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Infection schizophrenia

R B Bassey, S N Chapman, M Pessu, A Jayam-Trouth, M C Gondré-Lewis
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a serious immunological disease with new infections in the U.S. disproportionately reported in minority populations. For many years, the District of Columbia (DC) has reported the highest HIV infection rate in the nation. Drug abuse and addiction is also prevalent in DC and has traditionally been linked to HIV/AIDS because of the likelihood for opportunistic infections. Despite this data, the relationship between HIV status, drugs of abuse, and the incidence of neurological disorders are scarcely reported for minority populations...
2018: Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience
Ragy R Girgis, Anthony W Zoghbi, Daniel C Javitt, Jeffrey A Lieberman
Since the discovery of chlorpromazine in the 1950's, antipsychotic drugs have been the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and all attenuate dopamine transmission at the dopamine-2 receptor. Drug development for schizophrenia since that time has led to improvements in side effects and tolerability, and limited improvements in efficacy, with the exception of clozapine. However, the reasons for clozapine's greater efficacy remain unclear, despite the great efforts and resources invested therewith. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature to determine the fate of previously tested, non-dopamine-2 receptor experimental treatments...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
Genevieve Syn, Denise Anderson, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson
Recent interest has focussed on the influence of infectious disease organisms on the host epigenome. Toxoplasma gondii infection acquired congenitally or in early life is associated with severe ocular and brain developmental anomalies, while persistent asymptomatic infection is a proposed risk factor for neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases, and schizophrenia. Genome-wide analysis of the host methylome and transcriptome following T. gondii infection in a retinal cell line identified genes (132, 186 and 128 genes at 2, 6 and 24 h post-infection) concordant for methylation and expression, i...
July 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
Nora Hamdani, Djaouida Bengoufa, Ophélia Godin, Raphaël Doukhan, Emmanuel Le Guen, Claire Daban-Huard, Meriem Bennabi, Marine Delavest, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Wahid Boukouaci, Hakim Laouamri, Josselin Houenou, Stéphane Jamain, Jean-Romain Richard, Philippe Lecorvosier, Robert Yolken, Krishnamoorthy Rajagopal, Marion Leboyer, Ryad Tamouza
BACKGROUND: Immune dysfunction could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ), conditions with an underlying pro-inflammatory state. Studies on humoral immune responses (which reflects antibody mediated fight against pathogens) in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are sparse and often providing contradictory results. The aim of this study was to assess humoral immunity in a group of stable bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients compared to controls by determining total Immunoglobulins and IgG subclasses and to assess their association with latent Toxoplasma gondii and/or CMV infection...
July 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Johnathan Pierson, Rajashekar Reddy Yeruva, Rif S El-Mallakh
OBJECTIVES: Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric illness that has been purported to be causally related to in utero infection of neurotropic organisms. For obvious ethical reasons, this hypothesis has never been tested prospectively in humans. However, with the recent introduction of Zika virus into the New World offers the opportunity to test the hypothesis infection hypothesis of schizophrenia. METHODS: This is a directed review examining the hypothesis. The literature relevant to Zika virus transmission in the New World, its biology, and neurotropy is reviewed...
July 27, 2018: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Drew H Barzman, Hannah Jackson, Umesh Singh, Marcus Griffey, Michael Sorter, Jonathan A Bernstein
Here we report a case of a 15-year-old female who had originally been diagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for schizophrenia, psychosis, severe anxiety, and depression. More in-depth history revealed an abrupt onset of her symptoms with remote acute infections and many exhibited characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder with rituals. Work-up for underlying infectious, immunodeficiency, and autoimmune causes was unrevealing except for very high levels of anti-neuronal antibodies which have been linked to Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS)...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Te-Chun Shen, Chia-Hung Chen, Yu-Jhen Huang, Cheng-Li Lin, Ting-Chang Chang, Chih-Yen Tu, Te-Chun Hsia, Chuen-Ming Shih, Wu-Huei Hsu, Fung-Chang Sung
OBJECTIVE: Thoracic infection and pneumonia are prevalent in patients with schizophrenia; however, it is unclear whether patients with schizophrenia are at an increased risk of developing pleural empyema. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study with propensity-matched cohorts with and without schizophrenia. SETTING: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan. PARTICIPANTS: We identified 55 888 patients with schizophrenia newly diagnosed in 2000-2011 and same number of individuals without schizophrenia as the comparison cohort, frequency matched by propensity scores estimated using age, sex, occupation, income, urbanisation, year of diagnosis and comorbidities...
July 6, 2018: BMJ Open
Jack J Chen
Persistent psychotic symptoms will develop in up to 60% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The initial approach to the management of PD psychosis (PDP) begins with addressing concurrent systemic conditions associated with psychotic behavior, such as delirium, medical conditions (eg, infections), psychiatric disorders (eg, major depression with psychotic symptoms, mania, schizophrenia), and substance misuse or withdrawal. A review of current medications is recommended, and medications that may trigger psychotic symptoms should be eliminated...
November 2017: The mental health clinician
Shih-Fen Chen, Jen-Huai Chiang, Chung-Y Hsu, Yu-Chih Shen
OBJECTIVES: In Taiwan, there has been a growing emphasis on physical health screening, health education and improving access to treatment in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ). However, sexual health needs, including screening and prevention of sexually transmitted infections (STI), are neglected in this population. The study aimed to investigate the association between SCZ and the subsequent incident STI and to examine potential risk factors. METHODS: Using the National Health Insurance Research Database of Taiwan, 58,948 SCZ patients and 235,784 controls matched by gender and age were enrolled between 2000 and 2010 and followed until the end of 2011...
June 25, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Ai Koyanagi, Hans Oh, Andrew Stickley, Brendon Stubbs, Nicola Veronese, Davy Vancampfort, Josep Maria Haro, Jordan E DeVylder
BACKGROUND: Sibship size and birth order may be contributing factors to the multifactorial etiology of psychosis. Specifically, several studies have shown that sibship size and birth order are associated with schizophrenia. However, there are no studies on their association with psychotic experiences (PE). METHODS: Cross-sectional, community-based data from 43 low- and middle-income countries which participated in the World Health Survey were analyzed. The Composite International Diagnostic Interview was used to identify four types of past 12-month PE...
June 18, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Shaban Gohardehi, Mehdi Sharif, Shahabeddin Sarvi, Mahmood Moosazadeh, Reza Alizadeh-Navaei, Seyed Abdollah Hosseini, Afsaneh Amouei, Abdolsattar Pagheh, Mitra Sadeghi, Ahmad Daryani
Toxoplasmosis is a prevalent infectious disease. Although most people infected by Toxoplasma gondii are asymptomatic, evidence has suggested that this disease might affect some aspects of a host's behavior and associate with schizophrenia, suicide attempt, changes in various aspects of personality, and poor neurocognitive performance. These associations may play roles in increasing the risk of a number of incidents, such as traffic accidents, among infected people. In this regard, this study aimed to provide summary estimates for the available data on the potential risk of toxoplasmosis for traffic accidents...
August 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Jianchun Xiao, Emese Prandovszky, Geetha Kannan, Mikhail V Pletnikov, Faith Dickerson, Emily G Severance, Robert H Yolken
It is increasingly evident that the brain is not truly an immune privileged site and that cells of the central nervous system are sensitive to the inflammation generated when the brain is fighting off infection. Among the many microorganisms that have access to the brain, the apicomplexan protozoan Toxoplasma gondii has been one of the most studied. This parasite has been associated with many neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. This article provides a comprehensive review of the status of Toxoplasma research in schizophrenia...
June 8, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Robert Howard, Elizabeth Cort, Rosie Bradley, Emma Harper, Linda Kelly, Peter Bentham, Craig Ritchie, Suzanne Reeves, Waleed Fawzi, Gill Livingston, Andrew Sommerlad, Sabu Oomman, Ejaz Nazir, Ramin Nilforooshan, Robert Barber, Chris Fox, Ajay Verma Macharouthu, Pranathi Ramachandra, Vivek Pattan, John Sykes, Val Curran, Cornelius Katona, Tom Dening, Martin Knapp, Richard Gray
BACKGROUND: Very late (aged ≥60 years) onset schizophrenia-like psychosis occurs frequently but no placebo-controlled, randomised trials have assessed the efficacy and risks of antipsychotic treatment. We investigated whether low-dose amisulpride (100 mg daily) is superior to placebo in reducing psychosis symptoms over 12 weeks and whether any benefit is maintained by continuing treatment after 12 weeks. METHODS: The ATLAS double-blind controlled trial enrolled participants from 25 old age psychiatry services in the UK...
July 2018: Lancet Psychiatry
Gordana Rubesa, Lea Gudelj, Dolores Makovac
There are many theories about the etiology of schizophrenia. This paper presents the assumptions and latest findings about many immunological characteristics of schizophrenia. According to the neuroimunological theory, this disorder is due to neuroimunological disbalance, increased microglial activity and increased levels of proinflammatory cytokines. Studies have found that intrauterine infections in pregnant women have an effect on the fetal brain development, and that infections with rubella, measles, herpes virus, and toxoplasma are associeted with schizophrenia onset in adult life...
June 2018: Psychiatria Danubina
Ryan J Duchatel, Crystal L Meehan, Lauren R Harms, Patricia T Michie, Mark J Bigland, Doug W Smith, Frederick R Walker, Phillip Jobling, Deborah M Hodgson, Paul A Tooney
Animal models of maternal immune activation study the effects of infection, an environmental risk factor for schizophrenia, on brain development. Microglia activation and cytokine upregulation may have key roles in schizophrenia neuropathology. We hypothesised that maternal immune activation induces changes in microglia and cytokines in the brains of the adult offspring. Maternal immune activation was induced by injecting polyriboinosinic:polyribocytidylic acid into pregnant rats on gestational day (GD) 10 or GD19, with brain tissue collected from the offspring at adulthood...
August 2018: Psychiatry Research
Adel Ebrahimzadeh, Mehdi Khoshsima Shahraki, Azad Mohammadi
Schizophrenia is a persistent neuropsychiatric syndrome of uncertain source. Toxoplasmosis is the most prevalent parasitic protozoan infecting one-third of the worldwide human population. Infectious agents such as toxoplasma are the probable cause of schizophrenia. This study was aimed to evaluate the association between schizophrenia and toxoplasmosis using SAG1 and B1 Target gene. During February to December 2016, 92 patients with schizophrenia are imported in our study. All cases were assessed by serological (IgG and IgM antibodies) and molecular examinations...
June 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
G Fond, L Boyer, F Schürhoff, F Berna, O Godin, E Bulzacka, M Andrianarisoa, L Brunel, B Aouizerate, D Capdevielle, I Chereau, N Coulon, T D'Amato, C Dubertret, J Dubreucq, C Faget, C Lançon, S Leignier, J Mallet, D Misdrahi, C Passerieux, R Rey, A Schandrin, M Urbach, P Vidailhet, P M Llorca, M Leboyer, M Andrianarisoa, B Aouizerate, N Bazin, F Berna, O Blanc, L Brunel, E Bulzacka, D Capdevielle, I Chereau-Boudet, G Chesnoy-Servanin, N Coulon, J M Danion, T D'Amato, A Deloge, H Denizot, J M Dorey, C Dubertret, J Dubreucq, C Faget, C Fluttaz, G Fond, S Fonteneau, F Gabayet, E Giraud-Baro, M Jarroir, S Leignier, D Lacelle, C Lançon, H Laouamri, M Leboyer, T Le Gloahec, Y Le Strat, P M Llorca, J Mallet, E Metairie, D Misdrahi, I Offerlin-Meyer, C Passerieux, P Peri, S Pires, C Portalier, L Ramet, R Rey, C Roman, A Schandrin, F Schürhoff, A Tessier, A M Tronche, M Urbach, F Vaillant, A Vehier, P Vidailhet, E Vilà, H Yazbek, A Zinetti-Bertschy
OBJECTIVE: Latent Toxoplasma infection has been associated with widespread brain immune activation, increased blood brain barrier permeability, neural disruption, increased dopamine release in dopaminergic neurons, with NMDA activation and with schizophrenia (SZ) onset risk. Toxoplasma has been suggested to be a source of chronic low-grade inflammation and this inflammation has been associated with cognitive impairment in SZ. The objective of the present study were (i) to determine if latent Toxoplasma infection was associated with specific clinical features in stabilized SZ subjects, with cognitive impairment and with increased low-grade peripheral inflammation and (ii) to determine if Treatments with Anti-Toxoplasmic Activity (TATA) were associated with improved outcomes in subjects with latent Toxoplasma infection...
May 27, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Blessing A Aderibigbe, Tobeka Naki
Nanogels are drug delivery systems that can bypass the blood-brain barrier and deliver drugs to the desired site when administered intranasally. They have been used as a drug delivery platform for the management of brain diseases such as Alzheimer disease, migraine, schizophrenia and depression. nanogels have also been developed as vaccine carriers for the protection of bacterial infections such as influenza, meningitis, pneumonia and as veterinary vaccine carriers for the protection of animals from encephalomyelitis and mouth to foot disease...
May 23, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Md Jakaria, Duk-Yeon Cho, Md Ezazul Haque, Govindarajan Karthivashan, In-Su Kim, Palanivel Ganesan, Dong-Kug Choi
Thymoquinone (TQ) is an active ingredient isolated from Nigella sativa and has various pharmacological activities, such as protection against oxidative stress, inflammation, and infections. In addition, it might be a potential neuropharmacological agent because it exhibits versatile potential for attenuating neurological impairments. It features greater beneficial effects in toxin-induced neuroinflammation and neurotoxicity. In various models of neurological disorders, it demonstrates emergent functions, including safeguarding various neurodegenerative diseases and other neurological diseases, such as stroke, schizophrenia, and epilepsy...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Iveta Vojtechova, Tomas Petrasek, Kristyna Maleninska, Hana Brozka, Hana Tejkalova, Jiri Horacek, Ales Stuchlik, Karel Vales
Infection during the prenatal or neonatal stages of life is considered one of the major risk factors for the development of mental diseases such as schizophrenia or autism. However, the impacts of such an immune challenge on adult behavior are still not clear. In our study, we used a model of early postnatal immune activation by the application of bacterial endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to rat pups at a dose of 2 mg/kg from postnatal day (PD) 5 to PD 9. In adulthood, the rats were tested in a battery of tasks probing various aspects of behavior: spontaneous activity (open field test), social behavior (social interactions and female bedding exploration), anxiety (elevated plus maze), cognition (active place avoidance in Carousel) and emotional response (ultrasonic vocalization recording)...
September 3, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
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