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Infection and mental illness

Viviane Labrie, Lena Brundin
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 5, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Aja Louise Murray, Daniela Kaiser, Sara Valdebenito, Claire Hughes, Adriana Baban, Asvini D Fernando, Bernadette Madrid, Catherine L Ward, Joseph Osafo, Michael Dunne, Siham Sikander, Susan Walker, Vo Van Thang, Mark Tomlinson, Manuel Eisner
Prenatal intimate partner violence (P-IPV) can have significant adverse impacts on both mother and fetus. Existing P-IPV interventions focus on the safety of the mother and on reducing revictimization; yet expanding these to address the adverse impact on the fetus has considerable potential for preventing long-term negative developmental outcomes. In this review, we draw together evidence on major pathways linking exposure to P-IPV and child outcomes, arguing that these pathways represent potential targets to improve P-IPV intervention efforts...
December 4, 2018: Trauma, Violence & Abuse
Isra Alsaady, Ellen Tedford, Mohammad Alsaad, Greg Bristow, Shivali Kohli, Matthew Murray, Matthew Reeves, M S Vijayabaskar, Steven J Clapcote, Jonathan Wastling, Glenn A McConkey
Toxoplasma gondii is associated with physiological effects in the host. Dysregulation of catecholamines in the central nervous system has previously been observed in chronically-infected animals. In the study described here, the noradrenergic system was found to be suppressed with decreased levels of norepinephrine (NE) in brains of infected animals and in infected human and rat neural cells in vitro The mechanism responsible for the NE suppression was found to be down-regulation of dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) gene expression, encoding the enzyme that synthesizes norepinephrine from dopamine with down-regulation observed in vitro and in infected brain tissue, particularly in the dorsal locus coeruleus/pons region...
December 3, 2018: Infection and Immunity
Rosalie Corona, Kristina B Hood, Firoza Haffejee
HIV continues to be a health priority in South Africa. Consistent condom use helps prevent HIV, yet less than half of South African emerging adults use condoms consistently. Cultural beliefs about illnesses (e.g., being thin is perceived to be a sign of HIV infection) suggest that body image perceptions may play a role in emerging adults' condom use outcomes. We explored the relationships between body image perceptions (i.e., body dissatisfaction, body consciousness) and condom use outcomes (e.g., attitudes, negotiation efficacy, past use) in a sample of South African emerging adults...
November 30, 2018: Prevention Science: the Official Journal of the Society for Prevention Research
Joshua Parreco, Nawara Alawa, Rishi Rattan, Jun Tashiro, Juan E Sola
BACKGROUND: Most studies of readmission after trauma are limited to single institutions or single states. The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors for readmission after trauma for mental illness including readmissions to different hospitals across the United States. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The Nationwide Readmission Database for 2013 and 2014 was queried for all patients aged 13 to 64 y with a nonelective admission for trauma and a nonelective readmission within 30 d...
December 2018: Journal of Surgical Research
Valentina Pugliese, Antonella Bruni, Elvira Anna Carbone, Giuseppina Calabrò, Gregorio Cerminara, Gaia Sampogna, Mario Luciano, Luca Steardo, Andrea Fiorillo, Cristina Segura Garcia, Pasquale De Fazio
Maternal stress and medical illnesses during early life are well-documented environmental indicators of an increased risk of schizophrenia. Few studies, conversely, have confirmed an association with major affective disorders. The present study examined the impact of maternal stress, medical illnesses and obstetric complications on the development of severe mental disorder in 240 patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia spectrum disorder, bipolar disorder, or major depressive disorder and matched with 85 controls...
November 13, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Jeffrey K Hom, Danica Kuncio, Caroline C Johnson, Kendra Viner
Hepatitis B (HBV) and hepatitis C (HCV) infections contribute significant morbidity in the United States, particularly among those with a history of incarceration, homeless-ness, and/or co-morbid mental illness. Data from the Philadelphia Department of Public Health's viral hepatitis registry were matched at the person-level to the city's shelter, jail, and mental health system datasets (vulnerability datasets), and descriptive statistics were calculated. Between January 2010 and December 2014, 29,807 cases of HCV and 133 cases of HBV/HCV were reported...
2018: Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved
Sheng-Yun Huang, Jeng-Hsiu Hung, Li-Yu Hu, Min-Wei Huang, Shyh-Chyang Lee, Cheng-Che Shen
Depressive disorder is a severe mental disorder associated with functional and cognitive impairment. Numerous papers in the literature investigated associations between sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and psychiatric illnesses. However, the results of these studies are controversial.We explored the relationship between depressive disorder and the subsequent development of STIs including human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, primary, secondary, and latent syphilis, genital warts, gonorrhea, chlamydial infection, and trichomoniasis...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Răzvan Alexandru Radu, Elena Oana Terecoasă, Amalia Ene, Ovidiu Alexandru Băjenaru, Cristina Tiu
Opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome (OMS) is a very rare condition with different autoimmune, infectious and paraneoplastic aetiologies or in most cases idiopathic. We report the case of a 75-year-old woman who was admitted in our department in early fall for altered mental status, opsoclonus, multifocal myoclonus, truncal titubation and generalized tremor, preceded by a 5 day prodrome consisting of malaise, nausea, fever and vomiting. Brain computed tomography and MRI scans showed no significant abnormalities and cerebrospinal fluid changes consisted of mildly increased protein content and number of white cells...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Thenmalar Vadiveloo, Peter T Donnan, Callum J Leese, Kirstin J Abraham, Graham P Leese
OBJECTIVES: A population based study was undertaken to determine the mortality and morbidity for people with hypoparathyroidism compared to the general population. METHODS: In this study, patients identified with chronic hypoparathyroidism using data-linkage from regional datasets were compared to five age and gender matched controls from the general population. Data from biochemistry, hospital admissions, prescribing and the demographic dataset were linked. Outcomes for mortality and specified conditions were examined for all patients and sub-divided into post-surgical and non-surgical cases of hypoparathyroidism...
October 30, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
Karine Dubé, Sara Gianella, Susan Concha-Garcia, Susan J Little, Andy Kaytes, Jeff Taylor, Kushagra Mathur, Sogol Javadi, Anshula Nathan, Hursch Patel, Stuart Luter, Sean Philpott-Jones, Brandon Brown, Davey Smith
BACKGROUND: The U.S. National Institute of Allergies and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) and the National Institute of Mental Health (NIMH) have a new research priority: inclusion of terminally ill persons living with HIV (PLWHIV) in HIV cure-related research. For example, the Last Gift is a clinical research study at the University of California San Diego (UCSD) for PLWHIV who have a terminal illness, with a prognosis of less than 6 months. DISCUSSION: As end-of-life (EOL) HIV cure research is relatively new, the scientific community has a timely opportunity to examine the related ethical challenges...
October 20, 2018: BMC Medical Ethics
Corona Solana, Diana Pereira, Raquel Tarazona
Schizophrenia is a severe, chronic mental disorder characterized by delusions and hallucinations. Several evidences support the link of schizophrenia with accelerated telomeres shortening and accelerated aging. Thus, schizophrenia patients show higher mortality compared to age-matched healthy donors. The etiology of schizophrenia is multifactorial, involving genetic and environmental factors. Telomere erosion has been shown to be accelerated by different factors including environmental factors such as cigarette smoking and chronic alcohol consumption or by psychosocial stress such as childhood maltreatment...
October 18, 2018: Brain Sciences
Melat Solomon, Telake Azale, Awake Meherte, Getachew Asfaw, Getinet Ayano
Introduction: There is a cultural variability around the perception of what causes the syndrome of schizophrenia. As far as the cause of schizophrenia by the general public concerned, people living in western countries focus mainly on biological and social risk factors such as genetic vulnerability, disease of the brain, infection or stressful social conditions or personal weakness, but the predominant views held by people living in non-western countries focus mainly on supernatural and religious factors...
2018: Annals of General Psychiatry
Claudia N Orozco-González, Laura Cortés-Sanabria, Alfonso M Cueto-Manzano, Beatriz Corona-Figueroa, Héctor R Martínez-Ramírez, Jorge López-Leal, Fabiola Martín-Del-Campo, Enrique Rojas-Campos, Benjamín Gómez-Navarro
OBJECTIVE: Pica could be strongly implicated in nutritional status of patients on dialysis; however, very scarce data are currently available. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of pica and its association with nutritional status in dialysis patients. DESIGN AND METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study in a tertiary care teaching hospital. Four-hundred patients on dialysis, without previous pica diagnosis or transplant, pregnancy, mental illness, or infection, were included in the study...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Renal Nutrition
Ann J Nakitende, Paul Bangirana, Noeline Nakasujja, Margaret Semrud-Clikeman, Andrew S Ssemata, Chandy C John, Richard Idro
BACKGROUND: Severe malaria in children is often associated with long-term behavioural and cognitive problems. A sizeable minority of children go on to experience repeated malaria due to the high transmission and infection rates in the region. The purpose of this study was to explore caregivers' experiences of parenting a child with a history of severe malaria followed by repeated episodes of uncomplicated malaria in comparison to healthy community children. METHODS: Thirty-one caregivers were enrolled in the study...
October 12, 2018: Malaria Journal
Ishan Shah, Christopher Wang, Nick Jain, Blake Formanek, Zorica Buser, Jeffrey Wang
BACKGROUND CONTEXT: Previous studies have found an association between mental illness and poor outcomes in spine surgery, but little is known about the effects of depression and/or anxiety on the adult spinal deformity population. In addition, most relevant studies exclusively focused on the lumbar spine and had relatively small patient sizes. PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate whether adult spinal deformity patients with depression and/or anxiety have an increased risk of postoperative complications and reoperation following posterior thoracolumbar spinal surgery...
October 5, 2018: Spine Journal: Official Journal of the North American Spine Society
Shuyan Wei, Lillian S Kao, Henry E Wang, Ronald Chang, Jeanette Podbielski, John B Holcomb, Charles E Wade
Background: Septic shock is a public health problem with high mortality. There remains a knowledge gap regarding the optimal resuscitation fluid to improve clinical outcomes, and the underlying mechanism by which fluids exert their effect. Shock-induced endotheliopathy (SHINE) is thought to be a shared pathophysiologic mechanism associated with worsened outcomes in critically ill trauma and sepsis patients. SHINE is characterized by breakdown of the glycocalyx-a network of membrane-bound proteoglycans and glycoproteins that covers the endothelium...
2018: Trauma surgery & acute care open
Sellwane M Mere, Saeeda Paruk
Background: Comorbid human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection among patients with psychotic disorders is associated with a poorer outcome. Understanding the association of HIV infection with demographic and clinical variables may provide clues to modify risk factors and outcomes. Aim: To describe and compare the socio-demographic and clinical profile of patients admitted with psychotic disorders with and without HIV infection. Method: A retrospective chart review of 100 adult patients consecutively admitted with psychosis and HIV infection and compared to 101 patients with psychosis without HIV infection...
2018: South African Journal of Psychiatry: SAJP: the Journal of the Society of Psychiatrists of South Africa
Ibrar Anjum, Syeda S Jaffery, Muniba Fayyaz, Zarak Samoo, Sheraz Anjum
Vitamin D is vital for our body as it regulates calcium homeostasis and maintains bone integrity. In this article, we will discuss how vitamin D aids in the function of neuronal and glial tissue and the many health consequences in a person with vitamin D deficiency. Some of the effects of vitamin D deficiency that will be discussed include the development of dementia caused by the increase of cerebral soluble and insoluble amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides and a decrease of its anti-inflammatory/antioxidant properties, the link to depression by a reduction of the buffering of increased calcium in the brain, and vitamin D deficiency in expecting mothers linking to the development of autism and schizophrenic-like disorders, hypoxic brain injury, and other mental illnesses...
July 10, 2018: Curēus
Sonja S Hutchins, Karen Bouye, George Luber, Lisa Briseno, Candis Hunter, Liza Corso
During the past several decades, unprecedented global changes in climate have given rise to an increase in extreme weather and other climate events and their consequences such as heavy rainfall, hurricanes, flooding, heat waves, wildfires, and air pollution. These climate effects have direct impacts on human health such as premature death, injuries, exacerbation of health conditions, disruption of mental well-being, as well as indirect impacts through food- and water-related infections and illnesses. While all populations are at risk for these adverse health outcomes, some populations are at greater risk because of multiple vulnerabilities resulting from increased exposure to risk-prone areas, increased sensitivity due to underlying health conditions, and limited adaptive capacity primarily because of a lack of economic resources to respond adequately...
December 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
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