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Omran Abu Aboud, Robert H Weiss
In the age of bioinformatics and with the advent of high-powered computation over the past decade or so the landscape of biomedical research has become radically altered. Whereas a generation ago, investigators would study their "favorite" protein or gene and exhaustively catalog the role of this compound in their disease of interest, the appearance of omics has changed the face of medicine such that much of the cutting edge (and fundable!) medical research now evaluates the biology of the disease nearly in its entirety...
November 27, 2017: Kidney cancer
Abbas Basiri, Behnam Shakiba, Niloufar Rostaminejad
A healthy 37 - year - old woman referred to our clinic with one - year history of recurrent urinary tract infection, dysuria and frequency. Her past medical history informed us that an IUD (Copper TCu380A) had been inserted 11 years ago. Eleven months after the IUD insertion she had become pregnant, unexpectedly. At that time, she had undergone gynecological examination and abdominal ultrasound study. However, the IUD had not been found, and the gynecologist had made the diagnosis of spontaneous fall out of the IUD...
September 20, 2018: International Braz J Urol: Official Journal of the Brazilian Society of Urology
Shazana Shahwan, Edimansyah Abdin, Yunjue Zhang, Rajeswari Sambasivam, Restria Fauziana, Mithila Mahesh, Say How Ong, Siow Ann Chong, Mythily Subramaniam
INTRODUCTION: The main aim of the study was to identify the prevalence of deliberate self-harm (DSH) in a sample of youth outpatients attending the state psychiatric hospital in Singapore and to identify the sociodemographic and psychological/clinical risk factors associated with DSH. The secondary aim of  the study was to examine if different forms of DSH had distinguishing risk factors. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 400 outpatients at the Institute of Mental Health completed a self-report survey comprising sociodemographic questions, the Functional Assessment of  Self-Mutilation, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, Parental Bonding Instrument and the Patient Health Questionnaire Depression Scale...
September 2018: Annals of the Academy of Medicine, Singapore
Fiona Judd, Stephanie Lorimer, Richard H Thomson, Angela Hay
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study was to explore the range of psychiatric diagnoses seen in pregnant women who score above the 'cut-off' on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale when this is used as a routine screening instrument in the antenatal period. METHOD: Subjects were all pregnant women referred to and seen by the Perinatal Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry Team of a tertiary public hospital over a 14-month period. Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale score at maternity 'booking-in' visit, demographic and clinical data were recorded and diagnoses were made according to Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed...
October 12, 2018: Australian and New Zealand Journal of Psychiatry
Rebecca M Joseph, David W Ray, Brian Keevil, Tjeerd P van Staa, William G Dixon
Background: Glucocorticoids (GCs) suppress endogenous cortisol levels which can lead to adrenal insufficiency (AI). The frequency of GC-induced AI remains unclear. In this cross-sectional study, low morning salivary cortisol (MSC) levels were used as a measure of adrenal function. The study aim was to investigate the prevalence of low MSC in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) currently and formerly exposed to oral GCs, and the association with potential risk factors. Methods: Sample collection was nested within UK primary care electronic health records (from the Clinical Practice Research Datalink)...
2018: RMD Open
Liang Wang, Xiaolong Xue, Yuanxin Zhang, Xiaowei Luo
: Numerous studies in urban resilience have been published in the past decade. However, only a few publications have tracked the evolution trends of urban resilience research, the findings of which can serve as a useful guide for scholars to foresee worth-effort research areas and make the best use of precious time and resources. In order to fill the research gap, this study performed a scientometric analysis on the evolution trends of urban resilience research using a versatile software package-CiteSpace. The scientomentric analysis focuses on distribution of lead authors and their institutions, high frequency categories and keywords, high influential journals, author contribution, and evolutionary trends based on co-author analysis, co-word analysis, co-citation analysis and cluster analysis of documents...
October 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Gianluca Lopez, Francesca Boggio, Stefano Ferrero, Nicola Fusco, Alessandro Del Gobbo
Despite the significant recent achievements in the diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC), the prognosis of these patients has currently plateaued. During the past few years, the opportunity to consider multiple treatment modalities (including surgery and other locoregional treatments, systemic therapy, and targeted therapy) led to the research of novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers in CRC liver metastases (CRCLM) patients. In this review, we seek to describe the current state of knowledge of CRCLM biomarkers and to outline impending clinical perspectives, in particular focusing on the cutting-edge tools available for their characterization...
October 3, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Jessica Chandler, Michael Beets, Pedro Saint-Maurice, Robert Weaver, Dylan Cliff, Clemens Drenowatz, Justin B Moore, Mei Sui, Keith Brazendale
BACKGROUND: The objective of this paper is to derive a wrist-placed cut-point threshold for distinguishing sedentary behaviors from light-intensity walking using the ActiGraph GT3X+ in children. METHODS: This study employed a cross-sectional study design, typically used in measurement-related studies. A sample of 167 children, ages 5⁻11 years (mean ± SD: 8.0 ± 1.8 years), performed up to eight seated sedentary activities while wearing accelerometers on both wrists...
September 26, 2018: Children
Daniel D B Koll, Timothy W Cronin
Satellite measurements and radiative calculations show that Earth's outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) is an essentially linear function of surface temperature over a wide range of temperatures (≳60 K). Linearity implies that radiative forcing has the same impact in warmer as in colder climates and is thus of fundamental importance for understanding past and future climate change. Although the evidence for a nearly linear relation was first pointed out more than 50 y ago, it is still unclear why this relation is valid and when it breaks down...
October 9, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Laura A S Quilter, Eve Obondi, Colin Kunzweiler, Duncan Okall, Robert C Bailey, Gaston Djomand, Boaz Otieno-Nyunya, Fredrick Otieno, Susan M Graham
OBJECTIVES: In settings where laboratory capacity is limited, the WHO recommends presumptive treatment for Neisseria gonorrhoeae (NG) and Chlamydia trachomatis (CT) in asymptomatic men who have sex with men (MSM) at high risk for these infections. However, little is known about how best to target this intervention. We aimed to identify correlates of anorectal NG/CT infection in Kenyan MSM with and without anorectal symptoms and evaluate the performance of an empirical, model-based risk score to identify cases in asymptomatic men...
September 21, 2018: Sexually Transmitted Infections
Andreas Kremling, Johannes Geiselmann, Delphine Ropers, Hidde de Jong
BACKGROUND: Carbon catabolite repression (CCR) controls the order in which different carbon sources are metabolised. Although this system is one of the paradigms of regulation in bacteria, the underlying mechanisms remain controversial. CCR involves the coordination of different subsystems of the cell - responsible for the uptake of carbon sources, their breakdown for the production of energy and precursors, and the conversion of the latter to biomass. The complexity of this integrated system, with regulatory mechanisms cutting across metabolism, gene expression, and signalling, has motivated important modelling efforts over the past four decades, especially in the enterobacterium Escherichia coli...
September 21, 2018: BMC Systems Biology
Grzegorz Kade, Sebastian Spaleniak
Sepsis as a systemic inflammatory reaction to infection is an important interdisciplinary clinical problem. Over the past 20 years, the number of patients who have contracted sepsis has doubled. The occurrence of acute kidney injury in the course of sepsis increases mortality twice, while chronic kidney disease develops in 50% of the patients who survived sepsis. The pathophysiology of acute kidney injury (AKI) development in the course of sepsis is not fully understood. Some researchers, to emphasize the distinctiveness of AKI in the course of sepsis, describe the changes that occur in the kidneys in its course as sepsis induced-AKI...
September 21, 2018: Polski Merkuriusz Lekarski: Organ Polskiego Towarzystwa Lekarskiego
Hannah Datz, Dmitry Tumin, Rebecca Miller, Timothy P Smith, Tarun Bhalla, Joseph D Tobias
Background and aims Caring for children with chronic pain incurs burdens of cost and time for families. We aimed to describe variation in caregiver burden among parents of adolescents with chronic pain who responded to a nationally-representative survey. Our secondary aim was to identify child and parent characteristics associated with increased caregiver burden. Methods We used de-identified, publicly-available data from the 2016 National Survey of Children's Health (NSCH), designed to be representative of non-institutionalized children in the United States...
September 21, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Pain
Joaquin Sanchez-Sotelo, Eric R Wagner, Matthew T Houdek
Background: Allograft-prosthetic composite (APC) reconstruction of the humerus represents an appealing surgical technique when implantation of a reverse prosthesis is considered in the setting of substantial proximal humeral bone loss1-4 . Humeral APCs have been successfully performed in the past with a non-reverse shoulder prosthesis4,5 . Reconstruction of the proximal part of the humerus with an allograft provides adequate support and fixation for the humeral component, allows restoration of length and lateral offset, and provides an opportunity for soft-tissue reattachment when needed...
March 28, 2018: JBJS Essential Surgical Techniques
Sean D Willett, Scott W McCoy, Helen W Beeson
Ecosystem diversity and human activity in dry climates depend not just on the magnitude of rainfall, but also on the landscape's ability to retain water. This is illustrated dramatically in the High Plains of North America, where despite the semi-arid modern and past climate, the hydrologic conditions are diverse. Large rivers sourced in the Rocky Mountains cut through elevated plains that exhibit limited river drainage but widespread surface water in the form of ephemeral (seasonal) playa lakes1 , as well as extensive groundwater hosted in the High Plains aquifer of the Ogallala formations2 ...
September 2018: Nature
Tuyen Van Duong, Te-Chih Wong, Hsi-Hsien Chen, Tzen-Wen Chen, Tso-Hsiao Chen, Yung-Ho Hsu, Sheng-Jeng Peng, Ko-Lin Kuo, Hsiang-Chung Liu, En-Tzu Lin, Chi-Sin Wang, I-Hsin Tseng, Yi-Wei Feng, Tai-Yue Chang, Chien-Tien Su, Shwu-Huey Yang
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) has been established as a risk for cardiovascular diseases and mortality in hemodialysis patients. Energy intake (EI) is an important nutritional therapy for preventing MetS. We examined the association of self-reported dietary EI with metabolic abnormalities and MetS among hemodialysis patients. METHODS: A cross-sectional study design was carried out from September 2013 to April 2017 in seven hemodialysis centers. Data were collected from 228 hemodialysis patients with acceptable EI report, 20 years old and above, underwent three hemodialysis sessions a week for at least past 3 months...
September 19, 2018: BMC Nephrology
Mizuki Nishino
Objective assessment of tumor responses and treatment results has been the basis for the advancement of cancer therapies, and imaging plays a key role to provide a "common language" to describe the results of cancer treatment. Although Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors (RECIST) has been the most widely accepted method for assessing tumor response in the past decades, the limitations of RECIST have increasingly becoming recognized, especially with the recent advances of precision-medicine approaches to cancer...
May 23, 2018: American Society of Clinical Oncology Educational Book
Erica M Schulte, Julia K Smeal, Jessi Lewis, Ashley N Gearhardt
Food addiction posits that highly processed foods may be capable of triggering addictive-like symptoms in some individuals, including withdrawal. The current study developed and assessed the psychometric properties of the first self-report measure of highly processed food withdrawal. Individuals (n = 231) aged 19-68 (51.9% female) were recruited online through Amazon Mechanical Turk and reported cutting down on highly processed foods in the past year. The Highly Processed Food Withdrawal Scale (ProWS) was adapted from self-report measures of drug withdrawal and internal consistency and validity were evaluated...
September 15, 2018: Appetite
Amy L Burton, Deborah Mitchison, Phillipa Hay, Brooke Donnelly, Christopher Thornton, Janice Russell, Jessica Swinbourne, Christopher Basten, Mandy Goldstein, Stephen Touyz, Maree J Abbott
Binge eating is a core diagnostic feature of bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder, anorexia nervosa binge/purge type, and is a common feature of "other specified" and "unspecified" feeding and eating disorders. It has been suggested that specific metacognitive beliefs about food, eating, and binge eating may play a key role in the maintenance of binge eating behaviour. The Eating Beliefs Questionnaire (EBQ-18) provides a brief self-report assessment tool measuring three types of metacognitive beliefs: negative, positive, and permissive beliefs about food and eating...
September 14, 2018: Nutrients
Marcio R Oliveira, Edgar R Vieira, André W O Gil, Karen B P Fernandes, Denilson C Teixeira, Cesar F Amorim, Rubens A da Silva
Postural instability is a common problem among older people, and it is associated with mobility impairments, activity limitation and fear of falling. The evaluation of postural control can contribute to the early detection of balance deficits and help health professionals to manage this problem to prevent falls in older adults. The aim of this study was to identify center of pressure cut-offs to differentiate between older adults with and without falls in the past 12 months. The participants were 170 older adults (mean age 67 years, 50 fallers and 120 non-fallers)...
2018: PloS One
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