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Infection and mental illness

Ann J Nakitende, Paul Bangirana, Noeline Nakasujja, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Andrew S Ssemata, Chandy C John, Richard Idro
BACKGROUND: Severe malaria in children is often associated with long-term behavioural and cognitive problems. A sizeable minority of children go on to experience repeated malaria due to the high transmission and infection rates in the region. The purpose of this study was to explore caregivers' experiences of parenting a child with a history of severe malaria followed by repeated episodes of uncomplicated malaria in comparison to healthy community children. METHODS: Thirty-one caregivers were enrolled in the study...
October 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ishan Shah, Christopher Wang, Nick Jain, Blake Formanek, Zorica Buser, Jeffrey Wang
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Previous studies have found an association between mental illness and poor outcomes in spine surgery, but little is known about the effects of depression and/or anxiety on the adult spinal deformity population. In addition, most relevant studies exclusively focused on the lumbar spine and had relatively small patient sizes. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether adult spinal deformity patients with depression and/or anxiety have an increased risk of postoperative complications and reoperation following posterior thoracolumbar spinal surgery...
October 5, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Shuyan Wei, Lillian S Kao, Henry E Wang, Ronald Chang, Jeanette Podbielski, John B Holcomb, Charles E Wade
Background: Septic shock is a public health problem with high mortality. There remains a knowledge gap regarding the optimal resuscitation fluid to improve clinical outcomes, and the underlying mechanism by which fluids exert their effect. Shock-induced endotheliopathy (SHINE) is thought to be a shared pathophysiologic mechanism associated with worsened outcomes in critically ill trauma and sepsis patients. SHINE is characterized by breakdown of the glycocalyx-a network of membrane-bound proteoglycans and glycoproteins that covers the endothelium...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
Sellwane M Mere, Saeeda Paruk
Background: Comorbid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among patients with psychotic disorders is associated with a poorer outcome. Understanding the association of HIV infection with demographic and clinical variables may provide clues to modify risk factors and outcomes. Aim: To describe and compare the socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted with psychotic disorders with and without HIV infection. Method: A retrospective chart review of 100 adult patients consecutively admitted with psychosis and HIV infection and compared to 101 patients with psychosis without HIV infection...
2018: South African Journal of Psychiatry: SAJP: the Journal of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa
Ibrar Anjum, Syeda S Jaffery, Muniba Fayyaz, Zarak Samoo, Sheraz Anjum
Vitamin D is vital for our body as it regulates calcium homeostasis and maintains bone integrity. In this article, we will discuss how vitamin D aids in the function of neuronal and glial tissue and the many health consequences in a person with vitamin D deficiency. Some of the effects of vitamin D deficiency that will be discussed include the development of dementia caused by the increase of cerebral soluble and insoluble amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and a decrease of its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant properties, the link to depression by a reduction of the buffering of increased calcium in the brain, and vitamin D deficiency in expecting mothers linking to the development of autism and schizophrenic-like disorders, hypoxic brain injury, and other mental illnesses...
July 10, 2018: Curēus
Sonja S Hutchins, Karen Bouye, George Luber, Lisa Briseno, Candis Hunter, Liza Corso
During the past several decades, unprecedented global changes in climate have given rise to an increase in extreme weather and other climate events and their consequences such as heavy rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, heat waves, wildfires, and air pollution. These climate effects have direct impacts on human health such as premature death, injuries, exacerbation of health conditions, disruption of mental well-being, as well as indirect impacts through food- and water-related infections and illnesses. While all populations are at risk for these adverse health outcomes, some populations are at greater risk because of multiple vulnerabilities resulting from increased exposure to risk-prone areas, increased sensitivity due to underlying health conditions, and limited adaptive capacity primarily because of a lack of economic resources to respond adequately...
September 6, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
A Van Rie, N S West, S R Schwartz, L Mutanga, C F Hanrahan, J Ncayiyana, J Bassett
BACKGROUND: There is a growing interest in involving community health workers (CHWs) into the formal healthcare system in South Africa (SA). OBJECTIVES: To generate evidence for defining CHW tasks in urban SA. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey of residents of Diepsloot, northern Johannesburg, was performed using geographically weighted random sampling, with home-based health assessment and a questionnaire on sociodemographics, medical history, experience of violence, health-seeking behaviour and perceived health priorities...
August 28, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Qiao Zhang, Jia-Jiang Xie
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have shown that patients with mental illnesses such as schizophrenia have a higher risk for syphilis infection. However, the clinical characteristics of psychotic patients who are infected with syphilis remain unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of syphilis in psychotic patients in Xiamen and to compare the social function and serum biochemical markers between schizophrenia patients with and without syphilis. METHODS: There were a total of 1586 psychotic patients screened for syphilis from May 2016 to August 2017 in Xiamen Mental Health Center...
September 3, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Johannes van Aartsen, Helena van Aswegen
Background: Prolonged inflammation and infection associated with being critically ill and the ensuing physical inactivity has proven negative effects on the recovery of physical function, psychological health and reintegration into society for intensive care unit (ICU) survivors. Limited evidence is available on changes in biopsychosocial outcomes for South Africans recovering from an episode of critical illness. Objectives: To determine changes in biopsychosocial outcomes for a mixed cohort of ICU survivors in hospital and at 1 month and 6 months after discharge...
2018: South African Journal of Physiotherapy
Shin-Ichi Kano, Colin A Hodgkinson, Lorraine Jones-Brando, Sharon Eastwood, Koko Ishizuka, Minae Niwa, Eric Y Choi, Daniel J Chang, Yian Chen, Swetha D Velivela, Flora Leister, Joel Wood, Kodavali Chowdari, Francesca Ducci, Daniel A Caycedo, Elizabeth Heinz, Emily R Newman, Nicola Cascella, Preben B Mortensen, Peter P Zandi, Faith Dickerson, Vishwajit Nimgaonkar, David Goldman, Paul J Harrison, Robert H Yolken, Akira Sawa
Clinical studies frequently report that patients with major mental illness such as schizophrenia and bipolar disorder have co-morbid physical conditions, suggesting that systemic alterations affecting both brain and peripheral tissues might underlie the disorders. Numerous studies have reported elevated levels of anti-Toxoplasma gondii (T. gondii) antibodies in patients with major mental illnesses, but the underlying mechanism was unclear. Using multidisciplinary epidemiological, cell biological, and gene expression profiling approaches, we report here multiple lines of evidence suggesting that a major mental illness-related susceptibility factor, Disrupted in schizophrenia (DISC1), is involved in host immune responses against T...
August 20, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Shren Chetty, Kalai Naidu
Background: Africa is profoundly stricken by the HIV pandemic. People living with HIV/AIDS are more likely to be diagnosed with psychiatric disorders than the general population. We describe the prevalence of different mood and psychiatric disorders in HIV/AIDS infected patients with serious mental illness. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively sourced data from 105 patient files, at Weskoppies Hospital, between January 2012 and December 2016. Results: 56 patients had a psychotic disorder; 27 patients had a mood disorder and three patients had a cognitive disorder...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Paul G Barnett, Vilija R Joyce, Jeanie Lo, Risha Gidwani-Marszowski, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Manisha Desai, Steven M Asch, Mark Holodniy, Douglas K Owens
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether implementation of interferon-free treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) reached groups less likely to benefit from earlier therapies, including patients with genotype 1 virus or contraindications to interferon treatment, and groups that faced treatment disparities: African Americans, patients with HIV co-infection, and those with drug use disorder. METHODS: Electronic medical records of the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) were used to characterize patients with chronic HCV infection and the treatments they received...
August 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Nooshin Nikoo, Sanam Javidanbardan, Moniruzzaman Akm, Syune Hakobyan, Mohammadali Nikoo, Celia Kwan, Michael Song, Marc Vogel, Julian Somers, Michael Krausz
Background: There is scarce evidence on prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among individuals who are homeless and diagnosed with severe mental illness. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of HCV infection and associated risk factors in a representative sample of adults from At Home study. Methods: The Vancouver At Home study is part of the At Home/Chez Soi (AH/CS) project-a pragmatic randomized controlled trial of a Housing First intervention among homeless persons with mental illness in five Canadian cities between 2009 and 2013 with a 2-year follow-up period...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Drew H Barzman, Hannah Jackson, Umesh Singh, Marcus Griffey, Michael Sorter, Jonathan A Bernstein
Here we report a case of a 15-year-old female who had originally been diagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for schizophrenia, psychosis, severe anxiety, and depression. More in-depth history revealed an abrupt onset of her symptoms with remote acute infections and many exhibited characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder with rituals. Work-up for underlying infectious, immunodeficiency, and autoimmune causes was unrevealing except for very high levels of anti-neuronal antibodies which have been linked to Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS)...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Mary J Choi, Shewangizaw Worku, Barbara Knust, Arnold Vang, Ruth Lynfield, Mark R Mount, Tina Objio, Shelley Brown, Jayne Griffith, Deborah Hulbert, Susan Lippold, Elizabeth Ervin, Ute Ströher, Stacy Holzbauer, Wendolyn Slattery, Faith Washburn, Jane Harper, Mackenzie Koeck, Carol Uher, Pierre Rollin, Stuart Nichol, Ryan Else, Aaron DeVries
Background: In April 2014, a 46-year-old returning traveler from Liberia was transported by emergency medical services to a community hospital in Minnesota with fever and altered mental status. Twenty-four hours later, he developed gingival bleeding. Blood samples tested positive for Lassa fever RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Methods: Blood and urine samples were obtained from the patient and tested for evidence of Lassa fever virus infection...
July 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Liz Morrell, Suzanne Sayuri Ii, Sarah Wordsworth, Roger Wilson, Sian Rees, Richard Barker
Aims: Our aim is to identify important attributes of major diseases that shape how they are perceived by the public. Methods and Results: Four focus groups among members of the public were recruited, in March and October 2016, and used semistructured discussion to explore important attributes of cancer, heart disease, stroke, dementia, mental illness, and infectious disease. Common themes were identified by using inductive thematic analysis.Five themes were identified: fear, impact on family and friends, hope, detection, and prevention...
January 2018: Health science reports
David Wohl, Amanda Clarke, Franco Maggiolo, Will Garner, Marianne Laouri, Hal Martin, Erin Quirk
BACKGROUND: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are recommended for first-line antiretroviral therapy in combination with two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Co-formulated bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (B/F/TAF), a novel, INSTI-based regimen, is currently approved in the US and EU for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and recommended as first-line treatment in current guidelines. In our current analysis, we aimed to determine changes in patient-reported symptoms over time among HIV-1-infected adults who initiated or switched to B/F/TAF versus another INSTI-based regimen, co-formulated abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine (ABC/DTG/3TC)...
October 2018: Patient
Bryan Sackey, Jana G Shults, Troy A Moore, Rachel Rogers, Mina Mehvar, Joshua G King
Introduction: Approximately 70% of veterans with hepatitis C virus infection have at least one psychiatric illness. The advent of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy provided an alternative to interferon-alpha regimens and revolutionized treatment, however, the extent of psychiatric effects attributed to these agents are unclear. The primary objective of this pilot study was to prospectively analyze psychiatric outcomes, specifically depression, in veterans with hepatitis C virus infection who are initiated on DAA therapy...
May 2018: The mental health clinician
Irit Heruti, Sigal Levy, Ronit Avitsur
OBJECTIVE: Physical injuries are common occurrences that can have substantial implications for mental health and well-being. Ample studies indicated that increased levels of perceived stress is associated with increased prevalence of general health problems, as well as reduced health-related quality of life. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine the long-lasting association between bodily injuries and general health. In addition, the role of stress perception in moderating the association between injury and general health was assessed...
August 2018: Injury
Colby C Uptegraft, Shauna Stahlman
This report uses routinely collected data in the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) to characterize the incidence and burden of medical conditions throughout the careers of service members separating from the active component of the U.S. Armed Forces between 1 October 2014 and 30 September 2015. Three surveillance periods between 30 September 2000 and 30 September 2015 were defined by each individual's time in service: early (first 6 months), middle (middle 6 months), and late (last 6 months). Overall, separating service members were most often aged 25-34 years (59...
June 2018: MSMR
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