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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516814/a-nationwide-study-in-denmark-of-the-association-between-treated-infections-and-the-subsequent-risk-of-treated-mental-disorders-in-children-and-adolescents
#1
Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Liselotte Petersen, Christiane Gasse, Preben B Mortensen, Soren Dalsgaard, Robert H Yolken, Ole Mors, Michael E Benros
Importance: Infections have been associated with increased risks for mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. However, the association between all infections requiring treatment and the wide range of mental disorders is unknown to date. Objective: To investigate the association between all treated infections since birth and the subsequent risk of development of any treated mental disorder during childhood and adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers...
December 5, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513128/bacterial-infections-among-patients-with-psychiatric-disorders-relation-with-hospital-stay-age-and-psychiatric-diagnoses
#2
Michael Belz, Nico Rehling, Ulrike Schmidt, Jens Wiltfang, Bernhard Kis, Claus Wolff-Menzler
The prevalence of infections is supposed to be higher in older patients and to extend the length of hospital stays. This study aimed, first, to test this supposition within a large psychiatric population which we divided into four clusters of psychiatric ICD-10 diagnoses: F00-F03 (dementias), F10 (substance disorders), F20-29 (schizophrenia, schizophreniform and other non-mood psychotic disorders), F32-F33 (major depressive disorders). Second, despite the increasing evidence for the role of infections in psychiatric disorders, it is, to the best of our knowledge, largely unknown whether the rates of infections with pathogens of the four most frequent germ families differ between psychiatric diseases...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508574/n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-and-clozapine-abrogates-poly-i-c-induced-immune-alterations-in-primary-hippocampal-neurons
#3
Bruna Mara Machado Ribeiro, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Deiziane Viana da Silva Costa, Antônio Teles de Menezes, Anna Carolina Carvalho da Fonseca, Clarissa S Gama, Vivaldo Moura Neto, David Freitas de Lucena, Mariana Lima Vale, Danielle S Macêdo
The viral mimetic polyinosinic:polycytidylic acid (poly I:C) is an important tool to study the consequences of viral infection to the development of neuropsychiatric disorders. Here, based on the premise of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n3 PUFAs) as supplemental treatment to antipsychotics in schizophrenia, we investigated the involvement of NFkB pathway in the effects of n3 PUFAs or of the atypical antipsychotic clozapine in hippocampal poly I:C-challenged neurons. Primary hippocampal neuronal cultures were exposed to n3 PUFAs (DHA4...
November 30, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30486356/incidence-rates-and-risk-of-hospital-registered-infections-among-schizophrenia-patients-before-and-after-onset-of-illness-a-population-based-nationwide-register-study
#4
Monika Pankiewicz-Dulacz, Egon Stenager, Ming Chen, Elsebeth Stenager
Infections in schizophrenia patients are associated with an increased premature mortality. However, our knowledge about the burden of infections in schizophrenia is scarce. The aims of this study were to (1) determine the prevalence of clinically important hospital registered infections in the period of five years prior to and five years after the diagnosis, (2) estimate the risk of infections before and after the schizophrenia diagnosis and, (3) evaluate the impact of comorbidity on the risk of infections in schizophrenia...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30478008/herpes-simplex-virus-1-infection-and-valacyclovir-treatment-in-schizophrenia-results-from-the-vista-study
#5
Alan Breier, Robert W Buchanan, Deepak D'Souza, Keith Nuechterlein, Stephen Marder, Walter Dunn, Sheldon Preskorn, Matthew Macaluso, Brent Wurfel, Gerald Maguire, Rishi Kakar, Diane Highum, Debra Hoffmeyer, Evagelos Coskinas, Robert Litman, Jenifer L Vohs, Alexander Radnovich, Michael M Francis, Emmalee Metzler, Andrew Visco, Nicole Mehdiyoun, Ziyi Yang, Ying Zhang, Robert H Yolken, Faith B Dickerson
BACKGROUND: Several studies have implicated herpes simplex virus-type 1 (HSV-1) in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. A recent trial demonstrated that the anti-viral medication valacylovir, which prevents replication of activated HSV-1, improved selected cognitive deficits in people with schizophrenia. In this study, we examined demographic and illness related differences between HSV-1 positive versus HSV-1 negative subjects with early phase schizophrenia and attempted to replicate the previous valacyclovir treatment results in this population...
November 23, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30464763/microglia-immune-regulators-of-neurodevelopment
#6
REVIEW
Maureen Cowan, William A Petri
Microglia, the tissue-resident macrophages of the central nervous system (CNS), have characterized roles in combating infection, clearing cellular debris, and maintaining tissue homeostasis. In addition to these typical immunological roles, microglia have been revealed to be active players in complex neurodevelopmental programs such as neurogenesis and synaptic pruning, during which they interact with neurons and macroglia to provide trophic support, respond to cytokine, and metabolic signals derived from the local neural environment, and drive the refinement of functional neuronal circuits...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30462333/schizophrenia-is-associated-with-an-aberrant-immune-response-to-epstein-barr-virus
#7
Faith Dickerson, Lorraine Jones-Brando, Glen Ford, Giulio Genovese, Cassie Stallings, Andrea Origoni, Colm O'Dushlaine, Emily Katsafanas, Kevin Sweeney, Sunil Khushalani, Robert Yolken
Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) is a highly prevalent human herpesvirus capable of infecting the central nervous system and establishing persistent infection. Methods: We employed solid phase immunoassay techniques to measure immunoglobulin G (IgG) class antibodies to EBV virions and defined proteins in 432 individuals with schizophrenia and 311 individuals without a history of a psychiatric disorder. Western blot testing was performed to document reactivity to specific EBV proteins...
November 20, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458317/maternal-stress-prenatal-medical-illnesses-and-obstetric-complications-risk-factors-for-schizophrenia-spectrum-disorder-bipolar-disorder-and-major-depressive-disorder
#8
Valentina Pugliese, Antonella Bruni, Elvira Anna Carbone, Giuseppina Calabrò, Gregorio Cerminara, Gaia Sampogna, Mario Luciano, Luca Steardo, Andrea Fiorillo, Cristina Segura Garcia, Pasquale De Fazio
Maternal stress and medical illnesses during early life are well-documented environmental indicators of an increased risk of schizophrenia. Few studies, conversely, have confirmed an association with major affective disorders. The present study examined the impact of maternal stress, medical illnesses and obstetric complications on the development of severe mental disorder in 240 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder and matched with 85 controls...
November 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30446204/parental-infections-before-during-and-after-pregnancy-as-risk-factors-for-mental-disorders-in-childhood-and-adolescence-a-nationwide-danish-study
#9
Cecilie N Lydholm, Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Merete Nordentoft, Robert H Yolken, Preben B Mortensen, Liselotte Petersen, Michael E Benros
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown associations between maternal infections during pregnancy and increased risks of schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder in the offspring. However, large-scale studies investigating an association between parental infections both during and outside the pregnancy period and the risk of any mental disorder in the child are lacking. METHODS: A nationwide Danish cohort study identified 1,206,600 children born between 1996 and 2015 and followed them to a maximum of 20 years of age...
October 1, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430944/recognizing-the-leaky-gut-as-a-trans-diagnostic-target-for-neuro-immune-disorders-using-clinical-chemistry-and-molecular-immunology-assays
#10
Denitsa Simeonova, Mariya Ivanovska, Mariana Murdjeva, Andre F Carvalho, Michael Maes
BACKGROUND: Increased intestinal permeability with heightened translocation of Gram-negative bacteria, also known as "leaky gut", is associated with the pathophysiology of neuroimmune disorders, such as major depressive disorder (MDD), chronic fatigue syndrome (CSF) and (deficit) schizophrenia, as well as with general medical disorders, including irritable bowel syndrome. This review aims to summarize clinical biochemistry and molecular immunology tests that may aid in the recognition of leaky gut in clinical practice...
November 14, 2018: Current Topics in Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30430765/maternal-immune-activation-central-nervous-system-development-and-behavioral-phenotypes
#11
REVIEW
Elena Minakova, Barbara B Warner
Maternal immune activation (MIA) refers to a maternal immune system triggered by infectious or infectious-like stimuli. A cascade of cytokines and immunologic alterations are transmitted to the fetus, resulting in adverse phenotypes most notably in the central nervous system. Epidemiologic studies implicate maternal infections in a variety of neuropsychiatric disorders, most commonly autism spectrum disorders and schizophrenia. In animal models, MIA causes neurochemical and anatomic changes in the brain that correspond to those found in humans with the disorders...
November 14, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30428447/inflammatory-depression-advances-in-schizophrenia-ideas-a-precision-medicine-approach-of-the-national-face-sz-cohort
#12
G Fond, O Godin, F Schürhoff, F Berna, B Aouizerate, D Capdevielle, I Chereau, T D'Amato, C Dubertret, J Dubreucq, C Faget, S Leignier, C Lançon, J Mallet, L Marulaz, D Misdrahi, C Passerieux, R Rey, A Schandrin, M Urbach, P Vidailhet, M Leboyer, L Boyer, P M Llorca
BACKGROUND: Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) is a therapeutic challenge in schizophrenia (SZ). Untangling different forms of MDD appears as the best current strategy to improve remission to treatment in the so-called precision medicine approach. AIMS: The objectives of the present study were to determine (i) the prevalence of Inflammatory Depression (ID) in stabilized SZ outpatients (ii) if ID was associated with clinical or cognitive profiles that may help clinicians detecting ID (iii) if antidepressants were effective in ID and (iv) the biological correlates of ID that may orientate personalized treatments...
November 6, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30405395/corroboration-of-a-major-role-for-herpes-simplex-virus-type-1-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#13
REVIEW
Ruth F Itzhaki
Strong evidence has emerged recently for the concept that herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV1) is a major risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). This concept proposes that latent HSV1 in brain of carriers of the type 4 allele of the apolipoprotein E gene (APOE-ε4) is reactivated intermittently by events such as immunosuppression, peripheral infection, and inflammation, the consequent damage accumulating, and culminating eventually in the development of AD. Population data to investigate this epidemiologically, e...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30383476/toxoplasma-gondii-obsessive-compulsive-disorder-relationship-is-it-different-in-children
#14
Özlem Miman, Özlem Özcan, Süheyla Ünal, Metin Atambay
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a common neuropsychiatric illness. Although the etiology of OCD is still unknown, recent investigations have associated development of OCD with infectious illness. Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) is a neurotropic protozoan parasite that causes infection of the central nervous system. In the last decade, a lot of researches have focused on the possible relationship between exposure to T. gondii and neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia...
November 1, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30367955/sex-and-region-specific-differences-in-microglia-phenotype-and-characterization-of-the-peripheral-immune-response-following-early-life-infection-in-neonatal-male-and-female-rats
#15
Brittany F Osborne, Alexandra Turano, Jasmine I Caulfield, Jaclyn M Schwarz
Early-life infection has been shown to have profound effects on the brain and behavior across the lifespan, a phenomenon termed "early-life programming". Indeed, many neuropsychiatric disorders begin or have their origins early in life and have been linked to early-life immune activation (e.g. autism, ADHD, and schizophrenia). Furthermore, many of these disorders show a robust sex bias, with males having a higher risk of developing early-onset neurodevelopmental disorders. The concept of early-life programming is now well established, however, it is still unclear how such effects are initiated and then maintained across time to produce such a phenomenon...
October 24, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340343/early-senescence-and-leukocyte-telomere-shortening-in-schizophrenia-a-role-for-cytomegalovirus-infection
#16
REVIEW
Corona Solana, Diana Pereira, Raquel Tarazona
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic mental disorder characterized by delusions and hallucinations. Several evidences support the link of schizophrenia with accelerated telomeres shortening and accelerated aging. Thus, schizophrenia patients show higher mortality compared to age-matched healthy donors. The etiology of schizophrenia is multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors. Telomere erosion has been shown to be accelerated by different factors including environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and chronic alcohol consumption or by psychosocial stress such as childhood maltreatment...
October 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337948/perceptions-of-the-causes-of-schizophrenia-and-associated-factors-by-the-holy-trinity-theological-college-students-in-ethiopia
#17
Melat Solomon, Telake Azale, Awake Meherte, Getachew Asfaw, Getinet Ayano
Introduction: There is a cultural variability around the perception of what causes the syndrome of schizophrenia. As far as the cause of schizophrenia by the general public concerned, people living in western countries focus mainly on biological and social risk factors such as genetic vulnerability, disease of the brain, infection or stressful social conditions or personal weakness, but the predominant views held by people living in non-western countries focus mainly on supernatural and religious factors...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267854/maternal-immune-activation-in-rats-blunts-brain-cytokine-and-kynurenine-pathway-responses-to-a-second-immune-challenge-in-early-adulthood
#18
Sarah M Clark, Francesca M Notarangelo, Xin Li, Shuo Chen, Robert Schwarcz, Leonardo H Tonelli
Maternal immune activation (MIA) with the viral mimic poly I:C provides an established rodent model for studying schizophrenia (SZ) and other human neurodevelopmental disorders. Postnatal infections are additional risk factors in SZ and may cumulatively contribute to the emergence of pathophysiology. Underlying mechanisms may involve metabolites of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation, which is readily induced by inflammatory stimuli. Here we compared the expression of selected cytokines and KP enzymes, and the levels of selected KP metabolites, in the brain of MIA offspring following a second, acute immune challenge with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on postnatal day (PND) 35 (adolescence) or PND 60 (early adulthood)...
March 8, 2019: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263214/a-chart-review-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-status-in-patients-admitted-with-psychosis-in-durban-south-africa
#19
Sellwane M Mere, Saeeda Paruk
Background: Comorbid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among patients with psychotic disorders is associated with a poorer outcome. Understanding the association of HIV infection with demographic and clinical variables may provide clues to modify risk factors and outcomes. Aim: To describe and compare the socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted with psychotic disorders with and without HIV infection. Method: A retrospective chart review of 100 adult patients consecutively admitted with psychosis and HIV infection and compared to 101 patients with psychosis without HIV infection...
2018: South African Journal of Psychiatry: SAJP: the Journal of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259827/clozapine-is-associated-with-secondary-antibody-deficiency
#20
Mark Ponsford, Daniel Castle, Tayyeb Tahir, Rebecca Robinson, Wendy Wade, Rachael Steven, Kathryn Bramhall, Mo Moody, Emily Carne, Catherine Ford, Daniel Farewell, Paul Williams, Tariq El-Shanawany, Stephen Jolles
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia affects 1% of the population. Clozapine is the only medication licensed for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is intensively monitored to prevent harm from neutropenia. Clozapine is also associated with increased risk of pneumonia although the mechanism is poorly understood.AimsTo investigate the potential association between clozapine and antibody deficiency. METHODS: Patients taking clozapine and patients who were clozapine-naive and receiving alternative antipsychotics were recruited and completed a lifestyle, medication and infection-burden questionnaire...
September 27, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
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