (such as miR-203) and 3'-mRNA PARN deadenylase activity in these cells...
August 8, 2018: Cancer Metastasis Reviews
Ting Huyan, Yongyong DU, Qiuping Huang, Qingsheng Huang, Qi Li
Background: Cancer is the leading cause of death in human disease and is a major public health problem around the world. Exosomes are a promising cancer biomarker and therapy target. Recent evidence demonstrate that tumor cells could inhibit natural killer (NK) cells' immune surveillance function by releasing exosomes into tumor microenvironment. The intercelluar uptake of tumor cell-derived exosomes by NK cells is vital for using these exosomes in tumor diagnose and therapy. We aimed to investigate the efficiency of NK cell uptake of tumor exosomes...
June 2018: Iranian Journal of Public Health
Shan Li, Pengtao Gong, Lixin Tai, Xin Li, Xiaocen Wang, Chunyan Zhao, Xu Zhang, Zhengtao Yang, Ju Yang, Jianhua Li, Xichen Zhang
Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular parasite, which causes significant economic losses in the cattle industry. However, the immune mechanism of the parasite-host interaction is not yet fully understood. Extracellular vesicles (EVs) have emerged as a ubiquitous mechanism by which almost all cells, especially immune and tumor cells, participate in intercellular communications. Although studies have indicated that EVs secreted by Toxoplasma gondii or Trypanosoma brucei promote exchanges of biological molecules important for the host-parasite interplay, however, EVs and their biological activities in N...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Alessia Finotti, Matteo Allegretti, Jessica Gasparello, Patrizio Giacomini, Demetrios A Spandidos, Giuseppe Spoto, Roberto Gambari
In oncology, liquid biopsy is used in the detection of next-generation analytes, such as tumor cells, cell-free nucleic acids and exosomes in peripheral blood and other body fluids from cancer patients. It is considered one of the most advanced non-invasive diagnostic systems to enable clinically relevant actions and implement precision medicine. Medical actions include, but are not limited to, early diagnosis, staging, prognosis, anticipation (lead time) and the prediction of therapy responses, as well as follow-up...
October 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Jing Ren, Liang Ding, Dongya Zhang, Guoping Shi, Qianyun Xu, Sunan Shen, Yaping Wang, Tingting Wang, Yayi Hou
Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in the pathology of various tumors, including colorectal cancer (CRC). The crosstalk between carcinoma- associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and cancer cells in the tumor microenvironment promotes tumor development and confers chemoresistance. In this study, we further investigated the underlying tumor-promoting roles of CAFs and the molecular mediators involved in these processes. Methods: The AOM/DSS-induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) mouse model was established, and RNA sequencing was performed...
2018: Theranostics
Zhihong Li, Rui Fang, Jia Fang, Shasha He, Tang Liu
BACKGROUND: The Rab27 family of small GTPases promotes the progression of breast cancer, melanoma, and other human cancers. In this review, we discuss the role of Rab27 GTPases in cancer progression and the potential applications of these targets in cancer treatment. MAIN BODY: Elevated expression of Rab27 GTPases is associated with poor prognosis and cancer metastasis. Moreover, these GTPases govern a variety of oncogenic functions, including cell proliferation, cell motility, and chemosensitivity...
August 6, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
Ju Hun Yeon, Hyo Eun Jeong, Hyemin Seo, Siwoo Cho, Kimin Kim, Dokyun Na, Seok Chung, Jaesung Park, Nakwon Choi, Ji Yoon Kang
Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) play a pivotal role in tumor growth, but very little has been known about its characteristics and origin. Recently, cancer-derived exosome has been suggested to transdifferentiate CAFs, by a new mechanism of endothelial to mesenchymal transition (EndMT), initiating angiogenic processes and triggering metastatic evolution. However, an enabling tool in vitro is yet to be developed to investigate complicated procedures of the EndMT and the transdifferentiation under reconstituted tumor microenvironment...
August 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Jinying Liang, Xinxin Zhang, Shufang He, Yunqiu Miao, Na Wu, Juan Li, Yong Gan
Exosomes secreted from cancer cells promote tumor progression through the transfection of containing microRNA (miRNA), mRNAs and proteins. Yet, little of this knowledge has translated into the therapeutic application. Herein, we propose a tumor therapeutic strategy via decreasing exosomal miRNA secretion. The study designed small interfering RNA (siRNA) loaded nanoparticles to downregulate sphingosine kinase 2 (Sphk2) and investigate their potential in decreasing exosomal oncogenic miRNA content and inhibiting tumor growth...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Fazileh Hosseini Shamili, Houshang Rafatpanah Bayegi, Zahra Salmasi, Kayvan Sadri, Mahmoud Mahmoudi, Mahmoudreza Kalantari, Mohammad Ramezani, Khalil Abnous
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 31, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Jie Li, Zhonghu Li, Peng Jiang, Minjie Peng, Xi Zhang, Kai Chen, Hui Liu, Huaqiang Bi, Xiangde Liu, Xiaowu Li
BACKGROUND: Recent studies show that exosomes are involved in intercellular communication and that abundant circular RNAs (circRNAs) are present within exosomes. However, whether these exosomal circRNAs contribute to tumor invasion and metastasis remains unclear, as do their associated mechanisms. METHODS: Quantitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was used to measure the expression levels of circ-IARS in 85 pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissues, plasma exosomes, and Hs 766 T, Hs 766 T-L2 and human microvascular vein endothelial (HUVECs) cells...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
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