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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340833/adipose-tissue-browning-in-cancer-associated-cachexia-can-be-attenuated-by-inhibition-of-exosome-generation
#1
Wenjun Hu, Zeyuan Ru, Wen Xiao, Zhiyong Xiong, Cheng Wang, Changfei Yuan, Xiaoping Zhang, Hongmei Yang
Cancer-associated cachexia (CAC) is a disorder characterized by unintended weight loss due to skeletal muscle wasting and adipose tissue loss. Although muscle atrophy in this condition has been well studied, the mechanisms underlying adipose tissue loss, which include browning, have not been investigated in detail. In this respect, though recent studies have shown that exosomes from cancer cells can promote lipolysis, the link between exosomes from cancer cells and CAC has not been clearly established. In this study, we investigate if exosomes from Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) cells can induce lipolysis in vitro (in 3T3-L1 adipocytes) and in vivo (in LLC tumor-bearing mice)...
October 16, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339548/paget-s-seed-and-soil-theory-of-cancer-metastasis-an-idea-whose-time-has-come
#2
Mohammed Akhtar, Abdulrazzaq Haider, Sameera Rashid, Ajayeb Dakhilalla M H Al-Nabet
The concept that the pattern of metastatic spread of cancer is not random and that cancer cells exhibit preferences when metastasizing to organs, dates back to 1889 when Steven Paget published his "seed and soil" hypothesis. He proposed that the spread of tumor cells is governed by interaction and cooperation between the cancer cells (seed) and the host organ (soil). Extensive studies during the last several decades have provided a better understanding of the process of metastatic spread of cancer and several stages such as intravasation, extravasation, tumor latency, and development of micrometastasis and macrometastasis have been defined...
October 18, 2018: Advances in Anatomic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30338850/circulating-exosomal-non-coding-rnas-as-prognostic-biomarkers-in-human-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#3
Yu Rim Lee, Gyeonghwa Kim, Won Young Tak, Se Young Jang, Young Oh Kweon, Jung Gil Park, Hye Won Lee, Young Seok Han, Jae Min Chun, Soo Young Park, Keun Hur
Exosomal non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) have unique expression profiles reflecting the characteristics of a tumor, and their role in tumor progression and metastasis is emerging. However, the significance of circulating exosomal ncRNAs in the prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) remains to be elucidated. We therefore determined the prognostic significance of circulating exosomal ncRNAs (miRNA-21 and lncRNA-ATB) for human HCC. This prospective study enrolled 79 HCC patients between October 2014 and September 2015...
October 19, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30335891/evaluation-of-exosomal-mir-9-and-mir-155-targeting-pten-and-dusp14-in-highly-metastatic-breast-cancer-and-their-effect-on-low-metastatic-cells
#4
Vahid Kia, Mahdi Paryan, Yousef Mortazavi, Alireza Biglari, Samira Mohammadi-Yeganeh
Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent cancers in women. Triple-negative breast cancer consists 15% to 20% of breast cancer cases and has a poor prognosis. Cancerous transformation has several causes one of which is dysregulation of microRNAs (miRNAs) expression. Exosomes can transfer miRNAs to neighboring and distant cells. Thus, exosomal miRNAs can transfer cancerous phenotype to distant cells. We used gene expression omnibus (GEO) datasets and miRNA target prediction tools to find overexpressed miRNA in breast cancer cells and their target genes, respectively...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334465/immunotherapy-for-the-treatment-of-canine-transmissible-venereal-tumor-based-in-dendritic-cells-pulsed-with-tumoral-exosomes
#5
Yareellys Ramos-Zayas, Moisés Armides Franco-Molina, Alex Jesús Hernádez-Granados, Diana Ginette Zárate-Triviño, Erika Evangelina Coronado-Cerda, Edgar Mendoza-Gamboa, Pablo Zapata-Benavides, Rafael Ramírez-Romero, Silvia Elena Santana-Krymskaya, Reyes Tamez-Guerra, Cristina Rodríguez-Padilla
Exosomes secreted by tumor cells are a good source of cellular components that stimulate the immune response, such as alarmins (mRNA, tetraspanins (CD9, CD63, CD81), heat-shock proteins, major histocompatibility complex class I molecules) and tumor-associated antigens. These properties permit to pulsed dendritic cells in the immunotherapy for many cancers types. The aim of this study was to demonstrate the use of exosomes derived from canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) as an antigen to pulsed dendritic cells and its administration in dogs with CTVT as treatment against this disease...
October 18, 2018: Immunopharmacology and Immunotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333973/cellular-and-molecular-networking-within-the-ecosystem-of-cancer-cell-communication-via-tunneling-nanotubes
#6
Emil Lou, Edward Zhai, Akshat Sarkari, Snider Desir, Phillip Wong, Yoshie Iizuka, Jianbo Yang, Subbaya Subramanian, James McCarthy, Martina Bazzaro, Clifford J Steer
Intercellular communication is vital to the ecosystem of cancer cell organization and invasion. Identification of key cellular cargo and their varied modes of transport are important considerations in understanding the basic mechanisms of cancer cell growth. Gap junctions, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies play key roles as physical modalities in mediating intercellular transport. Tunneling nanotubes (TNTs)-narrow actin-based cytoplasmic extensions-are unique structures that facilitate direct, long distance cell-to-cell transport of cargo, including microRNAs, mitochondria, and a variety of other sub cellular components...
2018: Frontiers in Cell and Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332956/exomirs-a-novel-strategy-in-cancer-diagnosis-and-therapy
#7
Gilar Gorji-Bahri, Atieh Hashemi, Hamid Reza Moghimi
Exosomes play a critical role in intercellular communication between cancer cells and their environments. These secreted nanovesicles can transfer different cargos such as mRNAs, proteins and microRNA (miRNA) to recipient cells. Exosomal miRNAs (exomiRs) derived from tumor cells have emerged as key players in cancer promotion via impairment of the immune system response, tumor growth, metastasis, angiogenesis, and chemotherapeutic drug resistance. Moreover, since dysregulation of miRNA expression in tumor cells can be reflected by distinct profiles of exomiRs extracted from the bodily fluids of cancer patients, they can be considered as non-invasive diagnostic, prognostic and predictive biomarkers...
October 17, 2018: Current Gene Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327461/cancer-exosomes-induce-tumor-innervation
#8
Marianna Madeo, Paul L Colbert, Daniel W Vermeer, Christopher T Lucido, Jacob T Cain, Elisabeth G Vichaya, Aaron J Grossberg, DesiRae Muirhead, Alex P Rickel, Zhongkui Hong, Jing Zhao, Jill M Weimer, William C Spanos, John H Lee, Robert Dantzer, Paola D Vermeer
Patients with densely innervated tumors suffer with increased metastasis and decreased survival as compared to those with less innervated tumors. We hypothesize that in some tumors, nerves are acquired by a tumor-induced process, called axonogenesis. Here, we use PC12 cells as an in vitro neuronal model, human tumor samples and murine in vivo models to test this hypothesis. When appropriately stimulated, PC12 cells extend processes, called neurites. We show that patient tumors release vesicles, called exosomes, which induce PC12 neurite outgrowth...
October 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30323961/exosome-mediated-cell-cell-communication-in-tumor-progression
#9
REVIEW
Zhuo Wan, Xiaotong Gao, Yan Dong, Yingxin Zhao, Xutao Chen, Guodong Yang, Li Liu
Exosomes, which are 30-150 nm lipid bilayer vehicles, have been recognized as one of the most crucial components of the tumor microenvironment. Exosomes transfer specific lipid, nucleic acids, proteins and other bioactive molecules from the donor cells to the recipient cells. Accumulating evidence has suggested that cancer cells and the tumor associated stromal cells can release and receive exosomes, inside of which the components and amounts are greatly changed. Pioneering studies have revealed that these exosomes play essential roles in tumor progression...
2018: American Journal of Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322541/lectin-mediated-in-situ-rolling-circle-amplification-on-exosomes-for-probing-cancer-related-glycan-pattern
#10
Yimei Feng, Yuna Guo, Yiran Li, Jing Tao, Lin Ding, Jie Wu, Huangxian Ju
Exosomal surface glycans play important roles in microvesicle protein sorting and exosome-cell interactions, and also provide promising biomarkers for various diseases. However, in situ detection techniques for exosomal glycans are largely lacking. In this work, an exosomal array is fabricated for probing cancer-related exosomal glycan signatures by lectin recognition-mediated in situ rolling circle assembly of fluorophore-labeled DNA. Different from commonly used lectin array, the proposed strategy enables the direct and amplified conversion of glycan recognition signals to fluorescence detection signals...
December 18, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319428/a-new-approach-for-loading-anticancer-drugs-into-mesenchymal-stem-cell-derived-exosome-mimetics-for-cancer-therapy
#11
Senthilkumar Kalimuthu, Prakash Gangadaran, Ramya Lakshmi Rajendran, Liya Zhu, Ji Min Oh, Ho Won Lee, Arunnehru Gopal, Se Hwan Baek, Shin Young Jeong, Sang-Woo Lee, Jaetae Lee, Byeong-Cheol Ahn
Exosomes derived from mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been evaluated for their potential to be used as drug delivery vehicles. Synthetically personalized exosome mimetics (EMs) could be the alternative vesicles for drug delivery. In this study, we aimed to isolate EMs from human MSCs. Cells were mixed with paclitaxel (PTX) and PTX-loaded EMs (PTX-MSC-EMs) were isolated and evaluated for their anticancer effects against breast cancer. EMs were isolated from human bone marrow-derived MSCs. MSCs (4 × 106 cells/mL) were mixed with or without PTX at different concentrations in phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) and serially extruded through 10-, 5-, and 1-μm polycarbonate membrane filters using a mini-extruder...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317554/alteration-of-cellular-and-immune-related-properties-of-bone-marrow-mesenchymal-stem-cells-and-macrophages-by-k562-chronic-myeloid-leukemia-cell-derived-exosomes
#12
Nazli Jafarzadeh, Zohreh Safari, Majid Pornour, Naser Amirizadeh, Mehdi Forouzandeh Moghadam, Majid Sadeghizadeh
Leukemic cells can impact the bone marrow niche to create a tumor-favorable microenvironment using their secreted factors. Little knowledge is available about immunosuppressive and tumor-promoting properties of chronic myeloid leukemia derived exosomes in bone marrow stromal components. We report here that K562-derived exosomes can affect the gene expression, cytokine secretion, nitric oxide (NO) production, and redox potential of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) and macrophages. Human BM-MSCs and mouse macrophages were treated with K562-derived exosomes...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317163/potential-regulatory-roles-of-micrornas-and-long-noncoding-rnas-in-anticancer-therapies
#13
REVIEW
Mengyan Xie, Ling Ma, Tongpeng Xu, Yutian Pan, Qiang Wang, Yutian Wei, Yongqian Shu
MicroRNAs and long noncoding RNAs have long been investigated due to their roles as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers of cancers and regulators of tumorigenesis, and the potential regulatory roles of these molecules in anticancer therapies are attracting increasing interest as more in-depth studies are performed. The major clinical therapies for cancer include chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and targeted molecular therapy. MicroRNAs and long noncoding RNAs function through various mechanisms in these approaches, and the mechanisms involve direct targeting of immune checkpoints, cooperation with exosomes in the tumor microenvironment, and alteration of drug resistance through regulation of different signaling pathways...
September 1, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Nucleic Acids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316797/comparison-of-exosomes-purified-via-ultracentrifugation-uc-and-total-exosome-isolation-tei-reagent-from-the-serum-of-marek-s-disease-virus-mdv-vaccinated-and-tumor-bearing-chickens
#14
Sabari Nath Neerukonda, Nicholas A Egan, Joseph Patria, Imane Assakhi, Phaedra Tavlarides-Hontz, Shannon Modla, Eric R Muñoz, Matthew B Hudson, Mark S Parcells
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) is a collective term used to refer microparticles, exosomes, and apoptotic bodies produced by a variety of cells and released into interstitial spaces and bodily fluids. Serum exosomes can serve as invaluable biomarkers, containing m/miRNAs, lipids, and proteins, indicative of various conditions. There are currently limited studies on the characterization and mutual consensus of biomarker profiles of serum exosomes purified by different methods. Here we compared the advantages and disadvantages of two commonly used serum exosome purification procedures including ultracentrifugation (UC) and Total Exosome Isolation (TEI) reagent, by analyzing exosome size distribution, concentration, morphology and miRNA expression profiles...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Virological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309355/effect-of-exosomal-mirna-on-cancer-biology-and-clinical-applications
#15
REVIEW
Zhenqiang Sun, Ke Shi, Shuaixi Yang, Jinbo Liu, Quanbo Zhou, Guixian Wang, Junmin Song, Zhen Li, Zhiyong Zhang, Weitang Yuan
Exosomes, extracellular vesicles with diameters ranging from 30 to 150 nm, are widely present in various body fluids. Recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) have been identified in exosomes, the biogenesis, release, and uptake of which may involve the endosomal sorting complex required for transport (ESCRT complex) and relevant proteins. After release, exosomes are taken up by neighboring or distant cells, and the miRNAs contained within modulate such processes as interfering with tumor immunity and the microenvironment, possibly facilitating tumor growth, invasion, metastasis, angiogenesis and drug resistance...
October 11, 2018: Molecular Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30309258/exosome-a-novel-mediator-in-drug-resistance-of-cancer-cells
#16
He-da Zhang, Lin-Hong Jiang, Jun-Chen Hou, Shan-Liang Zhong, Ling-Ping Zhu, Dan-Dan Wang, Si-Ying Zhou, Su-Jin Yang, Jin-Yan Wang, Qian Zhang, Han-Zi Xu, Jian-Hua Zhao, Zhen-Ling Ji, Jin-Hai Tang
Exosomes are small membrane vesicles with a diameter of 40-100 nm, which are released into the intracellular environment. Exosomes could influence the genetic and epigenetic changes of receptor cells by promoting the horizontal transfer of various proteins or RNAs, especially miRNAs. Moreover, exosomes also play an important role in tumor microenvironment. Exosomes could promote the short- and long-distance exchanges of genetic information by acting as mediators of cell-to-cell communication. In addition, exosomes participate in drug resistance of tumor cells by genetic exchange between cells...
October 12, 2018: Epigenomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305607/dna-methylation-mediated-silencing-of-mir-486-5p-promotes-colorectal-cancer-proliferation-and-migration-through-activation-of-plagl2-igf2-%C3%AE-catenin-signal-pathways
#17
Xiangxiang Liu, Xiaoxiang Chen, Kaixuan Zeng, Mu Xu, Bangshun He, Yuqin Pan, Huiling Sun, Bei Pan, Xueni Xu, Tao Xu, Xiuxiu Hu, Shukui Wang
As one of the most common cancers worldwide, colorectal cancer (CRC) causes a large number of mortality annually. Aberrant expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) is significantly associated with the initiation and development of CRC. Further investigations regarding the regulatory mechanism of miRNAs is warranted. In this study, we discovered that miR-486-5p was remarkably downregulated in CRC, which partially results from higher DNA methylation in the promoter region detected by using methylation-specific PCR, bisulfite sequencing PCR, and DNA demethylation treatment...
October 10, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305293/prmt5-circular-rna-promotes-metastasis-of-urothelial-carcinoma-of-the-bladder-through-sponging-mir-30c-to-induce-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition
#18
Xin Chen, Rixin Chen, Wen-Su Wei, Yonghong Li, Zi-Hao Feng, Lei Tan, Jie-Wei Chen, Gangjun Yuan, Siliang Chen, Shen-Jie Guo, Kanghua Xiao, Zhuo-Wei Liu, Jun Hang Luo, Fang-Jian Zhou, Dan Xie
PURPOSE: Circular RNAs (circRNAs), a novel class of non-coding RNAs, have recently been drawn lots of attention in the pathogenesis of human cancers. However, the role of circRNAs in cancer cells epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to identify novel circRNAs that regulates urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) cells EMT and explored their regulatory mechanisms and clinical significance in UCBs. EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN: We first screened circRNA expression profiles using a circRNA microarray in paired UCB and normal tissues, and then studied the clinical significance of an up-regulated circRNA, circPRMT5, in a large cohort of UCB patients...
October 10, 2018: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30305100/a-role-for-rassf1a-in-tunneling-nanotube-formation-between-cells-through-gefh1-rab11-pathway-control
#19
Fatéméh Dubois, Bastien Jean-Jacques, Hélène Roberge, Magalie Bénard, Ludovic Galas, Damien Schapman, Nicolas Elie, Didier Goux, Maureen Keller, Elodie Maille, Emmanuel Bergot, Gérard Zalcman, Guénaëlle Levallet
BACKGROUND: By allowing intercellular communication between cells, tunneling nanotubes (TNTs) could play critical role in cancer progression. If TNT formation is known to require cytoskeleton remodeling, key mechanism controlling their formation remains poorly understood. METHODS: The cells of human bronchial (HBEC-3, A549) or mesothelial (H2452, H28) lines are transfected with different siRNAs (inactive, anti-RASSF1A, anti-GEFH1 and / or anti-Rab11). At 48 h post-transfection, i) the number and length of the nanotubes per cell are quantified, ii) the organelles, previously labeled with specific tracers, exchanged via these structures are monitored in real time between cells cultured in 2D or 3D and in normoxia, hypoxia or in serum deprivation condition...
October 11, 2018: Cell Communication and Signaling: CCS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30304555/serum-exosomal-mir-210-as-a-potential-biomarker-for-clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma
#20
Xuegang Wang, Tao Wang, Chenxi Chen, Zhun Wu, Peide Bai, Shouchun Li, Bin Chen, Rongfu Liu, Kaiyan Zhang, Wei Li, Yuedong Chen, Jinchun Xing
Exosomal microRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested to reflect molecular changes occurring in their cells of origin and are potential indicators in the early detection of cancers. This study aimed to determine whether certain exosomal miRNAs from tumor tissue can be used as noninvasive biomarkers for clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Based on ccRCC miRNA expression profiles and the literature, we selected six miRNAs (miR-210, miR-224, miR-452, miR-155, miR-21, and miR-34a) and analyzed their expression in tissues, sera, and serum exosomes through quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction in hypoxia-induced (with CoCl2 ) renal cell lines...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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