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Walter Willett

Daniel Young, Francis Willett, William D Memberg, Brian Andrew Murphy, Paymon Rezaii, Benjamin Walter, Jennifer A Sweet, Jonathan Miller, Krishna V Shenoy, Leigh Hochberg, Robert F Kirsch, A Bolu Ajiboye
Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are a promising technology for the restoration of function to people with paralysis, especially for controlling coordinated reaching. Typical BCI studies decode Cartesian endpoint velocities as commands, but human arm movements might be better controlled in a joint-based coordinate frame, which may match underlying movement encoding in the motor cortex. A better understanding of BCI controlled reaching by people with paralysis may lead to performance improvements in brain-controlled assistive devices...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Rashmi Sinha, Habibul Ahsan, Martin Blaser, J Gregory Caporaso, Joseph Russell Carmical, Andrew T Chan, Anthony Fodor, Mitchell H Gail, Curtis C Harris, Kathy Helzlsouer, Curtis Huttenhower, Rob Knight, Heidi H Kong, Gabriel Y Lai, Diane Leigh Smith Hutchinson, Loic Le Marchand, Hongzhe Li, Michael J Orlich, Jianxin Shi, Ann Truelove, Mukesh Verma, Emily Vogtmann, Owen White, Walter Willett, Wei Zheng, Somdat Mahabir, Christian Abnet
The National Cancer Institute (NCI) sponsored a 2-day workshop, "Next Steps in Studying the Human Microbiome and Health in Prospective Studies," in Bethesda, Maryland, May 16-17, 2017. The workshop brought together researchers in the field to discuss the challenges of conducting microbiome studies, including study design, collection and processing of samples, bioinformatics and statistical methods, publishing results, and ensuring reproducibility of published results. The presenters emphasized the great potential of microbiome research in understanding the etiology of cancer...
November 26, 2018: Microbiome
Changzheng Yuan, Elinor Fondell, Ambika Bhushan, Alberto Ascherio, Olivia I Okereke, Francine Grodstein, Walter C Willett
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the prospective association of long-term intake of vegetables and fruits with late-life subjective cognitive function (SCF). METHODS: Among 27,842 men with a mean age of 51 years in 1986, we used multinomial logistic regression to examine the relation of vegetable and fruit consumption to future SCF. Average dietary intake was calculated from 5 repeated food frequency questionnaires collected every 4 years until 2002. SCF score was assessed twice (2008 and 2012) using a 6-item questionnaire; validity was supported by strong associations with APO ε4 genotype...
November 21, 2018: Neurology
Zhilei Shan, Yanping Li, Geng Zong, Yanjun Guo, Jun Li, JoAnn E Manson, Frank B Hu, Walter C Willett, Eva S Schernhammer, Shilpa N Bhupathiraju
OBJECTIVES: To prospectively evaluate the joint association of duration of rotating night shift work and lifestyle factors with risk of type 2 diabetes risk, and to quantitatively decompose this joint association to rotating night shift work only, to lifestyle only, and to their interaction. DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Nurses' Health Study (1988-2012) and Nurses' Health Study II (1991-2013). PARTICIPANTS: 143 410 women without type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, or cancer at baseline...
November 21, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
David S Ludwig, Walter C Willett, Jeff S Volek, Marian L Neuhouser
For decades, dietary advice was based on the premise that high intakes of fat cause obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and possibly cancer. Recently, evidence for the adverse metabolic effects of processed carbohydrate has led to a resurgence in interest in lower-carbohydrate and ketogenic diets with high fat content. However, some argue that the relative quantity of dietary fat and carbohydrate has little relevance to health and that focus should instead be placed on which particular fat or carbohydrate sources are consumed...
November 16, 2018: Science
JoAnn E Manson, Nancy R Cook, I-Min Lee, William Christen, Shari S Bassuk, Samia Mora, Heike Gibson, Christine M Albert, David Gordon, Trisha Copeland, Denise D'Agostino, Georgina Friedenberg, Claire Ridge, Vadim Bubes, Edward L Giovannucci, Walter C Willett, Julie E Buring
BACKGROUND: Higher intake of marine n-3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids has been associated with reduced risks of cardiovascular disease and cancer in several observational studies. Whether supplementation with n-3 fatty acids has such effects in general populations at usual risk for these end points is unclear. METHODS: We conducted a randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D3 (at a dose of 2000 IU per day) and marine n-3 fatty acids (at a dose of 1 g per day) in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and cancer among men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States...
November 10, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
JoAnn E Manson, Nancy R Cook, I-Min Lee, William Christen, Shari S Bassuk, Samia Mora, Heike Gibson, David Gordon, Trisha Copeland, Denise D'Agostino, Georgina Friedenberg, Claire Ridge, Vadim Bubes, Edward L Giovannucci, Walter C Willett, Julie E Buring
BACKGROUND: It is unclear whether supplementation with vitamin D reduces the risk of cancer or cardiovascular disease, and data from randomized trials are limited. METHODS: We conducted a nationwide, randomized, placebo-controlled trial, with a two-by-two factorial design, of vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol) at a dose of 2000 IU per day and marine n-3 (also called omega-3) fatty acids at a dose of 1 g per day for the prevention of cancer and cardiovascular disease among men 50 years of age or older and women 55 years of age or older in the United States...
November 10, 2018: New England Journal of Medicine
Frank B Hu, Walter C Willett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 27, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Mercedes Sotos-Prieto, Josiemer Mattei, Nancy R Cook, Frank B Hu, Walter C Willett, Stephanie E Chiuve, Eric B Rimm, Howard D Sesso
Background The previously validated Healthy Heart Score effectively predicted the 20-year risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). We examine whether the Healthy Heart Score may extend to an association with total and cause-specific mortality. Methods and results The prospective cohort study investigated 58 319 women (mean age 50.2 years) in the Nurses' Health Study (1984-2010) and 29 854 in men (mean age 52.7 years) in the Health Professionals' Follow-up Study (1986-2010) free of cancer and CVD at baseline...
November 6, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Ming Ding, Christina Ellervik, Tao Huang, Majken K Jensen, Gary C Curhan, Louis R Pasquale, Jae H Kang, Janey L Wiggs, David J Hunter, Walter C Willett, Eric B Rimm, Peter Kraft, Daniel I Chasman, Lu Qi, Frank B Hu, Qibin Qi
Background: It is unknown whether dietary quality modifies genetic association with body mass index (BMI). Objective: This study examined whether dietary quality modifies genetic association with BMI. Design: We calculated 3 diet quality scores including the Alternative Healthy Eating Index 2010 (AHEI-2010), the Alternative Mediterranean Diet score (AMED), and the Dietary Approach to Stop Hypertension (DASH) diet score. We examined the interactions of a genetic risk score (GRS) based on 97 BMI-associated variants with the 3 diet quality scores on BMI in 30,904 participants from 3 large cohorts...
October 22, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Serena C Houghton, A Heather Eliassen, Shumin M Zhang, Jacob Selhub, Bernard A Rosner, Walter C Willett, Susan E Hankinson
Prior epidemiologic findings for plasma folate and B-vitamins and breast cancer risk are inconsistent and have not assessed the influence of folic acid fortification. Therefore, we examined the associations of plasma folate, B12 , pyridoxal 5'-phosphate (PLP), homocysteine, cysteine, and cysteinylglycine with breast cancer risk, before and after fortification. We conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Nurses' Health Study. In 1989-1990 (pre-fortification), 32,826 women donated a blood sample and 18,743 donated an additional blood sample in 2000-2001 (post-fortification)...
October 22, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Po-Hong Liu, Kana Wu, Kimmie Ng, Ann G Zauber, Long H Nguyen, Mingyang Song, Xiaosheng He, Charles S Fuchs, Shuji Ogino, Walter C Willett, Andrew T Chan, Edward L Giovannucci, Yin Cao
Importance: Colorectal cancer (CRC) incidence and mortality among individuals younger than 50 years (early-onset CRC) are increasing. The reasons for such increases are largely unknown, although the increasing prevalence of obesity may be partially responsible. Objective: To investigate prospectively the association between obesity and weight gain since early adulthood with the risk of early-onset CRC. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Nurses' Health Study II is a prospective, ongoing cohort study of US female nurses aged 25 to 42 years at study enrollment (1989)...
October 11, 2018: JAMA Oncology
Muna J Tahir, Walter C Willett, Michele R Forman
Few studies address the association between television (TV) viewing in childhood and overweight/obesity across the life course. Among 30,921 mother-daughter dyads from the Nurses' Mothers' Cohort (2001) and the Nurses' Health Study II (1989 and 1991), the following information was collected: daughter's TV viewing and physical activity (PA) at ages 3─5 and 5─10, somatotype at ages 5 and 10, and body mass index at age 18 and in adulthood (ages 26─45). Using multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, TV viewing for ≥4 hours/day versus no TV at ages 3─5 was associated with odds ratios of overweight/obesity of 1...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Epidemiology
Janine Wirth, Mingyang Song, Teresa T Fung, Amit D Joshi, Fred K Tabung, Andrew T Chan, Cornelia Weikert, Michael Leitzmann, Walter C Willett, Edward Giovannucci, Kana Wu
Objective: To investigate the association between three diet-quality scores corresponding to adherence to healthy dietary patterns [alternate Mediterranean (aMed), Alternate Healthy Eating Index (AHEI-2010), Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension (DASH)] and the risk of symptomatic gallstone disease. Methods: The study comprised 43 635 men of the Health Professionals Follow-up Study-an ongoing prospective cohort study of US health professionals. Participants were free of symptomatic gallstone disease and diabetes and provided dietary information every 4 years from 1986 (baseline) until 2012...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Epidemiology
Marco Springmann, Michael Clark, Daniel Mason-D'Croz, Keith Wiebe, Benjamin Leon Bodirsky, Luis Lassaletta, Wim de Vries, Sonja J Vermeulen, Mario Herrero, Kimberly M Carlson, Malin Jonell, Max Troell, Fabrice DeClerck, Line J Gordon, Rami Zurayk, Peter Scarborough, Mike Rayner, Brent Loken, Jess Fanzo, H Charles J Godfray, David Tilman, Johan Rockström, Walter Willett
The food system is a major driver of climate change, changes in land use, depletion of freshwater resources, and pollution of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems through excessive nitrogen and phosphorus inputs. Here we show that between 2010 and 2050, as a result of expected changes in population and income levels, the environmental effects of the food system could increase by 50-90% in the absence of technological changes and dedicated mitigation measures, reaching levels that are beyond the planetary boundaries that define a safe operating space for humanity...
October 2018: Nature
Mingyang Song, Bert Vogelstein, Edward L Giovannucci, Walter C Willett, Cristian Tomasetti
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 28, 2018: Science
Xiaoran Liu, Yanping Li, Deirdre K Tobias, Dong D Wang, JoAnn E Manson, Walter C Willett, Frank B Hu
Background: The relation between dietary fat intake and body weight remains controversial. Few studies have examined long-term changes in types of dietary fat and weight change in longitudinal studies. Objective: The objective of this study was to examine associations between intake of different types of fat and long-term weight change in US women and men. Methods: The association between changes in consumption of varying types of fat and weight change was examined every 4 y through the use of multivariate models adjusted for age, baseline body mass index, and change in percentage energy from protein, intake of cereal fiber, fruits, and vegetables, alcohol use, and other lifestyle covariates in 3 prospective US cohorts, including 121,335 men and women free of diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, or obesity over a 20- to 24-y follow-up...
November 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Xuehong Zhang, Megan Rice, Shelley S Tworoger, Bernard A Rosner, A Heather Eliassen, Rulla M Tamimi, Amit D Joshi, Sara Lindstrom, Jing Qian, Graham A Colditz, Walter C Willett, Peter Kraft, Susan E Hankinson
BACKGROUND: No prior study to our knowledge has examined the joint contribution of a polygenic risk score (PRS), mammographic density (MD), and postmenopausal endogenous hormone levels-all well-confirmed risk factors for invasive breast cancer-to existing breast cancer risk prediction models. METHODS AND FINDINGS: We conducted a nested case-control study within the prospective Nurses' Health Study and Nurses' Health Study II including 4,006 cases and 7,874 controls ages 34-70 years up to 1 June 2010...
September 2018: PLoS Medicine
Sara B Seidelmann, Brian Claggett, Susan Cheng, Mir Henglin, Amil Shah, Lyn M Steffen, Aaron R Folsom, Eric B Rimm, Walter C Willett, Scott D Solomon
BACKGROUND: Low carbohydrate diets, which restrict carbohydrate in favour of increased protein or fat intake, or both, are a popular weight-loss strategy. However, the long-term effect of carbohydrate restriction on mortality is controversial and could depend on whether dietary carbohydrate is replaced by plant-based or animal-based fat and protein. We aimed to investigate the association between carbohydrate intake and mortality. METHODS: We studied 15 428 adults aged 45-64 years, in four US communities, who completed a dietary questionnaire at enrolment in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study (between 1987 and 1989), and who did not report extreme caloric intake (<600 kcal or >4200 kcal per day for men and <500 kcal or >3600 kcal per day for women)...
September 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Dong Hoon Lee, NaNa Keum, Frank B Hu, E John Orav, Eric B Rimm, Walter C Willett, Edward L Giovannucci
Obesity, defined by body mass index (BMI), is a well-established risk factor of type 2 diabetes, but BMI has been criticized for its inability to discriminate fat mass and lean body mass. We examined the association between predicted fat mass and type 2 diabetes risk in two large US prospective cohorts, and compared the magnitude of the association with BMI and other obesity indicators. Validated anthropometric prediction equations previously developed from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey were used to estimate predicted fat mass and percent fat for 97,111 participants from the Health Professionals Follow-up Study (1987-2012) and the Nurses' Health Study (1986-2012) who were followed up for type 2 diabetes...
November 2018: European Journal of Epidemiology
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