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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30104749/tax-havens-and-global-environmental-degradation
#1
REVIEW
Victor Galaz, Beatrice Crona, Alice Dauriach, Jean-Baptiste Jouffray, Henrik Österblom, Jan Fichtner
The release of classified documents in the past years have offered a rare glimpse into the opaque world of tax havens and their role in the global economy. Although the political, economic and social implications related to these financial secrecy jurisdictions are known, their role in supporting economic activities with potentially detrimental environmental consequences have until now been largely ignored. Here, we combine quantitative analysis with case descriptions to elaborate and quantify the connections between tax havens and the environment, both in global fisheries and the Brazilian Amazon...
August 13, 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30096816/evolution-of-landscape-ecological-risk-at-the-optimal-scale-a-case-study-of-the-open-coastal-wetlands-in-jiangsu-china
#2
Yongchao Liu, Yongxue Liu, Jialin Li, Wanyun Lu, Xianglin Wei, Chao Sun
Detailed analysis of the evolution characteristics of landscape ecological risk is crucial for coastal sustainable management and for understanding the potential environmental impacts of a man-made landform landscapes (MMLL). As a typical open coastal wetland, large-scale human activities (e.g., tidal reclamation, fishery activities, wind farm construction, and port construction) have substantially affected the evolution of the coastal ecological environment. Previous landscape ecological risk assessment studies have documented the effectiveness of assessing the quality of ecological environment processes...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083934/reef-building-corals-as-a-tool-for-climate-change-research-in-the-genomics-era
#3
Filipa Godoy-Vitorino, Carlos Toledo-Hernandez
Coral reef ecosystems are among the most biodiverse habitats in the marine realm. They not only contribute with a plethora of ecosystem services, but they also are beneficial to humankind via nurturing marine fisheries and sustaining recreational activities. We will discuss the biology of coral reefs and their ecophysiology including the complex bacterial microbiota associated with them.
2018: Results and Problems in Cell Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083613/wealthy-countries-dominate-industrial-fishing
#4
Douglas J McCauley, Caroline Jablonicky, Edward H Allison, Christopher D Golden, Francis H Joyce, Juan Mayorga, David Kroodsma
The patterns by which different nations share global fisheries influence outcomes for food security, trajectories of economic development, and competition between industrial and small-scale fishing. We report patterns of industrial fishing effort for vessels flagged to higher- and lower-income nations, in marine areas within and beyond national jurisdiction, using analyses of high-resolution fishing vessel activity data. These analyses reveal global dominance of industrial fishing by wealthy nations. Vessels flagged to higher-income nations, for example, are responsible for 97% of the trackable industrial fishing on the high seas and 78% of such effort within the national waters of lower-income countries...
August 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30083601/far-from-home-distance-patterns-of-global-fishing-fleets
#5
David Tickler, Jessica J Meeuwig, Maria-Lourdes Palomares, Daniel Pauly, Dirk Zeller
Postwar growth of industrial fisheries catch to its peak in 1996 was driven by increasing fleet capacity and geographical expansion. An investigation of the latter, using spatially allocated reconstructed catch data to quantify "mean distance to fishing grounds," found global trends to be dominated by the expansion histories of a small number of distant-water fishing countries. While most countries fished largely in local waters, Taiwan, South Korea, Spain, and China rapidly increased their mean distance to fishing grounds by 2000 to 4000 km between 1950 and 2014...
August 2018: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30077688/harvesting-induced-stability-and-instability-in-a-tri-trophic-food-chain
#6
Bapan Ghosh, Debprasad Pal, Tarzan Legović, T K Kar
Non-equilibrium dynamics in the form of oscillations or chaos is often found to be a natural phenomenon in complex ecological systems. In this paper, we first analyze a tri-trophic food chain, which is an extension of the Rosenzweig-MacArthur di-trophic food chain. We then explore the impact of harvesting individual trophic levels to answer the following questions : a) when a non-equilibrium dynamics persists, b) whether it can locally be stabilized to a steady state, c) when the system switches from a stable steady state to a non-equilibrium dynamics and d) whether the Maximum Sustainable Yield (MSY) always exists when the top predator is harvested...
August 2, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30065660/redox-challenge-in-a-cultured-temperate-marine-species-during-low-temperature-and-temperature-recovery
#7
Sergio Sánchez-Nuño, Ignasi Sanahuja, Laura Fernández-Alacid, Borja Ordóñez-Grande, Ramon Fontanillas, Jaume Fernández-Borràs, Josefina Blasco, Teresa Carbonell, Antoni Ibarz
Aquaculture is a growing industry that is increasingly providing a sizable proportion of fishery products for human consumption. Dietary energy and temperature fluctuations affect fish health and may even trigger mortality, causing great losses in fish production during winter. To better understand this unproductive winter period in aquaculture, the redox status in a cultured marine species, the gilthead sea bream, was analyzed for the first time by inducing controlled temperature fluctuations and reducing dietary lipid content...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30055836/linking-life-history-traits-spatial-distribution-and-abundance-of-two-species-of-lugworms-to-bait-collection-a-case-study-for-sustainable-management-plan
#8
Lola De Cubber, Sébastien Lefebvre, Charline Fisseau, Vincent Cornille, Sylvie Marylène Gaudron
Arenicola spp. are marine benthic polychaetes dug for bait by anglers. Without regulation, this activity can lead to the decrease of lugworms' population meanwhile affecting the physical characteristics of the beach and the biodiversity. Here, we identified through morphology and genetics two species of lugworms, Arenicola marina and A. defodiens, within a Marine Protected Area of the Eastern English Channel (France). For each species, abundance and spatial distribution were assessed using a stratified random sampling and interpolation at four studied sites, as well as some life-history traits...
July 21, 2018: Marine Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30053344/assessing-environmental-impacts-and-change-in-myanmar-s-mangrove-ecosystem-service-value-due-to-deforestation-2000-2014
#9
Ronald C Estoque, Soe W Myint, Chuyuan Wang, Asif Ishtiaque, Toe T Aung, Lucy Emerton, Makoto Ooba, Yasuaki Hijioka, Myat S Mon, Zhe Wang, Chao Fan
Myanmar is one of the mangrove-richest countries in the world, providing valuable ecosystem services to people. However, due to deforestation driven primarily by agricultural expansion, Myanmar's mangrove forest cover has declined dramatically over the past few decades, while what remains is still under pressure. To support management planning, accurate quantification of mangrove forest cover changes on a national scale is needed. In this study, we quantified Myanmar's mangrove forest cover changes between 2000 and 2014 using remotely sensed data, examined the environmental impacts of such changes, and estimated the changes in the economic values of mangrove ecosystem services in the country...
July 27, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30045514/fifty-years-after-its-discharge-methylation-of-legacy-mercury-trapped-in-the-penobscot-estuary-sustains-high-mercury-in-biota
#10
John W M Rudd, R A Bodaly, Nicholas S Fisher, C A Kelly, Dianne Kopec, Chris Whipple
Fifty years ago, the Penobscot Estuary was contaminated by mercury discharged from the chlor-alkali plant located in Orrington, Maine, USA. Almost all of the mercury was discharged from the plant during the late 1960s and early 1970s. Despite the much lower mercury discharges in recent decades, present-day concentrations in surface sediment remain high (averaging 350-1100 ng/g dw) and are still high in blood of marsh birds (up to 10.5 μg/g), black duck muscle (0.8 μg/g), and lobster muscle (0.4 μg/g)...
November 15, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30044805/spatio-temporal-migratory-dynamics-of-jasus-frontalis-milne-edwards-1837-in-alexander-selkirk-island-juan-fern%C3%A3-ndez-archipelago-chile
#11
Catalina Román, Billy Ernst, Martin Thiel, Pablo Manríquez, Julio Chamorro
Knowledge about the spatial patterns and movements of crustaceans has gained importance since the creation of marine protected areas and the development of spatial management for benthic ecosystems. The Juan Fernández spiny lobster (Jasus frontalis) is an endemic marine species and most valuable resource that exhibits migratory dynamics in a highly spatially regulated fishery. To study movement patterns around Alexander Selkirk Island, a mark-recapture program was implemented in 2008, when approximately 7000 non-commercial (undersized) lobsters were tagged and followed for nearly 14 months...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30043424/long-term-effect-of-a-tidal-hydroelectric-propeller-turbine-on-the-populations-of-three-anadromous-fish-species
#12
REVIEW
M J Dadswell, A D Spares, M F Mclean, P J Harris, R A Rulifson
Tidal hydroelectric power has been proposed as one potential solution for sustainable energy sources. The first tidal turbine in North America began continuous operation in the Annapolis River estuary (44o 45' N; 65o 29' W) in June, 1985. The machine is an axial-flow, hydraulic-lift propeller turbine, a type known to cause fish mortality. Anadromous populations of American shad Alosa sapidissima, striped bass Morone saxatilis and Atlantic sturgeon Acipenser oxyrinchus utilize the Annapolis River for spawning and other life history phases...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Fish Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041353/tropical-sea-cucumber-fisheries-changes-during-the-last-decade
#13
Chantal Conand
Tropical sea cucumber fisheries are generally traditional, small-scale, multispecies and poorly managed. Many recent studies have improved our knowledge on the biology and ecology of the commercially important species; the main results are analysed and the remaining gaps discussed. The fisheries and the patterns of trade changes during the last decade are presented from the data available and confirm overexploitation in the traditional Indian Ocean and West Pacific countries and territories. Several Latino-American countries now have active fisheries...
August 2018: Marine Pollution Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018411/first-insights-into-the-movements-of-young-of-the-year-white-sharks-carcharodon-carcharias-in-the-western-north-atlantic-ocean
#14
Tobey H Curtis, Gregory Metzger, Christopher Fischer, Brett McBride, Michael McCallister, Leann J Winn, Jessica Quinlan, Matthew J Ajemian
In recent years, white sharks (Carcharodon carcharias) have become more accessible to researchers off the northeastern U.S. as feeding aggregation sites have emerged and the population has increased. However, there has been limited research on young-of-the-year (YOY) sharks relative to older age classes in this region. Previous research indicated that YOY white sharks were most frequently observed in the New York Bight, suggesting the region serves a nursery role. To further examine the species' use of this area, we deployed satellite and acoustic tags on ten YOY white sharks (138-166 cm total length) off Long Island, New York...
July 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30014434/artisanal-shell-based-handicraft-in-papua-new-guinea-challenges-and-opportunities-for-livelihoods-development
#15
Nittya S Simard, Thane A Militz, Jeff Kinch, Paul C Southgate
A thorough understanding of livelihoods is necessary to ensure development policies are compatible with both resource conservation and the social and economic goals of development. Few studies, however, focus on value-adding activities occurring post-harvest in artisanal fisheries. The transformation of mollusc shells and skeletal remains of other marine taxa into artistic jewellery and decorative items is becoming an increasingly important livelihood activity for rural, coastal communities across the Pacific...
July 16, 2018: Ambio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002457/predicting-global-tuna-vulnerabilities-with-spatial-economic-biological-and-climatic-considerations
#16
Alex Tidd, Julia L Blanchard, Laurence Kell, Reg A Watson
Overfishing impacts the three pillars of sustainability: social, ecological and economic. Tuna represent a significant part of the global seafood market with an annual value exceeding USD$42B and are vulnerable to overfishing. Our understanding of how social and economic drivers contribute to overexploitation is not well developed. We address this problem by integrating social, ecological and economic indicators to help predict changes in exploitation status, namely fishing mortality relative to the level that would support the maximum sustainable yield (F/FMSY )...
July 12, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30002227/response-to-comments-on-designing-river-flows-to-improve-food-security-futures-in-the-lower-mekong-basin
#17
COMMENT
G W Holtgrieve, M E Arias, A Ruhi, V Elliott, So Nam, Peng Bun Ngor, T A Räsänen, J L Sabo
Sabo et al presented an empirically derived algorithm defining the socioecological response of the Tonle Sap Dai fishery in the Cambodian Mekong to basin-scale variation in hydrologic flow regime. Williams suggests that the analysis leading to the algorithm is flawed because of the large distance between the gauge used to measure water levels (hydrology) and the site of harvest for the fishery. Halls and Moyle argue that Sabo et al 's findings are well known and contend that the algorithm is not a comprehensive assessment of sustainability...
July 13, 2018: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30001337/loitering-with-intent-catching-the-outlier-vessels-at-sea
#18
Jessica H Ford, David Peel, Britta Denise Hardesty, Uwe Rosebrock, Chris Wilcox
Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) fishing activities pose one of the most significant threats to sustainable fisheries worldwide. Identifying illegal behaviour, specifically fishing and at-sea transhipment, continues to be a fundamental hurdle in combating IUU fishing. Here, we explore the use of spatial statistical methods to identify vessels behaving anomalously, in particular with regard to loitering, using the Indonesian Exclusive Economic Zone (EEZ) and surrounding waters as a case-study. Using Automatic Identification System (AIS) for vessel tracking, we applied Generalized Additive Models to capture both the temporal and spatial nature of loitering behaviour...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29995906/gene-flow-and-genetic-structure-in-nile-perch-lates-niloticus-from-african-freshwater-rivers-and-lakes
#19
Rose K Basiita, Kyall R Zenger, Matthew T Mwanja, Dean R Jerry
BACKGROUND: Geological evolution of the African continent has been subject to complex processes including uplift, volcanism, desert formation and tectonic rifting. This complex geology has created substantial biogeographical barriers, and coupled with anthropogenic introductions of freshwater fishes, has influenced the genetic diversity, connectivity and sub-structuring of the teleost fauna. Nile perch, Lates niloticus, is an iconic fish in Africa and is of high commercial importance, both in the species' native range and where it has been translocated...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29986428/emerging-opportunities-for-synthetic-biology-in-agriculture
#20
REVIEW
Hugh Douglas Goold, Philip Wright, Deborah Hailstones
Rapid expansion in the emerging field of synthetic biology has to date mainly focused on the microbial sciences and human health. However, the zeitgeist is that synthetic biology will also shortly deliver major outcomes for agriculture. The primary industries of agriculture, fisheries and forestry, face significant and global challenges; addressing them will be assisted by the sector’s strong history of early adoption of transformative innovation, such as the genetic technologies that underlie synthetic biology...
July 6, 2018: Genes
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