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Infection and mental illness

Shren Chetty, Kalai Naidu
Background: Africa is profoundly stricken by the HIV pandemic. People living with HIV/AIDS are more likely to be diagnosed with psychiatric disorders than the general population. We describe the prevalence of different mood and psychiatric disorders in HIV/AIDS infected patients with serious mental illness. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively sourced data from 105 patient files, at Weskoppies Hospital, between January 2012 and December 2016. Results: 56 patients had a psychotic disorder; 27 patients had a mood disorder and three patients had a cognitive disorder...
2018: African Journal of Infectious Diseases
Paul G Barnett, Vilija R Joyce, Jeanie Lo, Risha Gidwani-Marszowski, Jeremy D Goldhaber-Fiebert, Manisha Desai, Steven M Asch, Mark Holodniy, Douglas K Owens
OBJECTIVES: To determine whether implementation of interferon-free treatment for hepatitis C virus (HCV) reached groups less likely to benefit from earlier therapies, including patients with genotype 1 virus or contraindications to interferon treatment, and groups that faced treatment disparities: African Americans, patients with HIV co-infection, and those with drug use disorder. METHODS: Electronic medical records of the US Veterans Health Administration (VHA) were used to characterize patients with chronic HCV infection and the treatments they received...
August 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Nooshin Nikoo, Sanam Javidanbardan, Moniruzzaman Akm, Syune Hakobyan, Mohammadali Nikoo, Celia Kwan, Michael Song, Marc Vogel, Julian Somers, Michael Krausz
Background: There is scarce evidence on prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection among individuals who are homeless and diagnosed with severe mental illness. We aimed to investigate the prevalence of HCV infection and associated risk factors in a representative sample of adults from At Home study. Methods: The Vancouver At Home study is part of the At Home/Chez Soi (AH/CS) project-a pragmatic randomized controlled trial of a Housing First intervention among homeless persons with mental illness in five Canadian cities between 2009 and 2013 with a 2-year follow-up period...
July 31, 2018: European Journal of Public Health
Drew H Barzman, Hannah Jackson, Umesh Singh, Marcus Griffey, Michael Sorter, Jonathan A Bernstein
Here we report a case of a 15-year-old female who had originally been diagnosed and treated unsuccessfully for schizophrenia, psychosis, severe anxiety, and depression. More in-depth history revealed an abrupt onset of her symptoms with remote acute infections and many exhibited characteristics of obsessive compulsive disorder with rituals. Work-up for underlying infectious, immunodeficiency, and autoimmune causes was unrevealing except for very high levels of anti-neuronal antibodies which have been linked to Pediatric Acute-onset Neuropsychiatric Syndrome (PANS)...
2018: Case Reports in Psychiatry
Mary J Choi, Shewangizaw Worku, Barbara Knust, Arnold Vang, Ruth Lynfield, Mark R Mount, Tina Objio, Shelley Brown, Jayne Griffith, Deborah Hulbert, Susan Lippold, Elizabeth Ervin, Ute Ströher, Stacy Holzbauer, Wendolyn Slattery, Faith Washburn, Jane Harper, Mackenzie Koeck, Carol Uher, Pierre Rollin, Stuart Nichol, Ryan Else, Aaron DeVries
Background: In April 2014, a 46-year-old returning traveler from Liberia was transported by emergency medical services to a community hospital in Minnesota with fever and altered mental status. Twenty-four hours later, he developed gingival bleeding. Blood samples tested positive for Lassa fever RNA by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. Methods: Blood and urine samples were obtained from the patient and tested for evidence of Lassa fever virus infection...
July 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Liz Morrell, Suzanne Sayuri Ii, Sarah Wordsworth, Roger Wilson, Sian Rees, Richard Barker
Aims: Our aim is to identify important attributes of major diseases that shape how they are perceived by the public. Methods and Results: Four focus groups among members of the public were recruited, in March and October 2016, and used semistructured discussion to explore important attributes of cancer, heart disease, stroke, dementia, mental illness, and infectious disease. Common themes were identified by using inductive thematic analysis.Five themes were identified: fear, impact on family and friends, hope, detection, and prevention...
January 2018: Health science reports
David Wohl, Amanda Clarke, Franco Maggiolo, Will Garner, Marianne Laouri, Hal Martin, Erin Quirk
BACKGROUND: Integrase strand transfer inhibitors (INSTIs) are recommended for first-line antiretroviral therapy in combination with two nucleos(t)ide reverse transcriptase inhibitors. Co-formulated bictegravir, emtricitabine, and tenofovir alafenamide (B/F/TAF), a novel, INSTI-based regimen, is currently approved in the US and EU for the treatment of HIV-1 infection and recommended as first-line treatment in current guidelines. In our current analysis, we aimed to determine changes in patient-reported symptoms over time among HIV-1-infected adults who initiated or switched to B/F/TAF versus another INSTI-based regimen, co-formulated abacavir, dolutegravir, and lamivudine (ABC/DTG/3TC)...
June 29, 2018: Patient
Bryan Sackey, Jana G Shults, Troy A Moore, Rachel Rogers, Mina Mehvar, Joshua G King
Introduction: Approximately 70% of veterans with hepatitis C virus infection have at least one psychiatric illness. The advent of direct-acting antiviral (DAA) therapy provided an alternative to interferon-alpha regimens and revolutionized treatment, however, the extent of psychiatric effects attributed to these agents are unclear. The primary objective of this pilot study was to prospectively analyze psychiatric outcomes, specifically depression, in veterans with hepatitis C virus infection who are initiated on DAA therapy...
May 2018: The mental health clinician
Irit Heruti, Sigal Levy, Ronit Avitsur
OBJECTIVE: Physical injuries are common occurrences that can have substantial implications for mental health and well-being. Ample studies indicated that increased levels of perceived stress is associated with increased prevalence of general health problems, as well as reduced health-related quality of life. Thus, the goal of the present study was to examine the long-lasting association between bodily injuries and general health. In addition, the role of stress perception in moderating the association between injury and general health was assessed...
June 20, 2018: Injury
Colby C Uptegraft, Shauna Stahlman
This report uses routinely collected data in the Defense Medical Surveillance System (DMSS) to characterize the incidence and burden of medical conditions throughout the careers of service members separating from the active component of the U.S. Armed Forces between 1 October 2014 and 30 September 2015. Three surveillance periods between 30 September 2000 and 30 September 2015 were defined by each individual's time in service: early (first 6 months), middle (middle 6 months), and late (last 6 months). Overall, separating service members were most often aged 25-34 years (59...
June 2018: MSMR
Cheryl Peters, Srinivas Murthy, Rollin Brant, Niranjan Kissoon, Matthias Görges
OBJECTIVES: We evaluated adapting the quick Sequential (Sepsis-Related) Organ Failure Assessment score (fast respiratory rate, altered mental status, low blood pressure) for pediatric use by selecting thresholds from three commonly used definitions: Pediatric Logistic Organ Dysfunction 2, Pediatric Advanced Life Support, and International Pediatric Sepsis Consensus Conference. We examined their respective performance in identifying children who had a discharge diagnosis of infection at high risk of mortality using PICU registry data, with additional focus on the influence of age on performance...
August 2018: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
Janet M Basinger, Steven E Fiester, James W Fulcher
A case of toxic shock syndrome associated with methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus parotitis in a 13-year-old male is presented. He was initially diagnosed with left-sided parotitis by his primary care physician, was started on sulfamethoxazole/trimethoprim, and became severely ill the following day. He was transported to the hospital after a syncopal episode at home and was found to have altered mental status, hypotension, and hypoxia. He was transferred to a larger care facility and died en route despite aggressive resuscitation...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Bruce Barrett, Mary S Hayney, Daniel Muller, David Rakel, Roger Brown, Aleksandra E Zgierska, Shari Barlow, Supriya Hayer, Jodi H Barnet, Elisa R Torres, Christopher L Coe
BACKGROUND: Practice of meditation or exercise may enhance health to protect against acute infectious illness. OBJECTIVE: To assess preventive effects of meditation and exercise on acute respiratory infection (ARI) illness. DESIGN: Randomized controlled prevention trial with three parallel groups. SETTING: Madison, Wisconsin, USA. PARTICIPANTS: Community-recruited adults who did not regularly exercise or meditate...
2018: PloS One
Jonathan D Besney, Cybele Angel, Diane Pyne, Rebecca Martell, Louanne Keenan, Rabia Ahmed
Incarcerated women have a disproportionate burden of infectious and chronic disease, substance disorders, and mental illness. This study explored incarcerated women's health and whether a Women's Health Clinic improved care within this vulnerable population. Retrospective chart reviews and focus groups were conducted. Poor access to care in the community due to competing social needs was described. Barriers to care during incarceration included lack of comprehensive gender-specific services, mistrust of providers, and fragmentation...
July 2018: Journal of Correctional Health Care
Laura F Goodman, Guy W Jensen, Joseph M Galante, Diana L Farmer, Stephanie Taché
BACKGROUND: Over one million asylum seekers were registered in Germany in 2016, most from Syria and Afghanistan. The Refugee Convention guarantees access to healthcare, however delivery mechanisms remain heterogeneous. There is an urgent need for more data describing the health conditions of asylum seekers to guide best practices for healthcare delivery. In this study, we describe the state of health of asylum seekers presenting to a multi-specialty primary care refugee clinic. METHODS: Demographic and medical diagnosis data were extracted from the electronic medical records of patients seen at the ambulatory refugee clinic in Dresden, Germany between 15 September 2015 and 31 December 2016...
May 16, 2018: BMC Family Practice
Getinet Ayano, Mikiyas Tulu, Kibrom Haile, Dawit Assefa, Yodit Habtamu, Gebresilassie Araya, Zegeye Yohannis
Background: People with severe mental disorders (SMDs) are associated with increased risk of infectious disease including human immunodeficiency virus infection (HIV) and hepatitis viruses, such as hepatitis B virus (HBV), hepatitis C virus (HCV), and other types of hepatitis viruses because of high-risk behaviors compared to the general population. The prevalence of HIV in people with SMDs is higher in females than in males. Unlike HIV, the prevalence of HBV and HCV is higher in males than in females...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Ashley Howard, Timothy M Uyeki, Jaime Fergie
Encephalopathy is an important complication associated with influenza, most frequently observed in young children, with a wide range of severity. The most severe category of influenza-associated encephalopathy (IAE) is acute necrotizing encephalopathy (ANE), characterized by high frequency of neurologic sequelae and fatal outcomes. We report two young siblings who developed fever and seizures with altered mental status. Influenza A(H1N1)pdm09 virus infection was identified in upper respiratory tract specimens from both patients, and neuroimaging revealed bilateral inflammatory lesions, consistent with acute necrotizing encephalopathy...
May 4, 2018: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
Lucas Pereira Jorge de Medeiros, Mario Barreto Correa Lima, Marcia Maria Amêndola Pires, Alessandra Mendonça Almeida Maciel, Renata Barboza Vianna Medeiros, Mariana Dermínio Donadel, Isabela Martins Becattini Pereira, Fábio Marchon Leão, Luiz Eduardo Amorim Correa Lima Pires, Helio Rzetelna, Carlos Eduardo Brandão-Mello
Objectives: To evaluate the impact of 3 treatment regimens upon health-related quality of life and work productivity using patient-reported outcomes (PROs) in chronic hepatitis C infected patients: sofosbuvir (SOF) + daclatasvir (DCV); SOF + DCV + ribavirin (RBV); SOF + simeprevir (SMV). Methods: 4 questionnaires were used to evaluate PROs before, during and after treatment: Short Form-36 (SF-36), Chronic Liver Disease Questionnaire (CLDQ) - hepatitis C virus (HCV), Work Productivity and Activity Index, Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Fatigue (FACIT-F)...
April 2018: Osong Public Health and Research Perspectives
Kuo-Liang Chiang, Chin-Yin Huang, Hueng-Chuen Fan, Fang-Chuan Kuo
BACKGROUND: Studies investigating reasons for the admission and the associated lengths of stay (LOSs) among cerebral palsy (CP) patients are limited. This study determined common reasons for acute hospitalizations and the LOSs among children, adolescents, and young adults with CP. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of data. CP patients aged 4-32.9 years were identified by CP registry in the catastrophic illness patient registry of the 2010 Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database...
April 12, 2018: Pediatrics and Neonatology
Ann John, Joanna McGregor, Ian Jones, Sze Chim Lee, James T R Walters, Michael J Owen, Michael O'Donovan, Marcos DelPozo-Banos, Damon Berridge, Keith Lloyd
Studies assessing premature mortality in people with severe mental illness (SMI) are usually based in one setting, hospital (secondary care inpatients and/or outpatients) or community (primary care). This may lead to ascertainment bias. This study aimed to estimate standardised mortality ratios (SMRs) for all-cause and cause-specific mortality in people with SMI drawn from linked primary and secondary care populations compared to the general population. SMRs were calculated using the indirect method for a United Kingdom population of almost four million between 2004 and 2013...
May 2, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
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