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Walter Willett

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110591/smoking-cessation-weight-change-type-2-diabetes-and-mortality
#1
Yang Hu, Geng Zong, Gang Liu, Molin Wang, Bernard Rosner, An Pan, Walter C Willett, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu, Qi Sun
BACKGROUND: Whether weight gain after smoking cessation attenuates the health benefits of quitting is unclear. METHODS: In three cohort studies involving men and women in the United States, we identified those who had reported quitting smoking and we prospectively assessed changes in smoking status and body weight. We estimated risks of type 2 diabetes, death from cardiovascular disease, and death from any cause among those who had reported quitting smoking, according to weight changes after smoking cessation...
August 16, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101328/trajectories-of-body-fatness-from-age-5-to-60-y-and-plasma-biomarker-concentrations-of-the-insulin-insulin-like-growth-factor-system
#2
Ane S Kværner, Dong Hang, Edward L Giovannucci, Walter C Willett, Andrew T Chan, Mingyang Song
Background: A major pathway through which obesity increases the risk of cardiometabolic diseases and cancer is by inducing hormonal and metabolic abnormalities, including hyperinsulinemia and altered insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling. However, little is known about the influence of lifetime adiposity on the relevant biomarkers. Objective: The aim of this study was to examine associations of trajectories of body fatness with plasma biomarker concentrations of the insulin-IGF system in 2 large prospective cohorts of US men and women...
August 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097649/crystal-ball-walter-willett
#3
REVIEW
Walter C Willett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 10, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30074058/gluten-intake-and-risk-of-type-2-diabetes-in-three-large-prospective-cohort-studies-of-us-men-and-women
#4
Geng Zong, Benjamin Lebwohl, Frank B Hu, Laura Sampson, Lauren W Dougherty, Walter C Willett, Andrew T Chan, Qi Sun
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: We investigated the association between gluten intake and long-term type 2 diabetes risk among Americans. METHODS: We followed women from the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, n = 71,602, 1984-2012) and NHS II (n = 88,604, 1991-2013) and men from the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study (HPFS, n = 41,908, 1986-2012). Gluten intake was estimated using a validated food frequency questionnaire every 2-4 years. Incident type 2 diabetes was defined as self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes confirmed using a supplementary questionnaire...
August 3, 2018: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30048408/associations-of-sedentary-time-with-energy-expenditure-and-anthropometric-measures
#5
Stephanie E Bonn, Eric B Rimm, Charles E Matthews, Richard P Troiano, Heather R Bowles, Jennifer Rood, Junaidah B Barnett, Walter C Willett, Andrea K Chomistek
PURPOSE: To investigate associations between accelerometer-determined sedentary time (ST) in prolonged (≥30 minutes) and non-prolonged (<30 minutes) bouts with physical activity energy expenditure (PAEE) from doubly-labeled water (DLW). Additionally, associations between ST and body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference were examined. METHODS: Data from n=736 women and n=655 men aged 43-82 years were analyzed. Participants wore the Actigraph GT3X for seven days on two occasions approximately 6 months apart, and the average of the measurements was used...
July 25, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30032229/perspective-are-large-simple-trials-the-solution-for-nutrition-research
#6
Ambika Satija, Meir J Stampfer, Eric B Rimm, Walter Willett, Frank B Hu
Nutritional research and policies have been criticized for relying on observational evidence, using self-report diet assessment methods, and supposedly being unable to present a consensus on what constitutes a healthy diet. In particular, it is often asserted that for progress to occur in nutrition science, large, simple trials, which have worked well in evaluating the efficacy of drugs, need to replace most observational research and small trials in nutrition. However, this idea is infeasible, and is unlikely to advance nutritional sciences or improve policies...
July 1, 2018: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30024889/associations-of-artificially-sweetened-beverage-intake-with-disease-recurrence-and-mortality-in-stage-iii-colon-cancer-results-from-calgb-89803-alliance
#7
Brendan J Guercio, Sui Zhang, Donna Niedzwiecki, Yanping Li, Ana Babic, Vicente Morales-Oyarvide, Leonard B Saltz, Robert J Mayer, Rex B Mowat, Renaud Whittom, Alexander Hantel, Al Benson, Daniel Atienza, Michael Messino, Hedy Kindler, Alan Venook, Shuji Ogino, Emilie S Zoltick, Meir Stampfer, Kimmie Ng, Kana Wu, Walter C Willett, Edward L Giovannucci, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt, Charles S Fuchs
PURPOSE: Observational studies have demonstrated increased colon cancer recurrence and mortality in states of excess energy balance, as denoted by factors including sedentary lifestyle, diabetes, increased dietary glycemic load, and increased intake of sugar-sweetened beverages. Nonetheless, the relation between artificially sweetened beverages, a popular alternative for sugar-sweetened beverages, and colon cancer recurrence and survival is unknown. METHODS: We analyzed data from 1,018 patients with stage III colon cancer who prospectively reported dietary intake during and after chemotherapy while enrolled in a National Cancer Institute-sponsored trial of adjuvant chemotherapy...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30018805/recovery-after-unilateral-knee-replacement-due-to-severe-osteoarthritis-and-progression-in-the-contralateral-knee-a-randomised-clinical-trial-comparing-daily-2000-iu-versus-800-iu-vitamin-d
#8
Heike A Bischoff-Ferrari, E John Orav, Andreas Egli, Bess Dawson-Hughes, Karina Fischer, Hannes B Staehelin, Rene Rizzoli, Juerg Hodler, Arnold von Eckardstein, Gregor Freystaetter, Ursina Meyer, Thomas Guggi, Peter Burckhardt, Simeon Schietzel, Patricia Chocano-Bedoya, Robert Theiler, Walter C Willett, David Felson
Objective: To test whether daily high-dose vitamin D improves recovery after unilateral total knee replacement. Methods: Data come from a 24-month randomised, double-blind clinical trial. Adults aged 60 and older undergoing unilateral joint replacement due to severe knee osteoarthritis were 6-8 weeks after surgery randomly assigned to receive daily high-dose (2000 IU) or standard-dose (800 IU) vitamin D3 . The primary endpoints were symptoms (Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Arthritis Index pain and function scores) assessed at baseline, 6, 12, 18 and 24 months in both knees, and the rate of falls over 24 months...
2018: RMD Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29989927/a-comparison-of-intention-estimation-methods-for-decoder-calibration-in-intracortical-brain-computer-interfaces
#9
Francis R Willett, Brian A Murphy, Daniel R Young, William D Memberg, Christine H Blabe, Chethan Pandarinath, Brian Franco, Jad Saab, Benjamin L Walter, Jennifer A Sweet, Jonathan P Miller, Jaimie M Henderson, Krishna V Shenoy, John D Simeral, Beata Jarosiewicz, Leigh R Hochberg, Robert F Kirsch, Abidemi Bolu Ajiboye
OBJECTIVE: Recent reports indicate that making better assumptions about the user's intended movement can improve the accuracy of decoder calibration for intracortical brain-computer interfaces. Several methods now exist for estimating user intent, including an optimal feedback control model, a piecewise-linear feedback control model, ReFIT, and other heuristics. Which of these methods yields the best decoding performance? METHODS: Using data from the BrainGate2 pilot clinical trial, we measured how a steady-state velocity Kalman filter decoder was affected by the choice of intention estimation method...
December 14, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29988715/intake-of-glucosinolates-and-risk-of-coronary-heart-disease-in-three-large-prospective-cohorts-of-us-men-and-women
#10
Le Ma, Gang Liu, Geng Zong, Laura Sampson, Frank B Hu, Walter C Willett, Eric B Rimm, JoAnn E Manson, Kathryn M Rexrode, Qi Sun
Importance: Glucosinolates, a group of phytochemicals abundant in cruciferous vegetables, may have cardioprotective properties. However, no prospective study has evaluated the association of intake of glucosinolates with the risk of coronary heart disease (CHD). Objective: The objective of the study was to evaluate the association between the intake of glucosinolates and incident CHD in US men and women. Design: Prospective longitudinal cohort study...
2018: Clinical Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29978479/fruit-and-vegetable-consumption-and-breast-cancer-incidence-repeated-measures-over-30-years-of-follow-up
#11
Maryam S Farvid, Wendy Y Chen, Bernard A Rosner, Rulla M Tamimi, Walter C Willett, A Heather Eliassen
We evaluated the relation of fruit and vegetable consumption, including specific fruits and vegetables, with incident breast cancer characterized by menopausal status, hormone receptor status, and molecular subtypes. Fruit and vegetable consumption, cumulatively averaged across repeated, validated questionnaires, was examined in relation to risk of invasive breast cancer among 182,145 women initially aged 27-59y in the Nurses' Health Study (NHS, 1980-2012) and NHSII (1991-2013). Cox proportional hazards regression, adjusted for known risk factors, was used to estimate hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs), and assessed tumors by hormone receptor status and molecular subtypes...
July 6, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29970408/predicted-lean-body-mass-fat-mass-and-all-cause-and-cause-specific-mortality-in-men-prospective-us-cohort-study
#12
Dong Hoon Lee, NaNa Keum, Frank B Hu, E John Orav, Eric B Rimm, Walter C Willett, Edward L Giovannucci
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the association of predicted lean body mass, fat mass, and body mass index (BMI) with all cause and cause specific mortality in men. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Health professionals in the United States PARTICIPANTS: 38 006 men (aged 40-75 years) from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study, followed up for death (1987-2012). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: All cause and cause specific mortality...
July 3, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29931120/association-of-body-mass-index-and-age-with-subsequent-breast-cancer-risk-in-premenopausal-women
#13
Minouk J Schoemaker, Hazel B Nichols, Lauren B Wright, Mark N Brook, Michael E Jones, Katie M O'Brien, Hans-Olov Adami, Laura Baglietto, Leslie Bernstein, Kimberly A Bertrand, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault, Tonje Braaten, Yu Chen, Avonne E Connor, Miren Dorronsoro, Laure Dossus, A Heather Eliassen, Graham G Giles, Susan E Hankinson, Rudolf Kaaks, Timothy J Key, Victoria A Kirsh, Cari M Kitahara, Woon-Puay Koh, Susanna C Larsson, Martha S Linet, Huiyan Ma, Giovanna Masala, Melissa A Merritt, Roger L Milne, Kim Overvad, Kotaro Ozasa, Julie R Palmer, Petra H Peeters, Elio Riboli, Thomas E Rohan, Atsuko Sadakane, Malin Sund, Rulla M Tamimi, Antonia Trichopoulou, Giske Ursin, Lars Vatten, Kala Visvanathan, Elisabete Weiderpass, Walter C Willett, Alicja Wolk, Jian-Min Yuan, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Dale P Sandler, Anthony J Swerdlow
Importance: The association between increasing body mass index (BMI; calculated as weight in kilograms divided by height in meters squared) and risk of breast cancer is unique in cancer epidemiology in that a crossover effect exists, with risk reduction before and risk increase after menopause. The inverse association with premenopausal breast cancer risk is poorly characterized but might be important in the understanding of breast cancer causation. Objective: To investigate the association of BMI with premenopausal breast cancer risk, in particular by age at BMI, attained age, risk factors for breast cancer, and tumor characteristics...
June 21, 2018: JAMA Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29917051/combining-a-food-frequency-questionnaire-with-24-hour-recalls-to-increase-the-precision-of-estimating-usual-dietary-intakes-evidence-from-the-validation-studies-pooling-project
#14
Laurence S Freedman, Douglas Midthune, Lenore Arab, Ross L Prentice, Amy F Subar, Walter Willett, Marian L Neuhouser, Lesley F Tinker, Victor Kipnis
Improving estimates of individuals' dietary intakes is key to obtaining more reliable evidence for diet-health relationships from nutritional cohort studies. One approach to improvement is combining information from different self-report instruments. Previous work evaluated the gains obtained from combining information from a food frequency questionnaire (FFQ) and multiple 24-hour recalls (24HRs), based on assuming that 24HRs provide unbiased measures of individual intakes. Here, we evaluate the same approach of combining instruments, but based on the better assumption that recovery biomarkers provide unbiased measures of individual intakes...
June 18, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915430/a-transcriptome-wide-association-study-of-229-000-women-identifies-new-candidate-susceptibility-genes-for-breast-cancer
#15
Lang Wu, Wei Shi, Jirong Long, Xingyi Guo, Kyriaki Michailidou, Jonathan Beesley, Manjeet K Bolla, Xiao-Ou Shu, Yingchang Lu, Qiuyin Cai, Fares Al-Ejeh, Esdy Rozali, Qin Wang, Joe Dennis, Bingshan Li, Chenjie Zeng, Helian Feng, Alexander Gusev, Richard T Barfield, Irene L Andrulis, Hoda Anton-Culver, Volker Arndt, Kristan J Aronson, Paul L Auer, Myrto Barrdahl, Caroline Baynes, Matthias W Beckmann, Javier Benitez, Marina Bermisheva, Carl Blomqvist, Natalia V Bogdanova, Stig E Bojesen, Hiltrud Brauch, Hermann Brenner, Louise Brinton, Per Broberg, Sara Y Brucker, Barbara Burwinkel, Trinidad Caldés, Federico Canzian, Brian D Carter, J Esteban Castelao, Jenny Chang-Claude, Xiaoqing Chen, Ting-Yuan David Cheng, Hans Christiansen, Christine L Clarke, Margriet Collée, Sten Cornelissen, Fergus J Couch, David Cox, Angela Cox, Simon S Cross, Julie M Cunningham, Kamila Czene, Mary B Daly, Peter Devilee, Kimberly F Doheny, Thilo Dörk, Isabel Dos-Santos-Silva, Martine Dumont, Miriam Dwek, Diana M Eccles, Ursula Eilber, A Heather Eliassen, Christoph Engel, Mikael Eriksson, Laura Fachal, Peter A Fasching, Jonine Figueroa, Dieter Flesch-Janys, Olivia Fletcher, Henrik Flyger, Lin Fritschi, Marike Gabrielson, Manuela Gago-Dominguez, Susan M Gapstur, Montserrat García-Closas, Mia M Gaudet, Maya Ghoussaini, Graham G Giles, Mark S Goldberg, David E Goldgar, Anna González-Neira, Pascal Guénel, Eric Hahnen, Christopher A Haiman, Niclas Håkansson, Per Hall, Emily Hallberg, Ute Hamann, Patricia Harrington, Alexander Hein, Belynda Hicks, Peter Hillemanns, Antoinette Hollestelle, Robert N Hoover, John L Hopper, Guanmengqian Huang, Keith Humphreys, David J Hunter, Anna Jakubowska, Wolfgang Janni, Esther M John, Nichola Johnson, Kristine Jones, Michael E Jones, Audrey Jung, Rudolf Kaaks, Michael J Kerin, Elza Khusnutdinova, Veli-Matti Kosma, Vessela N Kristensen, Diether Lambrechts, Loic Le Marchand, Jingmei Li, Sara Lindström, Jolanta Lissowska, Wing-Yee Lo, Sibylle Loibl, Jan Lubinski, Craig Luccarini, Michael P Lux, Robert J MacInnis, Tom Maishman, Ivana Maleva Kostovska, Arto Mannermaa, JoAnn E Manson, Sara Margolin, Dimitrios Mavroudis, Hanne Meijers-Heijboer, Alfons Meindl, Usha Menon, Jeffery Meyer, Anna Marie Mulligan, Susan L Neuhausen, Heli Nevanlinna, Patrick Neven, Sune F Nielsen, Børge G Nordestgaard, Olufunmilayo I Olopade, Janet E Olson, Håkan Olsson, Paolo Peterlongo, Julian Peto, Dijana Plaseska-Karanfilska, Ross Prentice, Nadege Presneau, Katri Pylkäs, Brigitte Rack, Paolo Radice, Nazneen Rahman, Gad Rennert, Hedy S Rennert, Valerie Rhenius, Atocha Romero, Jane Romm, Anja Rudolph, Emmanouil Saloustros, Dale P Sandler, Elinor J Sawyer, Marjanka K Schmidt, Rita K Schmutzler, Andreas Schneeweiss, Rodney J Scott, Christopher G Scott, Sheila Seal, Mitul Shah, Martha J Shrubsole, Ann Smeets, Melissa C Southey, John J Spinelli, Jennifer Stone, Harald Surowy, Anthony J Swerdlow, Rulla M Tamimi, William Tapper, Jack A Taylor, Mary Beth Terry, Daniel C Tessier, Abigail Thomas, Kathrin Thöne, Rob A E M Tollenaar, Diana Torres, Thérèse Truong, Michael Untch, Celine Vachon, David Van Den Berg, Daniel Vincent, Quinten Waisfisz, Clarice R Weinberg, Camilla Wendt, Alice S Whittemore, Hans Wildiers, Walter C Willett, Robert Winqvist, Alicja Wolk, Lucy Xia, Xiaohong R Yang, Argyrios Ziogas, Elad Ziv, Alison M Dunning, Paul D P Pharoah, Jacques Simard, Roger L Milne, Stacey L Edwards, Peter Kraft, Douglas F Easton, Georgia Chenevix-Trench, Wei Zheng
The breast cancer risk variants identified in genome-wide association studies explain only a small fraction of the familial relative risk, and the genes responsible for these associations remain largely unknown. To identify novel risk loci and likely causal genes, we performed a transcriptome-wide association study evaluating associations of genetically predicted gene expression with breast cancer risk in 122,977 cases and 105,974 controls of European ancestry. We used data from the Genotype-Tissue Expression Project to establish genetic models to predict gene expression in breast tissue and evaluated model performance using data from The Cancer Genome Atlas...
June 18, 2018: Nature Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912879/polyclonal-human-antibodies-against-glycans-bearing-red-meat-derived-non-human-sialic-acid-n-glycolylneuraminic-acid-are-stable-reproducible-complex-and-vary-between-individuals-total-antibody-levels-are-associated-with-colorectal-cancer-risk
#16
Annie N Samraj, Kimberly A Bertrand, Robert Luben, Zahra Khedri, Hai Yu, Dzung Nguyen, Christopher J Gregg, Sandra L Diaz, Sherilyn Sawyer, Xi Chen, Heather Eliassen, Vered Padler-Karavani, Kana Wu, Kay-Tee Khaw, Walter Willett, Ajit Varki
BACKGROUND: N-glycolylneuraminic acid (Neu5Gc) is a non-human red-meat-derived sialic acid immunogenic to humans. Neu5Gc can be metabolically incorporated into glycan chains on human endothelial and epithelial surfaces. This represents the first example of a "xeno-autoantigen", against which circulating human "xeno-autoantibodies" can react. The resulting inflammation ("xenosialitis") has been demonstrated in human-like Neu5Gc-deficient mice and contributed to carcinoma progression via antibody-mediated inflammation...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29912394/circulating-vitamin-d-and-colorectal-cancer-risk-an-international-pooling-project-of-17-cohorts
#17
Marjorie L McCullough, Emilie S Zoltick, Stephanie J Weinstein, Veronika Fedirko, Molin Wang, Nancy R Cook, A Heather Eliassen, Anne Zeleniuch-Jacquotte, Claudia Agnoli, Demetrius Albanes, Matthew J Barnett, Julie E Buring, Peter T Campbell, Tess V Clendenen, Neal D Freedman, Susan M Gapstur, Edward L Giovannucci, Gary G Goodman, Christopher A Haiman, Gloria Y F Ho, Ronald L Horst, Tao Hou, Wen-Yi Huang, Mazda Jenab, Michael E Jones, Corinne E Joshu, Vittorio Krogh, I-Min Lee, Jung Eun Lee, Satu Männistö, Loic Le Marchand, Alison M Mondul, Marian L Neuhouser, Elizabeth A Platz, Mark P Purdue, Elio Riboli, Trude Eid Robsahm, Thomas E Rohan, Shizuka Sasazuki, Minouk J Schoemaker, Sabina Sieri, Meir J Stampfer, Anthony J Swerdlow, Cynthia A Thomson, Steinar Tretli, Schoichiro Tsugane, Giske Ursin, Kala Visvanathan, Kami K White, Kana Wu, Shiaw-Shyuan Yaun, Xuehong Zhang, Walter C Willett, Mitchel H Gail, Regina G Ziegler, Stephanie A Smith-Warner
Background: Experimental and epidemiological studies suggest a protective role for vitamin D in colorectal carcinogenesis, but evidence is inconclusive. Circulating 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) concentrations that minimize risk are unknown. Current Institute of Medicine (IOM) vitamin D guidance is based solely on bone health. Methods: We pooled participant-level data from 17 cohorts, comprising 5706 colorectal cancer case participants and 7107 control participants with a wide range of circulating 25(OH)D concentrations...
June 14, 2018: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29898882/dietary-fat-and-cardiometabolic-health-evidence-controversies-and-consensus-for-guidance
#18
Nita G Forouhi, Ronald M Krauss, Gary Taubes, Walter Willett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 13, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29877501/grain-intake-and-clinical-outcome-in-stage-iii-colon-cancer-results-from-calgb-89803-alliance
#19
Justin C Brown, Sui Zhang, Donna Niedzwiecki, Leonard B Saltz, Robert J Mayer, Rex B Mowat, Renaud Whittom, Alexander Hantel, Al Benson, Daniel Atienza, Michael Messino, Hedy Kindler, Alan Venook, Shuji Ogino, Yanping Li, Xuehong Zhang, Kimmie Ng, Walter C Willett, Edward L Giovannucci, Charles S Fuchs, Jeffrey A Meyerhardt
Background: Energy balance-related risk factors for colon cancer recurrence and mortality-type II diabetes, hyperinsulinemia, inflammation, and visceral obesity-are positively correlated with consumption of refined grains and negatively correlated with consumption of whole grains. We examined the relationship between the consumption of refined and whole grains with cancer recurrence and mortality in a cohort of patients with colon cancer. Methods: We conducted a prospective observational study of 1024 patients with stage III colon cancer who participated in a randomized trial of postoperative chemotherapy...
February 2018: JNCI cancer spectrum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29722844/joint-effects-of-fatty-acid-desaturase-1-polymorphisms-and-dietary-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-intake-on-circulating-fatty-acid-proportions
#20
Juan Juan, Hongyan Huang, Xia Jiang, Andres V Ardisson Korat, Mingyang Song, Qi Sun, Walter C Willett, Majken K Jensen, Peter Kraft
Background: Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are associated with a lower risk of multiple diseases. Fatty acid desaturase 1 gene (FADS1) polymorphisms and dietary PUFA intake are both established determinants of circulating PUFA proportions. Objective: We explored the joint effects of FADS1 polymorphisms and dietary PUFA intake on circulating PUFA proportions. Design: We studied 2288 participants from a nested case-control study of coronary artery disease among participants who provided blood samples in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-Up Study...
May 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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