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exosome, tumor

Joseph Carmicheal, Chihiro Hayashi, Xi Huang, Lei Liu, Yao Lu, Alexey Krasnoslobodtsev, Alexander Lushnikov, Prakash G Kshirsagar, Asish Patel, Maneesh Jain, Yuri L Lyubchenko, Yongfeng Lu, Surinder K Batra, Sukhwinder Kaur
Pancreatic cancer is a highly lethal malignancy. Lack of early diagnostic markers makes timely detection of pancreatic cancer a highly challenging endeavor. Exosomes have emerged as information-rich cancer specific biomarkers. However, characterization of tumor-specific exosomes has been challenging. This study investigated the proof-of principal that exosomes could be used for the detection of pancreatic cancer. Label-free analysis of exosomes purified from normal and pancreatic cancer cell lines was performed using surface enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) and principal component differential function analysis (PC-DFA), to identify tumor-specific spectral signatures...
December 11, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Oliver D Mrowczynski, Achuthamangalam B Madhankumar, Jeffrey M Sundstrom, Yuanjun Zhao, Yuka Imamura Kawasawa, Becky Slagle-Webb, Christine Mau, Russell A Payne, Elias B Rizk, Brad E Zacharia, James R Connor
Radiation is utilized in the therapy of more than 50% of cancer patients. Unfortunately, many malignancies become resistant to radiation over time. We investigated the hypothesis that one method of a cancer cell's ability to survive radiation occurs through cellular communication via exosomes. Exosomes are cell-derived vesicles containing DNA, RNA, and protein. Three properties were analyzed: 1) exosome function, 2) exosome profile and 3) exosome uptake/blockade. To analyze exosome function, we show radiation-derived exosomes increased proliferation and enabled recipient cancer cells to survive radiation in vitro ...
November 16, 2018: Oncotarget
Ling Li, Bangrong Cao, Xinhua Liang, Shun Lu, Huaichao Luo, Zhaohui Wang, Shaoxin Wang, Jian Jiang, Jinyi Lang, Guiquan Zhu
γδ T cells are a unique lymphocyte population that have been reported to have either anti- or pro-tumoral functions in several cancer types, but the mechanisms are underinvestigated. Exosomes, initially considered to be cellular "garbage dumpsters," are now implicated in mediating interactions with the cellular environment. Hypoxia is a common feature of solid tumors and is believed to alter tumor-derived exosomes (TEXs), which mediate the hypoxic evolution of the tumor microenvironment in return...
December 13, 2018: Oncogene
Haiyang Zhang, Ting Deng, Shaohua Ge, Ying Liu, Ming Bai, Kegan Zhu, Qian Fan, Jialu Li, Tao Ning, Fei Tian, Hongli Li, Wu Sun, Guoguang Ying, Yi Ba
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), the major form of liver cancer, has shown increasing incidence and poor prognosis. Adipose tissue is known to function in energy storage and metabolism regulation by the secretion of adipokines. Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel type of noncoding RNA, have recently been recognized as key factors in tumor development, but the role of exosome circRNAs derived from adipose tissues has not been defined yet. Here, adipose-secreted circRNAs were found to regulate deubiquitination in HCC, thus facilitating cell growth...
December 13, 2018: Oncogene
Carolyn M Klinge
Non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) are regulators of intracellular and intercellular signaling in breast cancer. ncRNAs modulate intracellular signaling to control diverse cellular processes, including levels and activity of estrogen receptor α (ERα), proliferation, invasion, migration, apoptosis, and stemness. In addition, ncRNAs can be packaged into exosomes to provide intercellular communication by the transmission of microRNAs (miRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) to cells locally or systemically. This review provides an overview of the biogenesis and roles of ncRNAs: small nucleolar RNA (snRNA), circular RNAs (circRNAs), PIWI-interacting RNAs (piRNAs), miRNAs, and lncRNAs in breast cancer...
December 12, 2018: Non-Coding RNA
Enrico Pierluigi Spugnini, Mariantonia Logozzi, Rossella Di Raimo, Davide Mizzoni, Stefano Fais
Metastatic diffusion is thought to be a multi-step phenomenon involving the release of cells from the primary tumor and their diffusion through the body. Currently, several hypotheses have been put forward in order to explain the origin of cancer metastasis, including epithelial⁻mesenchymal transition, mutagenesis of stem cells, and a facilitating role of macrophages, involving, for example, transformation or fusion hybridization with neoplastic cells. In this paradigm, tumor-secreted extracellular vesicles (EVs), such as exosomes, play a pivotal role in cell communications, delivering a plethora of biomolecules including proteins, lipids, and nucleic acids...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Yi Lei, Wang Guo, Bowang Chen, Lu Chen, Jiaxin Gong, Weimin Li
Currently, resistance to tyrosine kinase inhibitors, such as gefitinib, has become one major obstacle for improving the clinical outcome of patients with metastatic and advanced‑stage non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). While cell behavior can be modulated by long non‑coding RNAs (lncRNAs), the contributions of lncRNAs within extracellular vesicles (exosomes) are largely unknown. To this end, the involvement and regulatory functions of lncRNA H19 wrapped by exosomes during formation of gefitinib resistance in human NSCLC were investigated...
October 3, 2018: Oncology Reports
Ling-Xiang Yu, Bo-Lun Zhang, Yuan Yang, Meng-Chao Wang, Guang-Lin Lei, Yuan Gao, Hu Liu, Chao-Hui Xiao, Jia-Jia Xu, Hao Qin, Xiao-Ya Xu, Zi-Shuo Chen, Da-Dong Zhang, Fu-Gen Li, Shao-Geng Zhang, Rong Liu
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide, and current treatments exhibit limited efficacy against advanced HCC. The majority of cancer-related deaths are caused by metastasis from the primary tumor, which indicates the importance of identifying clinical biomarkers for predicting metastasis and indicating prognosis. Patient-derived cells (PDCs) may be effective models for biomarker identification. In the present study, a wound healing assay was used to obtain 10 fast-migrated and 10 slow-migrated PDC cultures from 36 HCC samples...
October 29, 2018: Oncology Reports
Paolo Neviani, Petra M Wise, Mariam Murtadha, Cathy W Liu, Chun-Hua Wu, Ambrose Y Jong, Robert C Seeger, Muller Fabbri
In neuroblastoma, the interplay between immune cells of the tumor microenvironment and cancer cells contributes to immune escape mechanisms and drug resistance. In this study, we show that NK cell-derived exosomes carrying the tumor suppressor microRNA (miR)-186 exhibit cytotoxicity against MYCN-amplified neuroblastoma cell lines. The cytotoxic potential of these exosomes was partly dependent upon expression of miR-186. MiR-186 was downregulated in high-risk neuroblastoma patients, and its low expression represented a poor prognostic factor that directly correlated with NK activation markers (i...
December 12, 2018: Cancer Research
Kun Zhao, Zhe Wang, Thilo Hackert, Claudia Pitzer, Margot Zöller
BACKGROUND: The tetraspanins Tspan8 and CD151 promote metastasis, exosomes (Exo) being suggested to be important in the crosstalk between tumor and host. The contribution of Tspan8 and CD151 to host versus tumor-derived exosome (TEX) activities being not defined, we approached the questions using 3-methylcholanthrene-induced (MCA) tumors from wt, Tspan8ko, CD151ko and Tspan8/CD151 (db)ko mice, implanted into tetraspanin-competent and deficient hosts. METHODS: Tumor growth and dissemination, hematopoiesis and angiogenesis were surveyed in wild type (wt), Tspan8ko, CD151ko and dbko mice bearing tetraspanin-competent and -deficient MCA tumors...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Hui Ding, Yanjuan Cai, Lizeng Gao, Minmin Liang, Beiping Miao, Hanwei Wu, Yang Liu, Ni Xie, Aifa Tang, Kelong Fan, Xiyun Yan, Guohui Nie
Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) is an attractive imaging modality, which is promising for clinical cancer diagnosis due to its advantages on deep tissue penetration and fine spatial resolution. However, few tumor catalytic/responsive PAI strategies are developed. Here, we design an exosome-like nanozyme vesicle for in vivo H2O2-responsive PAI of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). The intrinsic peroxidase-like activity of graphene quantum dot nanozyme (GQDzyme) effectively converts the 2,2'-azino-bis (3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS) into its oxidized form in the presence of H2O2...
December 12, 2018: Nano Letters
Cestmir Altaner, Ursula Altanerova
Exosomes derived from human mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) engineered to express the suicide gene yeast cytosine deaminase::uracil phosphoribosyl transferase (yCD::UPRT) represent a new therapeutic approach for tumor-targeted innovative therapy. The yCD::UPRT-MSC-exosomes carry mRNA of the suicide gene in their cargo. Upon internalization by tumor cells, the exosomes inhibit the growth of broad types of cancer cells in vitro, in the presence of a prodrug. Here we describe the method leading to the production and testing of these therapeutic exosomes...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Qianqian Wang, Zhuqian Li, Li Sun, Bin Chen, Yuanyuan Zhao, Bo Shen, Miaolin Zhu, Xiangdong Zhao, Changgen Xu, Mei Wang, Wenrong Xu, Wei Zhu
Background: Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have been identified to be closely associated with cancer progression. Our previous experimental results showed that BM-MSCs promote tumor growth and metastasis of gastric cancer through paracrine-soluble cytokines or exosomes. However, the elements that affect the role of BM-MSCs in promoting tumor metastasis are not clear. It is known that thrombocytosis in cancer patients is very common. Recently, platelets are recognized to play a critical role in tumor progression...
2018: OncoTargets and Therapy
Zahra Naseri, Reza Kazemi Oskuee, Mahmoud Reza Jaafari, Mehdi Forouzandeh Moghadam
Background: Exosomes, widely recognized natural nanovesicles, represent one of the recently discovered modes of intercellular communication due to their ability to transmit crucial cellular information that can be engineered to have robust delivery and targeting capacity. MiR-142-3p, one of the upregulated microRNAs (miRNAs) in many types of breast cancer, activates the canonical Wnt signaling pathway and transactivates the miR-150 expression, and results in the hyperproliferation of cancer cells in vitro and mammary glands in vivo...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Wen-Ming Wang, Chao Wu, Hong-Zhong Jin
Exosomes are a type of endosome that can mediate communication between cells and the transport of cellular components such as microRNAs, mRNAs, proteins and DNA. Recently, exosomes have been under investigation for their significant roles in both healthy physiology and disease states. Herein, we review the role of exosomes in chronic inflammatory skin diseases and skin tumors, especially focusing on systemic lupus erythematosus, psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, bullous pemphigoid and melanoma. Moreover, we emphasize the involvement of changes in exosome cargo in the regulation of these diseases...
December 11, 2018: Experimental Dermatology
Masahiro Yasunaga, Shinji Saijou, Shingo Hanaoka, Takahiro Anzai, Ryo Tsumura, Yasuhiro Matsumura
The present state of therapy for colorectal cancer (CRC) is far from satisfactory, highlighting the need for new targets for this disease. We identified a new colorectal cancer (CRC)-specific molecule, TMEM180, a predicted eleven-pass transmembrane protein that apparently functions as a cation symporter. We developed the anti-TMEM180 monoclonal antibody (mAb) and then succeeded in humanizing the mAb. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) in CRC with the mAb showed a similar positivity rate as compared with anti-EGFR mAb and the IHC with anti-TMEM180 mAb did not show staining in major organs used in this study...
December 8, 2018: Cancer Science
Yufeng Wang, Bingyi Wang, Shuai Xiao, Yang Li, Quanning Chen
Cancer stem cells promote tumorigenesis and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Recently, emerging evidence indicates tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) play an important role in tumor progression. However, TAMs often occurs with unknown mechanisms. As an important mediator in intercellular communications, exosomes secreted by host cells mediate the exchange of genetic materials and proteins, which involves tumor aggressiveness. The aim of the study was to investigate whether exosomes derived from TAMs mediate stem cell properties in HCC...
December 9, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Javid Sadri Nahand, Farah Bokharaei-Salim, Arash Salmaninejad, Abolfazl Nesaei, Fatemeh Mohajeri, Azadeh Moshtzan, Alireza Tabibzadeh, Mohammad Karimzadeh, Mohsen Moghoofei, Arezo Marjani, Shoeleh Yaghoubi, Hossein Keyvani
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is known as one of the major health problems worldwide. Pathological analysis indicated that a variety of risk factors including genetical (i.e., alteration of tumor suppressors and oncogenes) and environmental factors (i.e., viruses) are involved in beginning and development of HCC. The understanding of these risk factors could guide scientists and clinicians to design effective therapeutic options in HCC treatment. Various viruses such as hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) via targeting several cellular and molecular pathways involved in HCC pathogenesis...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Xiaofan Guo, Wei Qiu, Jian Wang, Qinglin Liu, Mingyu Qian, Shaobo Wang, Zongpu Zhang, Xiao Gao, Zihang Chen, Qindong Guo, Jianye Xu, Hao Xue, Gang Li
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) play a pivotal role in mediating the formation of an immunosuppressive environment and assisting tumors in evading the host immune response. However, the mechanism through which tumors manipulate the differentiation and function of MDSCs remains unclear. Here, we report that hypoxia-induced glioma cells can stimulate the differentiation of functional MDSCs by transferring exosomal miR-29a and miR-92a to MDSCs. Our results showed that glioma-derived exosomes (GEXs) can enhance the differentiation of functional MDSCs both in vitro and in vivo, and hypoxia-induced GEXs (H-GEXs) demonstrated a stronger MDSCs induction ability than did normoxia-induced GEXs (N-GEXs)...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Hongmei Cao, Xin Zhou, Yong Zeng
There is an urgent need of sensitive bioanalytical platforms for sensitive and precise quantification of low-abundance microRNA targets in complex biological samples, including liquid biopsies of tumors. Many of current miRNA biosensing methods require laborious sample pretreatment procedures, including extraction of total RNA, which largely limits their biomedical and clinical applications. Herein we developed an integrated Microfluidic Exponential Rolling Circle Amplification (MERCA) platform for sensitive and specific detection of microRNAs directly in minimally processed samples...
January 15, 2019: Sensors and Actuators. B, Chemical
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