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Athanasia A Septevani, David A C Evans, Alireza Hosseinmardi, Darren J Martin, John Simonsen, John F Conley, Pratheep K Annamalai
Analysis of cellulose nanocrystals (CNCs) at low volume fractions in polymer nanocomposites through conventional electron microscopy still remains a challenge due to insufficient contrast between CNCs and organic polymer matrices. Herein, a methodology for enhancing the contrast of CNC, through atomic layer deposition (ALD) of alumina (Al2 O3 ) on CNCs is demonstrated. The metal oxide coated CNC allows clear visualization by transmission electron microscopy, when they are dispersed in water and polyol. A coating of about 6 ± 1 nm thick alumina layer on the CNC is achieved after 50 ALD cycles...
October 16, 2018: Small
Ana G Cunha, Meri Lundahl, Mohd Farhan Ansari, Leena-Sisko Johansson, Joseph M Campbell, Orlando J Rojas
Colloidal dispersions of cellulose nanofibrils (CNFs) are viable alternatives to cellulose II dissolutions used for filament spinning. The porosity and water vapor affinity of CNF filaments make them suitable for controlled breathability. However, many textile applications also require water repellence. Here, we investigated the effects of postmodification of wet-spun CNF filaments via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). Two organosilanes with different numbers of methyl substituents were considered. Various surface structures were achieved, either as continuous, homogeneous coating layers or as three-dimensional, hairy-like assemblies...
September 28, 2018: ACS applied nano materials
Lei Dai, Ting Cheng, Chao Duan, Wei Zhao, Weipeng Zhang, Xuejun Zou, Joseph Aspler, Yonghao Ni
Three-dimensional (3D) printing is classified as a revolutionary, disruptive manufacturing technology. Cellulose (the most abundant natural polymer) and its many derivatives have been widely studied for many applications. The combination of 3D printing with cellulose-based feedstocks is therefore of critical interest. This review highlights many studies on 3D printing applications of plant-derived cellulose and its derivatives. Potential materials include cellulose ethers/esters, microcrystalline cellulose, nanocellulosic materials, and other products...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
Jingjing Luo, Meiyun Zhang, Bin Yang, Guodong Liu, Jiaojun Tan, Jingyi Nie, Shunxi Song
An aramid nanofibers (ANFs)-functionalized nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC) composite film is effectively fabricated by the incorporation of ANFs into nanocellulose matrix. The fabrication of the composite film imitates the traditional paper-making process after homogenous mixing. The as-prepared composite film shows excellent UV-shielding performance due to the incorporation of ANFs. Thus the effect of ANFs contents is evaluated in aspects of the surface morphology, physicochemical properties including crystallinity, chemical structure and photothermal stability of composite film...
January 1, 2019: Carbohydrate Polymers
KhangWei Tan, SungKu Heo, MeiLing Foo, Irene MeiLeng Chew, ChangKyoo Yoo
Nanocellulose, a structural polysaccharide that has caught tremendous interests nowadays due to its renewability, inherent biocompatibility and biodegradability, abundance in resource, and environmental friendly nature. They are promising green nanomaterials derived from cellulosic biomass that can be disintegrated into cellulose nanofibrils (CNF) or cellulose nanocrystals (CNC), relying on their sensitivity to hydrolysis at the axial spacing of disordered domains. Owing to their unique mesoscopic characteristics at nanoscale, nanocellulose has been widely researched and incorporated as a reinforcement material in composite materials...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Olof Gustafsson, Simon Gustafsson, Levon Manukyan, Albert Mihranyan
Pressure-dependent breakthrough of nanobioparticles in filtration was observed and it was related to depend on both convective forces due to flow and diffusion as a result of Brownian motion. The aim of this work was to investigate the significance of Brownian motion on nanoparticle and virus capture in a nanocellulose-based virus removal filter paper through theoretical modeling and filtration experiments. Local flow velocities in the pores of the filter paper were modeled through two different approaches (i...
October 5, 2018: Membranes
Chaoji Chen, Liangbing Hu
Cellulose is the most abundant biopolymer on Earth and has long been used as a sustainable building block of conventional paper. Note that nanocellulose accounts for nearly 40% of wood's weight and can be extracted using well-developed methods. Due to its appealing mechanical and electrochemical properties, including high specific modulus (∼100 GPa/(g/cm3 )), excellent stability in most solvents, and stability over a wide electrochemical window, nanocellulose has been widely used as a separator, electrolyte, binder, and substrate material for energy storage...
October 9, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
Ahmad Rashad, Samih Mohamed-Ahmed, Miina Ojansivu, Kaia Berstad, Mohammed Ahmed Yassin, Tove Kivijärvi, Ellinor Bævre Heggset, Kristin Syverud, Kamal Mustafa
3D printed polycaprolactone (PCL) has potential as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering, but the hydrophobic surface may hinder optimal cell responses. The surface properties can be improved by coating the scaffold with cellulose nanofibrils material (CNF), a multiscale hydrophilic biocompatible biomaterial derived from wood. In this study, human bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells were cultured on tissue culture plates (TCP) and 3D printed PCL scaffolds coated with CNF. Cellular responses to the surfaces (viability, attachment, proliferation and osteogenic differentiation) were documented...
October 9, 2018: Biomacromolecules
You Wei Chen, Muhammad Ariff Hasanulbasori, Phang Fung Chiat, Hwei Voon Lee
In this paper, we have attempted to the revalorization of pear (Pyrus pyrifolia L.) peel residue and converting them into high value-added products remains limited. A green and facile one-pot isolation procedure was designed for simplifying the isolation of nanocellulose directly from pear peel residue. The one-pot approach employed in this work is interesting as the reaction involved less harmful chemicals and multiple steps. The reaction was carried out by adding hydrogen peroxide as an oxidant and chromium (III) nitrate as a catalyst in the acidic medium under mild process conditions...
October 4, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Aleksi Hänninen, Essi Sarlin, Inari Lyyra, Timo Salpavaara, Minna Kellomäki, Sampo Tuukkanen
Nanocellulose and chitosan have recently started to get attention as environmentally friendly piezoelectric materials for sensor and energy harvesting applications. Conversely, current commercially available flexible piezoelectric films made of for example polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) are relatively expensive and made from non-renewable materials. We measured the piezoelectric responses (2-8 pC/N) for solvent casted films based on nanocellulose, microcrystalline chitosan and their blends. In addition, the tensile properties of the piezoelectric films were characterized to find out if chitosan could be used to enhance the flexibility of the brittle nanocellulose films...
December 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Roberta Basile, Laura Bergamonti, Federica Fernandez, Claudia Graiff, Azar Haghighi, Clelia Isca, Pier Paolo Lottici, Benedetto Pizzo, Giovanni Predieri
Novel bio-inspired materials derived from crystalline nanocellulose (CNC) have been tested as wood consolidants. A suspension of CNC, produced by acid hydrolysis of cellulose and used as such or mixed with lignin and/or siloxane derivatives (PDMS), was applied on rotted wood samples of Norway spruce. X-Ray diffraction analysis on CNC powder showed high crystallinity index. Dynamic light scattering (DLS) measurement indicated a nearly uniform particle size distribution with an average hydrodynamic diameter for pure CNC smaller than that in the mixtures...
December 15, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Swambabu Varanasi, Leeav Henzel, Llyza Mendoza, Ragesh Prathapan, Warren Batchelor, Rico Tabor, Gil Garnier
Cellulose Nanocrystals (CNC) are explored to stabilize oil/water emulsions for their ability to adsorb at the oil/water interface. In this work, the role of electrostatic forces in the CNC ability to stabilize oil/water emulsions is explored using canola oil/water and hexadecane/water as model systems. Canola oil/water and Hexadecane/ water (20/80, v/v) emulsions were stabilized with the addition of CNCs using ultrasonication. Emulsion droplet sizes range from 1 to 4 μm as measured by optical microscopy. It is found that CNC can stabilize oil/water emulsions regardless of their charge density...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Bo Sun, Weijun Wang, Zhibin He, Min Zhang, Fangong Kong, Mohini Sain
BACKGROUND: This paper provides a critical review of biopolymer-based substrates, especially the cellulose derivatives, for their application in buccal drug delivery. Drug delivery to the buccal mucous has the benefits of immobile muscle, abundant vascularization and rapid recovery, but not all the drugs can be administered through the buccal mucosa (e. g., macromolecular drugs), due to the low bioavailability caused by their large molecular size. This shortfall inspired the rapid development of drug-compounding technologies and the corresponding usage of biopolymer substrates...
October 1, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Hao Guan, Zhiyong Cheng, Xiaoqing Wang
Aerogels derived from nanocellulose have emerged as attractive absorbents for cleaning up oil spills and organic pollutants due to their lightweight, exceptional absorption capacity, and sustainability. However, the majority of the nanocellulose aerogels based on the bottom-up fabrication process still lack sufficient mechanical robustness because of their disordered architecture with randomly assembled cellulose nanofibrils, which is an obstacle to their practical application as oil absorbents. Herein, we report an effective strategy to create anisotropic cellulose-based wood sponges with a special spring-like lamellar structure directly from natural balsa wood...
October 3, 2018: ACS Nano
Wenyang Xu, Xiaoju Wang, Niklas Sandler, Stefan Willför, Chunlin Xu
Wood-derived biopolymers have attracted great attention over the past few decades due to their abundant and versatile properties. The well-separated three main components, i.e., cellulose, hemicelluloses, and lignin, are considered significant candidates for replacing and improving on oil-based chemicals and materials. The production of nanocellulose from wood pulp opens an opportunity for novel material development and applications in nanotechnology. Currently, increased research efforts are focused on developing 3D printing techniques for wood-derived biopolymers for use in emerging application areas, including as biomaterials for various biomedical applications and as novel composite materials for electronics and energy devices...
May 7, 2018: ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering
Karolina Ludwicka, Marek Kolodziejczyk, Edyta Gendaszewska-Darmach, Michal Chrzanowski, Marzena Jedrzejczak-Krzepkowska, Przemyslaw Rytczak, Stanislaw Bielecki
The article presents the method of preparation of new, stable bacterial cellulose composites with perforated solid materials for biomedical applications, comprising reconstructive surgery of soft and hard tissues. The composites were obtained in specially designed bioreactors equipped with a set of perforated mesh stripes threaded vertically to the culture medium, ensuring perpendicular growth of bacterial nanocellulose synthesized by Komagataeibacter xylinus E25 in stationary culture. The developed biocomposites have been tested for stability and mechanical strength, as well as for their in vitro inflammatory responses shown as mast cell degranulation with N-acetyl-β-d-hexosaminidase release and mast cell adhesion...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Mona Moniri, Amin Boroumand Moghaddam, Susan Azizi, Raha Abdul Rahim, Saad Wan Zuhainis, Mohammad Navaderi, Rosfarizan Mohamad
Background: In recent years, bacterial nanocellulose (BNC) based nanocomposites have been developed to promote healing property and antibacterial activity of BNC wound dressing. Molecular study can help to better understanding about interaction of genes and pathways involved in healing progression. Objectives: The aim of this study was to prepare bacterial nanocellulose/silver (BNC/Ag) nanocomposite films as ecofriendly wound dressing in order to assess their physical, cytotoxicity and antimicrobial properties...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Hui Zhan, Na Peng, Xiaojuan Lei, Yanan Huang, Dong Li, Rongjun Tao, Chunyu Chang
Emulsified oily wastewater threated to human health seriously, and traditional technologies are unable to separate the emulsion for the small size of oil droplets. Membranes with special wettability are considered as an efficient way for oil/water emulsions separation, but challenges remain in terms of high material costs, complex processing, and easy to be fouled. Herein, novel self-cleanable membranes composed of nanocellulose and TiO2 nanoparticles were developed through a facile and sustainable vacuum-assisted filtration process...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Fahanwi Asabuwa Ngwabebhoh, Sevinc Ilkar Erdagi, Ufuk Yildiz
Coumarin and curcumin have a wide spectrum of biological and pharmacological activities including antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and anticancer but hindered therapeutic applications due to low stability and poor solubility in water. The main objective of the current study was to overcome these drawbacks via improved bioavailability by nanoencapsulated emulsions. Pickering emulsion (PE) via oil-in-water approach were stabilized by aminated nanocellulose (ANC) particles through application of a full factorial optimization design for nanoemulsions containing different composition of oil phase with medium chain triglyceride (MCT) and Tween 80...
December 1, 2018: Carbohydrate Polymers
Siqi Huan, Rubina Ajdary, Long Bai, Ville Klar, Orlando J Rojas
Multiphase (emulsion) gels with internal phase fractions between 0.1 and 0.5 were formulated at low loadings of cellulose nanofibrils (CNF), alginate, and polylactide (PLA). Their properties (rheology and morphology) fitted those of inks used for direct ink writing (DIW). The effect of formulation and composition variables were elucidated after printing cubic scaffolds and other solid designs. The distinctive microstructures that were developed allowed high printing fidelity and displayed limited shrinkage after room temperature and freeze-drying (0 and 5% shrinkage in the out-of-plane and in-plane directions upon freeze-drying, respectively)...
October 3, 2018: Biomacromolecules
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