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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30340343/early-senescence-and-leukocyte-telomere-shortening-in-schizophrenia-a-role-for-cytomegalovirus-infection
#1
REVIEW
Corona Solana, Diana Pereira, Raquel Tarazona
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic mental disorder characterized by delusions and hallucinations. Several evidences support the link of schizophrenia with accelerated telomeres shortening and accelerated aging. Thus, schizophrenia patients show higher mortality compared to age-matched healthy donors. The etiology of schizophrenia is multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors. Telomere erosion has been shown to be accelerated by different factors including environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and chronic alcohol consumption or by psychosocial stress such as childhood maltreatment...
October 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30337948/perceptions-of-the-causes-of-schizophrenia-and-associated-factors-by-the-holy-trinity-theological-college-students-in-ethiopia
#2
Melat Solomon, Telake Azale, Awake Meherte, Getachew Asfaw, Getinet Ayano
Introduction: There is a cultural variability around the perception of what causes the syndrome of schizophrenia. As far as the cause of schizophrenia by the general public concerned, people living in western countries focus mainly on biological and social risk factors such as genetic vulnerability, disease of the brain, infection or stressful social conditions or personal weakness, but the predominant views held by people living in non-western countries focus mainly on supernatural and religious factors...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30267854/maternal-immune-activation-in-rats-blunts-brain-cytokine-and-kynurenine-pathway-responses-to-a-second-immune-challenge-in-early-adulthood
#3
Sarah M Clark, Francesca M Notarangelo, Xin Li, Shuo Chen, Robert Schwarcz, Leonardo H Tonelli
Maternal immune activation (MIA) with the viral mimic poly I:C provides an established rodent model for studying schizophrenia (SZ) and other human neurodevelopmental disorders. Postnatal infections are additional risk factors in SZ and may cumulatively contribute to the emergence of pathophysiology. Underlying mechanisms may involve metabolites of the kynurenine pathway (KP) of tryptophan degradation, which is readily induced by inflammatory stimuli. Here we compared the expression of selected cytokines and KP enzymes, and the levels of selected KP metabolites, in the brain of MIA offspring following a second, acute immune challenge with lipopolysaccharides (LPS) on postnatal day (PND) 35 (adolescence) or PND 60 (early adulthood)...
September 27, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30263214/a-chart-review-of-human-immunodeficiency-virus-status-in-patients-admitted-with-psychosis-in-durban-south-africa
#4
Sellwane M Mere, Saeeda Paruk
Background: Comorbid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among patients with psychotic disorders is associated with a poorer outcome. Understanding the association of HIV infection with demographic and clinical variables may provide clues to modify risk factors and outcomes. Aim: To describe and compare the socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted with psychotic disorders with and without HIV infection. Method: A retrospective chart review of 100 adult patients consecutively admitted with psychosis and HIV infection and compared to 101 patients with psychosis without HIV infection...
2018: South African Journal of Psychiatry: SAJP: the Journal of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30259827/clozapine-is-associated-with-secondary-antibody-deficiency
#5
Mark Ponsford, Daniel Castle, Tayyeb Tahir, Rebecca Robinson, Wendy Wade, Rachael Steven, Kathryn Bramhall, Mo Moody, Emily Carne, Catherine Ford, Daniel Farewell, Paul Williams, Tariq El-Shanawany, Stephen Jolles
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia affects 1% of the population. Clozapine is the only medication licensed for treatment-resistant schizophrenia and is intensively monitored to prevent harm from neutropenia. Clozapine is also associated with increased risk of pneumonia although the mechanism is poorly understood.AimsTo investigate the potential association between clozapine and antibody deficiency. METHODS: Patients taking clozapine and patients who were clozapine-naive and receiving alternative antipsychotics were recruited and completed a lifestyle, medication and infection-burden questionnaire...
September 27, 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30257799/prenatal-immune-activation-potentiates-endocannabinoid-related-plasticity-of-inhibitory-synapses-in-the-hippocampus-of-adolescent-rat-offspring
#6
Zhiling Guo, Yiu Chung Tse, Ying Zhang, Qiang Sun, Haley A Vecchiarelli, Robert Aukema, Matthew N Hill, Tak Pan Wong, Patricia Boksa
There is strong evidence that immune activation from prenatal infection increases the risk for offspring to develop schizophrenia. The endocannabinoid (eCB) system has been implicated in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia while models of cortical dysfunction postulate an imbalance between neuronal excitation and inhibition in the disorder. The current study examined the impact of prenatal immune activation on eCB-mediated inhibitory mechanisms. We compared two forms of eCB-related plasticity of evoked inhibitory postsynaptic currents, namely depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI) and metabotropic glutamate receptor-induced long term depression (mGluR-iLTD), in both the dorsal and ventral hippocampus between adolescent offspring from rat dams that received either saline or bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) during pregnancy...
September 23, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30256454/maternal-immune-activation-altered-microglial-immunoreactivity-in-the-brain-of-postnatal-day-2-rat-offspring
#7
Jiaxian Zhang, Yu Jing, Hu Zhang, David K Bilkey, Ping Liu
Microglia, the resident immune cells in the central nervous system, play critical roles in neurodevelopment, synaptic pruning and neuronal wiring. Early in development, microglia migrate via the tangential and radial migration pathways to their final destinations and mature gradually, a process that includes morphological changes. Recent research has implicated microglial abnormality in the etiology of schizophrenia. Since prenatal exposure to viral or bacterial infections due to maternal immune activation (MIA) leads to increased risk of schizophrenia in offspring during adulthood, the present study systematically investigated how MIA induced by polyinosinic:polycytidilic acid (a mimic of viral double stranded RNA) affected microglial immunoreactivity along the migration and maturation trajectories in the brains of male and female rat offspring at postnatal day (PND) 2...
September 26, 2018: Synapse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30195050/postnatal-exposure-to-poly-i-c-impairs-learning-and-memory-through-changes-in-synaptic-plasticity-gene-expression-in-developing-rat-brain
#8
Meghraj Singh Baghel, Brijendra Singh, Yogesh Kumar Dhuriya, Rajendra Kumar Shukla, Nisha Patro, Vinay Kumar Khanna, Ishan Kumar Patro, Mahendra Kumar Thakur
Viral infection during early stage of life influences brain development and results in several neurodevelopmental disorders such as schizophrenia, autism and behavioral abnormalities. However, the mechanism through which infection causes long-term behavioral defects is not well known. To elucidate this, we have used synthetic polyinosinic-polycytidylic acid [poly (I:C)] which acts as a dsRNA molecule and interacts with toll-like receptor-3 (TLR-3) of microglia cells to evoke the immune system, thus mimicking the viral infection...
September 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30186267/active-hhv-6-infection-of-cerebellar-purkinje-cells-in-mood-disorders
#9
Bhupesh K Prusty, Nitish Gulve, Sheila Govind, Gerhard R F Krueger, Julia Feichtinger, Lee Larcombe, Richard Aspinall, Dharam V Ablashi, Carla T Toro
Early-life infections and associated neuroinflammation is incriminated in the pathogenesis of various mood disorders. Infection with human roseoloviruses, HHV-6A and HHV-6B, allows viral latency in the central nervous system and other tissues, which can later be activated causing cognitive and behavioral disturbances. Hence, this study was designed to evaluate possible association of HHV-6A and HHV-6B activation with three different groups of psychiatric patients. DNA qPCR, immunofluorescence and FISH studies were carried out in post-mortem posterior cerebellum from 50 cases each of bipolar disorder (BPD), schizophrenia, 15 major depressive disorder (MDD) and 50 appropriate control samples obtained from two well-known brain collections (Stanley Medical Research Institute)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30176838/association-between-schizophrenia-and-syphilis-a-retrospective-study-in-xiamen-china
#10
Qiao Zhang, Jia-Jiang Xie
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that patients with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia have a higher risk for syphilis infection. However, the clinical characteristics of psychotic patients who are infected with syphilis remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of syphilis in psychotic patients in Xiamen and to compare the social function and serum biochemical markers between schizophrenia patients with and without syphilis. METHODS: There were a total of 1586 psychotic patients screened for syphilis from May 2016 to August 2017 in Xiamen Mental Health Center...
September 3, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30166678/a-perspective-study-of-cutaneous-manifestations-in-primary-psychiatric-disorders-in-a-tertiary-care-hospital
#11
Anne George, Banavasi Shanmukha Girisha, Satish Rao
Background: Cutaneous disorders are frequently seen in psychiatric patients. This may be attributed to the common ectodermal origin of skin and neurons. There is a paucity of data on cutaneous comorbidity in primary psychiatric disorders. Aims: The aim of this study is to determine the pattern of cutaneous manifestations in patients with primary psychiatric disorders. Settings and Design: This was a hospital-based observational study. Subjects and Methods: A total of 210 patients suffering from various psychiatric disorders along with associated skin disease were recruited...
April 2018: Indian Journal of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30146428/short-and-long-term-efficacy-of-electroconvulsive-stimulation-in-animal-models-of-depression-the-essential-role-of-neuronal-survival
#12
Julie Jonckheere, Jean-Christophe Deloulme, Gaëlle Dall'Igna, Nicolas Chauliac, Albane Pelluet, Anne-Sophie Nguon, Celia Lentini, Jacques Brocard, Eric Denarier, Sabine Brugière, Yohann Couté, Christophe Heinrich, Christophe Porcher, Jérôme Holtzmann, Annie Andrieux, Marie-Françoise Suaud-Chagny, Sylvie Gory-Fauré
BACKGROUND: Severe and medication-resistant psychiatric diseases, such as major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder or schizophrenia, can be effectively and rapidly treated by electroconvulsive therapy (ECT). Despite extensive long-standing clinical use, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying the curative action of ECT remain incompletely understood. OBJECTIVE: Unravel biological basis of electroconvulsive stimulation (ECS) efficacy, the animal equivalent of ECT...
August 15, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30127639/an-integrative-approach-to-neuroinflammation-in-psychiatric-disorders-and-neuropathic-pain
#13
REVIEW
Diana I Lurie
Neuroinflammation is a complex process involving both the peripheral circulation and the Central Nervous System (CNS) and is considered to underlie many CNS disorders including depression, anxiety, schizophrenia, and pain. Stressors including early-life adversity, psychosocial stress, and infection appear to prime microglia toward a pro-inflammatory phenotype. Subsequent inflammatory challenges then drive an exaggerated neuroinflammatory response involving the upregulation of pro-inflammatory mediators that is associated with CNS dysfunction...
2018: Journal of Experimental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30127472/host-parasite-interaction-associated-with-major-mental-illness
#14
Shin-Ichi Kano, Colin A Hodgkinson, Lorraine Jones-Brando, Sharon Eastwood, Koko Ishizuka, Minae Niwa, Eric Y Choi, Daniel J Chang, Yian Chen, Swetha D Velivela, Flora Leister, Joel Wood, Kodavali Chowdari, Francesca Ducci, Daniel A Caycedo, Elizabeth Heinz, Emily R Newman, Nicola Cascella, Preben B Mortensen, Peter P Zandi, Faith Dickerson, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, David Goldman, Paul J Harrison, Robert H Yolken, Akira Sawa
Clinical studies frequently report that patients with major mental illness such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have co-morbid physical conditions, suggesting that systemic alterations affecting both brain and peripheral tissues might underlie the disorders. Numerous studies have reported elevated levels of anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies in patients with major mental illnesses, but the underlying mechanism was unclear. Using multidisciplinary epidemiological, cell biological, and gene expression profiling approaches, we report here multiple lines of evidence suggesting that a major mental illness-related susceptibility factor, Disrupted in schizophrenia (DISC1), is involved in host immune responses against T...
August 20, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30125148/exposure-to-ultraviolet-radiation-in-the-modulation-of-human-diseases
#15
Prue H Hart, Mary Norval, Scott N Byrne, Lesley E Rhodes
This review focuses primarily on the beneficial effects for human health of exposure to ultraviolet radiation (UVR). UVR stimulates anti-inflammatory and immunosuppressive pathways in skin that modulate psoriasis, atopic dermatitis, and vitiligo; suppresses cutaneous lesions of graft-versus-host disease; and regulates some infection and vaccination outcomes. While polymorphic light eruption and the cutaneous photosensitivity of systemic lupus erythematosus are triggered by UVR, polymorphic light eruption also frequently benefits from UVR-induced immunomodulation...
August 20, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116031/cerebrospinal-fluid-markers-of-inflammation-and-infections-in-schizophrenia-and-affective-disorders-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#16
Sonja Orlovska-Waast, Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Sophie Wiben Brix, Merete Nordentoft, Daniel Kondziella, Jesper Krogh, Michael Eriksen Benros
Infections and inflammatory processes have been associated with the development of schizophrenia and affective disorders; however, no study has yet systematically reviewed all available studies on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) immune alterations. We aimed to systematically review the CSF immunological findings in schizophrenia spectrum and affective disorders. We identified all studies investigating CSF inflammatory markers in persons with schizophrenia or affective disorders published prior to March 23, 2017 searching PubMed, CENTRAL, EMBASE, Psychinfo, and LILACS...
August 16, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30079290/is-the-history-of-substance-abuse-correlated-with-neuropsychiatric-disorders-and-co-morbid-hiv-infection-an-urban-population-study
#17
R B Bassey, S N Chapman, M Pessu, A Jayam-Trouth, M C Gondré-Lewis
Background: Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection remains a serious immunological disease with new infections in the U.S. disproportionately reported in minority populations. For many years, the District of Columbia (DC) has reported the highest HIV infection rate in the nation. Drug abuse and addiction is also prevalent in DC and has traditionally been linked to HIV/AIDS because of the likelihood for opportunistic infections. Despite this data, the relationship between HIV status, drugs of abuse, and the incidence of neurological disorders are scarcely reported for minority populations...
2018: Journal of Neurology and Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055853/the-past-and-future-of-novel-non-dopamine-2-receptor-therapeutics-for-schizophrenia-a-critical-and-comprehensive-review
#18
REVIEW
Ragy R Girgis, Anthony W Zoghbi, Daniel C Javitt, Jeffrey A Lieberman
Since the discovery of chlorpromazine in the 1950's, antipsychotic drugs have been the cornerstone of treatment of schizophrenia, and all attenuate dopamine transmission at the dopamine-2 receptor. Drug development for schizophrenia since that time has led to improvements in side effects and tolerability, and limited improvements in efficacy, with the exception of clozapine. However, the reasons for clozapine's greater efficacy remain unclear, despite the great efforts and resources invested therewith. We performed a comprehensive review of the literature to determine the fate of previously tested, non-dopamine-2 receptor experimental treatments...
July 21, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055328/epigenetic-dysregulation-of-host-gene-expression-in-toxoplasma-infection-with-specific-reference-to-dopamine-and-amyloid-pathways
#19
Genevieve Syn, Denise Anderson, Jenefer M Blackwell, Sarra E Jamieson
Recent interest has focussed on the influence of infectious disease organisms on the host epigenome. Toxoplasma gondii infection acquired congenitally or in early life is associated with severe ocular and brain developmental anomalies, while persistent asymptomatic infection is a proposed risk factor for neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders, including Parkinson's and Alzheimer's Diseases, and schizophrenia. Genome-wide analysis of the host methylome and transcriptome following T. gondii infection in a retinal cell line identified genes (132, 186 and 128 genes at 2, 6 and 24 h post-infection) concordant for methylation and expression, i...
July 26, 2018: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053866/immunoglobulin-sub-class-distribution-in-bipolar-disorder-and-schizophrenia-potential-relationship-with-latent-toxoplasma-gondii-infection
#20
Nora Hamdani, Djaouida Bengoufa, Ophélia Godin, Raphaël Doukhan, Emmanuel Le Guen, Claire Daban-Huard, Meriem Bennabi, Marine Delavest, Jean-Pierre Lépine, Wahid Boukouaci, Hakim Laouamri, Josselin Houenou, Stéphane Jamain, Jean-Romain Richard, Philippe Lecorvosier, Robert Yolken, Krishnamoorthy Rajagopal, Marion Leboyer, Ryad Tamouza
BACKGROUND: Immune dysfunction could play a significant role in the pathogenesis of bipolar disorder (BD) and schizophrenia (SZ), conditions with an underlying pro-inflammatory state. Studies on humoral immune responses (which reflects antibody mediated fight against pathogens) in schizophrenia and bipolar disorder are sparse and often providing contradictory results. The aim of this study was to assess humoral immunity in a group of stable bipolar disorder and schizophrenia patients compared to controls by determining total Immunoglobulins and IgG subclasses and to assess their association with latent Toxoplasma gondii and/or CMV infection...
July 27, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
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