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Walter Willett

Po-Hong Liu, Kana Wu, Kimmie Ng, Ann G Zauber, Long H Nguyen, Mingyang Song, Xiaosheng He, Charles S Fuchs, Shuji Ogino, Walter C Willett, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci, Yin Cao
Importance: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality among individuals younger than 50 years (early-onset CRC) are increasing. The reasons for such increases are largely unknown, although the increasing prevalence of obesity may be partially responsible. Objective: To investigate prospectively the association between obesity and weight gain since early adulthood with the risk of early-onset CRC. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective, ongoing cohort study of US female nurses aged 25 to 42 years at study enrollment (1989)...
October 11, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Muna J Tahir, Walter C Willett, Michele R Forman
Few studies address the association between television (TV) viewing in childhood and overweight/obesity across the life course. Among 30,921 mother-daughter dyads from the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort (2001) and the Nurses' Health Study II (1989 and 1991), the following information was collected: daughter's TV viewing and physical activity (PA) at ages 3─5 and 5─10, somatotype at ages 5 and 10, and body mass index at age 18 and in adulthood (ages 26─45). Using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, TV viewing for ≥4 hours/day versus no TV at ages 3─5 was associated with odds ratios of overweight/obesity of 1...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Janine Wirth, Mingyang Song, Teresa T Fung, Amit D Joshi, Fred K Tabung, Andrew T Chan, Cornelia Weikert, Michael Leitzmann, Walter C Willett, Edward Giovannucci, Kana Wu
Objective: To investigate the association between three diet-quality scores corresponding to adherence to healthy dietary patterns [alternate Mediterranean (aMed), Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)] and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. Methods: The study comprised 43 635 men of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study-an ongoing prospective cohort study of US health professionals. Participants were free of symptomatic gallstone disease and diabetes and provided dietary information every 4 years from 1986 (baseline) until 2012...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Marco Springmann, Michael Clark, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Keith Wiebe, Benjamin Leon Bodirsky, Luis Lassaletta, Wim de Vries, Sonja J Vermeulen, Mario Herrero, Kimberly M Carlson, Malin Jonell, Max Troell, Fabrice DeClerck, Line J Gordon, Rami Zurayk, Peter Scarborough, Mike Rayner, Brent Loken, Jess Fanzo, H Charles J Godfray, David Tilman, Johan Rockström, Walter Willett
The food system is a major driver of climate change, changes in land use, depletion of freshwater resources, and pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems through excessive nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. Here we show that between 2010 and 2050, as a result of expected changes in population and income levels, the environmental effects of the food system could increase by 50-90% in the absence of technological changes and dedicated mitigation measures, reaching levels that are beyond the planetary boundaries that define a safe operating space for humanity...
October 10, 2018: Nature
Mingyang Song, Bert Vogelstein, Edward L Giovannucci, Walter C Willett, Cristian Tomasetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: Science
Xiaoran Liu, Yanping Li, Deirdre K Tobias, Dong D Wang, JoAnn E Manson, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu
Background: The relation between dietary fat intake and body weight remains controversial. Few studies have examined long-term changes in types of dietary fat and weight change in longitudinal studies. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine associations between intake of different types of fat and long-term weight change in US women and men. Methods: The association between changes in consumption of varying types of fat and weight change was examined every 4 y through the use of multivariate models adjusted for age, baseline body mass index, and change in percentage energy from protein, intake of cereal fiber, fruits, and vegetables, alcohol use, and other lifestyle covariates in 3 prospective US cohorts, including 121,335 men and women free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or obesity over a 20- to 24-y follow-up...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Xuehong Zhang, Megan Rice, Shelley S Tworoger, Bernard A Rosner, A Heather Eliassen, Rulla M Tamimi, Amit D Joshi, Sara Lindstrom, Jing Qian, Graham A Colditz, Walter C Willett, Peter Kraft, Susan E Hankinson
BACKGROUND: No prior study to our knowledge has examined the joint contribution of a polygenic risk score (PRS), mammographic density (MD), and postmenopausal endogenous hormone levels-all well-confirmed risk factors for invasive breast cancer-to existing breast cancer risk prediction models. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II including 4,006 cases and 7,874 controls ages 34-70 years up to 1 June 2010...
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Sara B Seidelmann, Brian Claggett, Susan Cheng, Mir Henglin, Amil Shah, Lyn M Steffen, Aaron R Folsom, Eric B Rimm, Walter C Willett, Scott D Solomon
BACKGROUND: Low carbohydrate diets, which restrict carbohydrate in favour of increased protein or fat intake, or both, are a popular weight-loss strategy. However, the long-term effect of carbohydrate restriction on mortality is controversial and could depend on whether dietary carbohydrate is replaced by plant-based or animal-based fat and protein. We aimed to investigate the association between carbohydrate intake and mortality. METHODS: We studied 15 428 adults aged 45-64 years, in four US communities, who completed a dietary questionnaire at enrolment in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (between 1987 and 1989), and who did not report extreme caloric intake (<600 kcal or >4200 kcal per day for men and <500 kcal or >3600 kcal per day for women)...
September 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Dong Hoon Lee, NaNa Keum, Frank B Hu, E John Orav, Eric B Rimm, Walter C Willett, Edward L Giovannucci
Obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), is a well-established risk factor of type 2 diabetes, but BMI has been criticized for its inability to discriminate fat mass and lean body mass. We examined the association between predicted fat mass and type 2 diabetes risk in two large US prospective cohorts, and compared the magnitude of the association with BMI and other obesity indicators. Validated anthropometric prediction equations previously developed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to estimate predicted fat mass and percent fat for 97,111 participants from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1987-2012) and the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2012) who were followed up for type 2 diabetes...
August 16, 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
Yang Hu, Geng Zong, Gang Liu, Molin Wang, Bernard Rosner, An Pan, Walter C Willett, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu, Qi Sun
BACKGROUND: Whether weight gain after smoking cessation attenuates the health benefits of quitting is unclear. METHODS: In three cohort studies involving men and women in the United States, we identified those who had reported quitting smoking and we prospectively assessed changes in smoking status and body weight. We estimated risks of type 2 diabetes, death from cardiovascular disease, and death from any cause among those who had reported quitting smoking, according to weight changes after smoking cessation...
August 16, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Ane S Kværner, Dong Hang, Edward L Giovannucci, Walter C Willett, Andrew T Chan, Mingyang Song
Background: A major pathway through which obesity increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and cancer is by inducing hormonal and metabolic abnormalities, including hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. However, little is known about the influence of lifetime adiposity on the relevant biomarkers. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine associations of trajectories of body fatness with plasma biomarker concentrations of the insulin-IGF system in 2 large prospective cohorts of US men and women...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Walter C Willett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Geng Zong, Benjamin Lebwohl, Frank B Hu, Laura Sampson, Lauren W Dougherty, Walter C Willett, Andrew T Chan, Qi Sun
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the association between gluten intake and long-term type 2 diabetes risk among Americans. METHODS: We followed women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, n = 71,602, 1984-2012) and NHS II (n = 88,604, 1991-2013) and men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS, n = 41,908, 1986-2012). Gluten intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire every 2-4 years. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes confirmed using a supplementary questionnaire...
October 2018: Diabetologia
Stephanie E Bonn, Eric B Rimm, Charles E Matthews, Richard P Troiano, Heather R Bowles, Jennifer Rood, Junaidah B Barnett, Walter C Willett, Andrea K Chomistek
PURPOSE: To investigate associations between accelerometer-determined sedentary time (ST) in prolonged (≥30 minutes) and non-prolonged (<30 minutes) bouts with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) from doubly-labeled water (DLW). Additionally, associations between ST and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were examined. METHODS: Data from n=736 women and n=655 men aged 43-82 years were analyzed. Participants wore the Actigraph GT3X for seven days on two occasions approximately 6 months apart, and the average of the measurements was used...
July 25, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Ambika Satija, Meir J Stampfer, Eric B Rimm, Walter Willett, Frank B Hu
Nutritional research and policies have been criticized for relying on observational evidence, using self-report diet assessment methods, and supposedly being unable to present a consensus on what constitutes a healthy diet. In particular, it is often asserted that for progress to occur in nutrition science, large, simple trials, which have worked well in evaluating the efficacy of drugs, need to replace most observational research and small trials in nutrition. However, this idea is infeasible, and is unlikely to advance nutritional sciences or improve policies...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
Brendan J Guercio, Sui Zhang, Donna Niedzwiecki, Yanping Li, Ana Babic, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Leonard B Saltz, Robert J Mayer, Rex B Mowat, Renaud Whittom, Alexander Hantel, Al Benson, Daniel Atienza, Michael Messino, Hedy Kindler, Alan Venook, Shuji Ogino, Emilie S Zoltick, Meir Stampfer, Kimmie Ng, Kana Wu, Walter C Willett, Edward L Giovannucci, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Charles S Fuchs
PURPOSE: Observational studies have demonstrated increased colon cancer recurrence and mortality in states of excess energy balance, as denoted by factors including sedentary lifestyle, diabetes, increased dietary glycemic load, and increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Nonetheless, the relation between artificially sweetened beverages, a popular alternative for sugar-sweetened beverages, and colon cancer recurrence and survival is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1,018 patients with stage III colon cancer who prospectively reported dietary intake during and after chemotherapy while enrolled in a National Cancer Institute-sponsored trial of adjuvant chemotherapy...
2018: PloS One
Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari, E John Orav, Andreas Egli, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Karina Fischer, Hannes B Staehelin, Rene Rizzoli, Juerg Hodler, Arnold von Eckardstein, Gregor Freystaetter, Ursina Meyer, Thomas Guggi, Peter Burckhardt, Simeon Schietzel, Patricia Chocano-Bedoya, Robert Theiler, Walter C Willett, David Felson
Objective: To test whether daily high-dose vitamin D improves recovery after unilateral total knee replacement. Methods: Data come from a 24-month randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Adults aged 60 and older undergoing unilateral joint replacement due to severe knee osteoarthritis were 6-8 weeks after surgery randomly assigned to receive daily high-dose (2000 IU) or standard-dose (800 IU) vitamin D3 . The primary endpoints were symptoms (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index pain and function scores) assessed at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months in both knees, and the rate of falls over 24 months...
2018: RMD Open
Francis R Willett, Brian A Murphy, Daniel R Young, William D Memberg, Christine H Blabe, Chethan Pandarinath, Brian Franco, Jad Saab, Benjamin L Walter, Jennifer A Sweet, Jonathan P Miller, Jaimie M Henderson, Krishna V Shenoy, John D Simeral, Beata Jarosiewicz, Leigh R Hochberg, Robert F Kirsch, Abidemi Bolu Ajiboye
OBJECTIVE: Recent reports indicate that making better assumptions about the user's intended movement can improve the accuracy of decoder calibration for intracortical brain-computer interfaces. Several methods now exist for estimating user intent, including an optimal feedback control model, a piecewise-linear feedback control model, ReFIT, and other heuristics. Which of these methods yields the best decoding performance? METHODS: Using data from the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial, we measured how a steady-state velocity Kalman filter decoder was affected by the choice of intention estimation method...
September 2018: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
Le Ma, Gang Liu, Geng Zong, Laura Sampson, Frank B Hu, Walter C Willett, Eric B Rimm, JoAnn E Manson, Kathryn M Rexrode, Qi Sun
Importance: Glucosinolates, a group of phytochemicals abundant in cruciferous vegetables, may have cardioprotective properties. However, no prospective study has evaluated the association of intake of glucosinolates with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between the intake of glucosinolates and incident CHD in US men and women. Design: Prospective longitudinal cohort study...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
Maryam S Farvid, Wendy Y Chen, Bernard A Rosner, Rulla M Tamimi, Walter C Willett, A Heather Eliassen
We evaluated the relation of fruit and vegetable consumption, including specific fruits and vegetables, with incident breast cancer characterized by menopausal status, hormone receptor status, and molecular subtypes. Fruit and vegetable consumption, cumulatively averaged across repeated, validated questionnaires, was examined in relation to risk of invasive breast cancer among 182,145 women initially aged 27-59y in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1980-2012) and NHSII (1991-2013). Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for known risk factors, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and assessed tumors by hormone receptor status and molecular subtypes...
July 6, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
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