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Embryo attachment

Ritsu Kamiya, Kogiku Shiba, Kazuo Inaba, Takako Kato-Minoura
Chlamydomonas flagella display surface motility such that small polystyrene beads (microspheres) attached to the flagellar membrane move bidirectionally along the flagellum. This surface motility enables cells to glide on a solid substrate to which they are attached by the flagellar surface. Previous studies suggested that microsphere movement and gliding motility result from the movement of transmembrane glycoprotein(s) within the plane of the plasma membrane, driven by intraflagellar transport (IFT), which utilizes cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-2...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Andrew M Kelleher, Jessica Milano-Foster, Susanta K Behura, Thomas E Spencer
Uterine glands are essential for pregnancy establishment. By employing forkhead box A2 (FOXA2)-deficient mouse models coupled with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) repletion, we reveal definitive roles of uterine glands in embryo implantation and stromal cell decidualization. Here we report that LIF from the uterine glands initiates embryo-uterine communication, leading to embryo attachment and stromal cell decidualization. Detailed histological and molecular analyses discovered that implantation crypt formation does not involve uterine glands, but removal of the luminal epithelium is delayed and subsequent decidualization fails in LIF-replaced glandless but not gland-containing FOXA2-deficient mice...
June 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Cheng Li, Hui-Yu Zhang, Yan Liang, Wei Xia, Qian Zhu, Duo Zhang, Zhen Huang, Gui-Lin Liang, Rui-Hong Xue, Hang Qi, Xiao-Qing He, Jiang-Jing Yuan, Ya-Jing Tan, He-Feng Huang, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Our previous study indicated that emergency contraception, including levonorgestrel and progesterone, could lead to ectopic pregnancy following contraception failure. However, our understanding of the effects of levonorgestrel and progesterone on oviductal physiology is limited. METHODS: The receptivity of the fallopian tubal epithelium after levonorgestrel and progesterone treatment was examined through western blots for receptivity markers and JAr-spheroid-fallopian tubal epithelial cell attachment assays...
June 20, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Leona Matsumoto, Yasushi Hirota, Tomoko Saito-Fujita, Norihiko Takeda, Tomoki Tanaka, Takehiro Hiraoka, Shun Akaeda, Hidetoshi Fujita, Ryoko Shimizu-Hirota, Shota Igaue, Mitsunori Matsuo, Hirofumi Haraguchi, Mayuko Saito-Kanatani, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yutaka Osuga
Although it has been reported that hypoxia inducible factor 2 α (Hif2a), a major transcriptional factor inducible by low oxygen tension, is expressed in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation, its role in pregnancy outcomes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify functions of uterine HIF using transgenic mouse models. Mice with deletion of Hif2a in the whole uterus (Hif2a-uKO mice) showed infertility due to implantation failure. Supplementation with progesterone (P4) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) restored decidual growth arrest and aberrant position of implantation sites in Hif2a-uKO mice, respectively, but did not rescue pregnancy failure...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Vinay Shukla, Pooja Popli, Jyoti Bala Kaushal, Kanchan Gupta, Anila Dwivedi
Tubulin polymerization promoting protein 3 (TPPP3) is known to be expressed in the endometrium in a cyclic manner, its functional role in the physiology of implantation remains unknown. Here we demonstrate a novel function of TPPP3 during the window of implantation and in the establishment of pregnancy using a mouse model. The increased protein expression of TPPP3 and β-catenin during peri-implantation period i.e. D5 (receptive phase, 0800 h) was observed as compared to that on D1 (non-receptive phase, 0800 h)...
June 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Emily L Fishman, Kyoung Jo, Quynh P H Nguyen, Dong Kong, Rachel Royfman, Anthony R Cekic, Sushil Khanal, Ann L Miller, Calvin Simerly, Gerald Schatten, Jadranka Loncarek, Vito Mennella, Tomer Avidor-Reiss
The inheritance of the centrosome during human fertilization remains mysterious. Here we show that the sperm centrosome contains, in addition to the known typical barrel-shaped centriole (the proximal centriole, PC), a surrounding matrix (pericentriolar material, PCM), and an atypical centriole (distal centriole, DC) composed of splayed microtubules surrounding previously undescribed rods of centriole luminal proteins. The sperm centrosome is remodeled by both reduction and enrichment of specific proteins and the formation of these rods during spermatogenesis...
June 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Aref Shahini, Kalyan Vydiam, Debanik Choudhury, Nika Rajabian, Thy Nguyen, Pedro Lei, Stelios T Andreadis
Skeletal muscle (SkM) regeneration relies on the activity of myogenic progenitors that reside beneath the basal lamina of myofibers. Here, we describe a protocol for the isolation of the SkM progenitors from young and old mice by exploiting their outgrowth potential from SkM explants on matrigel coated dishes in the presence of high serum, chicken embryo extract and basic fibroblast growth factor. Compared to other protocols, this method yields a higher number of myoblasts (10-20 million) by enabling the outgrowth of these cells from tissue fragments...
July 2018: Stem Cell Research
Tanzil Ur Rahman, Kamran Ullah, Meng-Xi Guo, Hai-Tao Pan, Juan Liu, Jun Ren, Lu-Yang Jin, Yu-Zhong Zhou, Yi Cheng, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
High androgen level impairs endometrial receptivity in women experiences the recurrent miscarriage. The mechanism of androgen actions on endometrium is still uncertain. We hypothesized that androgen has a direct effect on the endometrium in women with recurrent miscarriage. In the present study, we assess the impact of androgen (A2 ) at high concentration (10-7 M) on Ishikawa cells compared with the physiological concentration of androgen (10-9 M). To go into deeper analysis, we use global stable isotopes labeled profiling tactic using iTRAQ reagents, followed by 2D LC-MS/MS...
May 15, 2018: Oncotarget
A Aberkane, W Essahib, C Spits, C De Paepe, K Sermon, T Adriaenssens, S Mackens, H Tournaye, J J Brosens, H Van de Velde
STUDY QUESTION: What are the changes in human embryos, in terms of morphology and gene expression, upon attachment to endometrial epithelial cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: Apposition and adhesion of human blastocysts to endometrial epithelial cells are predominantly initiated at the embryonic pole and these steps are associated with changes in expression of adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) genes in the embryo. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both human and murine embryos have been co-cultured with Ishikawa cells, although embryonic gene expression associated with attachment has not yet been investigated in an in vitro implantation model...
July 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
Natalia Gabriela Canel, Mariana Suvá, Romina Jimena Bevacqua, María Elena Arias, Ricardo Felmer, Daniel Felipe Salamone
In contrast to other species, intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) in bovine remains inefficient, resulting in low embryo developmental rates. It is unclear whether such inefficiency is due to the poor response of bovine ooplasms to the injection stimulus, or to the inability of bull sperm to induce oocyte activation. In order to facilitate these events, two strategies were assessed: the use of high concentration of cysteamine [Cys] during IVM; and the selection of sperm attached to cumulus cells after incubation with COCs for ICSI...
September 1, 2018: Theriogenology
Daniela E Barraza, Renato Zampini, Silvana A Apichela, Joel I Pacheco, Martin E Argañaraz
South American Camelids (SAC) have unique reproductive features, one of which is that 98% of the pregnancies develop in the left uterine horn. Furthermore, early pregnancy is an uncharacterized process in these species, especially in regard to the ultrastructural, biochemical and genetic changes that the uterine epithelial surface undergoes to allow embryo implantation. The present study describes the uterine horn luminal surface and the characteristics of the mucinous glycocalyx in non-pregnant and early pregnant (15 days) female alpacas...
July 2018: Acta Histochemica
Beenu Moza Jalali, Pawel Likszo, Aneta Andronowska, Dariusz J Skarzynski
During early pregnancy, uterine epithelial cells undergo major transformations in their cytoskeleton that make the endometrium receptive for conceptus attachment. Actin binding proteins (ABPs) such as cofilin, gelsolin, and vinculin are involved in regulating actin polymerization, severing or crosslinking actin to integrins. However, whether ABPs are involved in epithelial remodeling or embryo adhesion in pigs is unknown. Therefore, the expression and distribution of these proteins were investigated in porcine endometrium on Days 10 and 13 (pre-implantation period), and 16 (attachment phase) of the estrous cycle or pregnancy...
August 2018: Theriogenology
Annika Batel, Flora Borchert, Hannes Reinwald, Lothar Erdinger, Thomas Braunbeck
Since only a few studies have investigated effects of microplastics (MPs) by routes other than ingestion, this study was designed to analyze the accumulation patterns and transfer of toxic substances associated with microplastic exposure by simple attachment to (1) adult zebrafish (Danio rerio) gills and (2) zebrafish embryos. Two sizes of fluorescently labelled polymers (1-5 and 10-20 μm) loaded with the model polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) were used to analyze fate, accumulation and transfer of microplastic-associated persistent organic pollutants (POPs) on gills and embryos...
April 2018: Environmental Pollution
Y Fu, R V Knox, L Li, S Ren
The objective of this study was to ascertain whether mRNA and protein expressions of implantation-related genes (erythropoietin-producing hepatocellular receptor-ligand A1, Eph-ephrin A1 and leptin receptor-leptin, LEPR-LEP) differed between pigs with high and low number of embryos, and whether these differences in gene expression might affect embryo implantation. Experimental pig groups (n = 24) for high and low number of embryos were prepared by altering the number of eggs ovulated in pre-pubertal gilts treated with 1...
August 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Abigail R Gerhold, Vincent Poupart, Jean-Claude Labbé, Paul S Maddox
The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a conserved mitotic regulator that preserves genome stability by monitoring kinetochore-microtubule attachments and blocking anaphase onset until chromosome biorientation is achieved. Despite its central role in maintaining mitotic fidelity, the ability of the SAC to delay mitotic exit in the presence of kinetochore-microtubule attachment defects (SAC "strength") appears to vary widely. How different cellular aspects drive this variation remains largely unknown...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Biology of the Cell
Yan Yin, Adam Wang, Li Feng, Yu Wang, Hong Zhang, Ivy Zhang, Brent M Bany, Liang Ma
To prepare for embryo implantation, the uterus must undergo a series of reciprocal interactions between the uterine epithelium and the underlying stroma, which are orchestrated by ovarian hormones. During this process, multiple signaling pathways are activated to direct cell proliferation and differentiation, which render the uterus receptive to the implanting blastocysts. One important modulator of these signaling pathways is the cell surface and extracellular matrix macromolecules, heparan sulfate proteoglycans (HSPGs)...
June 1, 2018: Endocrinology
William Steven Ward
In early years, Dr. Donald S. Coffey fostered the development of a new model for the organization of DNA in the sperm nucleus that had many unexpected similarities to that of somatic cells. This was surprising because it was well known that mammalian sperm DNA is more compact than the DNA in mitotic chromosomes, and the fact that some of the major structural components of somatic cell DNA organization were retained in the sperm cell was not predicted. The highly compact sperm DNA is organized into loop domains that are attached at their bases to a proteinaceous nuclear matrix, at specific matrix attachment regions (MARs)...
2018: American Journal of Clinical and Experimental Urology
Nicolas R Chevalier, Tinke-Marie de Witte, Annemiek J M Cornelissen, Sylvie Dufour, Véronique Proux-Gillardeaux, Atef Asnacios
During embryonic development, most organs are in a state of mechanical compression because they grow in a confined and limited amount of space within the embryo's body; the early gut is an exception because it physiologically herniates out of the coelom. We demonstrate here that physiological hernia is caused by a tensile force transmitted by the vitelline duct on the early gut loop at its attachment point at the umbilicus. We quantify this tensile force and show that applying tension for 48 h induces stress-dependent elongational growth of the embryonic gut in culture, with an average 90% length increase (max: 200%), 65% volume increase (max: 160%), 50% dry mass increase (max: 100%), and 165% cell number increase (max: 300%); this mechanical cue is required for organ growth as guts not subject to tension do not grow...
April 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jaclyn M Camuglia, Torrey R Mandigo, Richard Moschella, Jenna Mark, Christine H Hudson, Derek Sheen, Eric S Folker
BACKGROUND: A strength of Drosophila as a model system is its utility as a tool to screen for novel regulators of various functional and developmental processes. However, the utility of Drosophila as a screening tool is dependent on the speed and simplicity of the assay used. METHODS: Here, we use larval locomotion as an assay to identify novel regulators of skeletal muscle function. We combined this assay with muscle-specific depletion of 82 genes to identify genes that impact muscle function by their expression in muscle cells...
April 6, 2018: Skeletal Muscle
Qianqian Chen, Aijie Xin, Ronggui Qu, Wenbi Zhang, Lu Li, Junling Chen, Xiang Lu, Yongwei Gu, Jing Li, Xiaoxi Sun
Ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase-phosphodiesterase 3 (ENPP3), a protein detected in the human uterus, has been found to play an important role in the development and invasion of tumours. It was recently discovered that ENPP3 was upregulated during the window of implantation in the human endometrium but its functional relevance remains elusive. The objective was to determine ENPP3 expression in human endometrium and its roles in endometrial receptivity and embryo implantation. ENPP3 expression was analysed using immunohistochemistry and western blot assay...
April 4, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
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