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Embryo attachment

Yulia A Burmistrova, Boris V Osadchenko, Fedor V Bolshakov, Yulia A Kraus, Igor A Kosevich
Progress of Evo-Devo requires broad phylogenetic sampling providing the data for comparative analysis as well as new objects suitable for experimental investigation. Representatives of the early-branching animal phylum Cnidaria and particularly hydrozoans draw great attention due to the high diversity of embryonic and post-embryonic development and life-cycles in general. Most detailed studies on embryonic development in hydrozoans were performed on the species shedding their gametes with subsequent embryo development in the water column...
September 26, 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Amirah Adlia, Ilham Tomagola, Sophi Damayanti, Ardyanto Mulya, Heni Rachmawati
Conjugation of curcumin and gold with green chemistry is an approach to improve the effectiveness of curcumin as anti-fibrosis. In this work, curcumin and gold were conjugated to deliver curcumin to the liver. Curcumin-gold nanoparticles (cAuNPs) were prepared by varying curcumin pH and concentration. The successful of cAuNPs formation were identified by using UV-visible and FTIR spectrophotometers. The particle size and morphology were analyzed using particle size analyzer and cryo-TEM respectively. In vitro antioxidant assay was performed to determine the curcumin activity after conjugation...
September 21, 2018: Scientia Pharmaceutica
Wenyang Hou, Loydie A Jerome-Majewska
TMED2, a member of the transmembrane emp24 domain (TMED) family, is required for transport of cargo proteins between the ER and Golgi. TMED2 is also important for normal morphogenesis of mouse embryos and their associated placenta, and in fact Tmed2 homozygous mutant embryos arrest at mid-gestation due to a failure of placental labyrinth layer formation. Differentiation of the placental labyrinth layer depends on chorioallantoic attachment (contact between the chorion and allantois), and branching morphogenesis (mingling of cells from these two tissues)...
September 17, 2018: Developmental Biology
D J A Santos, J B Cole, D J Null, T M Byrem, L Ma
Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) are secreted by the trophoblast and are detectable in maternal circulation around the time of attachment of the fetal placenta, as well as in blood and milk throughout gestation. The understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling PAG levels can confer advantages for livestock breeding programs given the precocity and the ease of obtaining this phenotype from routine pregnancy diagnosis. The aim of this study was to characterize PAG levels by estimating genetic parameters and correlations with other dairy traits, and to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with PAG levels in milk...
September 12, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jingjing Sun, Angelike Stathopoulos
To support tissue and organ development, cells transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states. Here, we have investigated how mesoderm cells change state in Drosophila embryos and whether fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling plays a role. During gastrulation, presumptive mesoderm cells invaginate, undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal state transition (EMT) and migrate upon the ectoderm. Our data show that EMT is a prolonged process in which adherens junctions progressively decrease in number throughout the migration of mesoderm cells...
October 1, 2018: Development
Peng Zhao, Zhe Wu Jin, Ji Hyun Kim, Hiroshi Abe, Gen Murakami, José Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez
Prenatal twisting of the femoral neck seems to result in an angle of anteversion or torsion, but the underlying process has not been elucidated. This study analyzed sagittal, frontal and horizontal sections of 34 embryo and fetal specimens of gestational age (GA) 6-16 weeks (crown-rump length 21-130 mm). At GA 6-7 weeks, the iliopsoas (IP) and gluteus medius (GME) muscles were inserted into the anterior and posterior aspects of the femur, respectively, allowing both insertions to be viewed in a single sagittal section...
September 4, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Naseer A Baba, Manjit Panigrahi, Ankita D Verma, Abdul Sadam, Sourabh Sulabh, Supriya Chhotaray, Subhashree Parida, Narayanan Krishnaswamy, Bharat Bhushan
Progesterone (P4 ) plays a key role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in most mammals. Unravelling the expression of progesterone-regulated genes can expand the understanding of the embryonic mortality. Accordingly, we studied the relative mRNA expression of the P4 -regulated genes in the buffalo. Uteri were collected from the abattoir and categorized into nonpregnant late luteal phase, stage I (28-38th days of gestation) and stage II (48-56th days of gestation) of pregnancy (n = 6/group)...
August 28, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Peter T Ruane, Rebekka Koeck, Stephane C Berneau, Susan J Kimber, Melissa Westwood, Daniel R Brison, John D Aplin
In vitro culture during assisted reproduction technologies (ART) exposes pre-implantation embryos to environmental stressors, such as non-physiological nutritional, oxidative and osmotic conditions. The effects on subsequent implantation are not well understood but could contribute to poor ART efficiency and outcomes. We have used exposure to hyperosmolarity to investigate the effects of stress on the ability of embryos to interact with endometrial cells in an in vitro model. Culturing mouse blastocysts for 2h in medium with osmolarity raised by 400mOsm induced blastocoel collapse and re-expansion, but did not affect subsequent attachment to, or invasion of, the endometrial epithelial Ishikawa cell line...
August 21, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Yuuri Yasuoka, Masanori Taira
Introducing exogenous DNA into an embryo can promote misexpression of a gene of interest via transcription regulated by an attached enhancer-promoter. This protocol describes plasmid DNA microinjection into Xenopus embryos for misexpression of genes after zygotic gene expression begins. It also describes a method for coinjecting a reporter plasmid with mRNA or antisense morpholinos to perform luciferase reporter assays, which are useful for quantitative analysis of cis -regulatory sequences responding to endogenous or exogenous stimuli in embryos...
August 21, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Chenyang Huang, Haixiang Sun, Zhilong Wang, Yang Liu, Xi Cheng, Jingyu Liu, Ruiwei Jiang, Xindong Zhang, Xin Zhen, Jidong Zhou, Linjun Chen, Lijun Ding, Guijun Yan, Yue Jiang
Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) caused by various etiological factors remains a challenge for fertility clinicians using assisted reproductive technology (ART) worldwide. Dysregulation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in the endometria of women with RIF is involved in impaired endometrial receptivity and embryo adhesion. However, the mechanism through which LIF expression is regulated in women with RIF is still poorly understood. Our previous study noted that the abnormally increased endometrial Krüppel-like factor 12 (KLF12) in RIF women led to impaired decidualization and embryo implantation...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
Yanfeng Fu, Lan Li, Xiaomin Fang, Bixia Li, Weimin Zhao, Lisheng Zhou, Shouwen Ren
Eph A1 and ephrin A1 (Eph-ephrin A1) is a key receptor-ligand pair of Eph-ephrin system, which plays important roles in the migration and adhesion of cells, tissue morphogenesis and vasculogenesis in mammals. In order to investigate the regulation of Eph-ephrin A1 during porcine embryo implantation, the expressions of mRNA and protein of Eph-ephrin A1 were detected in different reproductive tissues from twelve sows during embryo implantation period on pregnancy day 13, 18 and 24, respectively. Functions of Eph-ephrin A1 on the migration and adhesion of porcine endometrial epithelial cells were analysed by RNA interference (RNAi), transwell migration assays and MTT assays...
August 12, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Ritsu Kamiya, Kogiku Shiba, Kazuo Inaba, Takako Kato-Minoura
Chlamydomonas flagella display surface motility such that small polystyrene beads (microspheres) attached to the flagellar membrane move bidirectionally along the flagellum. This surface motility enables cells to glide on a solid substrate to which they are attached by the flagellar surface. Previous studies suggested that microsphere movement and gliding motility result from the movement of transmembrane glycoprotein(s) within the plane of the plasma membrane, driven by intraflagellar transport (IFT), which utilizes cytoplasmic dynein and kinesin-2...
August 2018: Zoological Science
Andrew M Kelleher, Jessica Milano-Foster, Susanta K Behura, Thomas E Spencer
Uterine glands are essential for pregnancy establishment. By employing forkhead box A2 (FOXA2)-deficient mouse models coupled with leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) repletion, we reveal definitive roles of uterine glands in embryo implantation and stromal cell decidualization. Here we report that LIF from the uterine glands initiates embryo-uterine communication, leading to embryo attachment and stromal cell decidualization. Detailed histological and molecular analyses discovered that implantation crypt formation does not involve uterine glands, but removal of the luminal epithelium is delayed and subsequent decidualization fails in LIF-replaced glandless but not gland-containing FOXA2-deficient mice...
June 22, 2018: Nature Communications
Cheng Li, Hui-Yu Zhang, Yan Liang, Wei Xia, Qian Zhu, Duo Zhang, Zhen Huang, Gui-Lin Liang, Rui-Hong Xue, Hang Qi, Xiao-Qing He, Jiang-Jing Yuan, Ya-Jing Tan, He-Feng Huang, Jian Zhang
BACKGROUND: Our previous study indicated that emergency contraception, including levonorgestrel and progesterone, could lead to ectopic pregnancy following contraception failure. However, our understanding of the effects of levonorgestrel and progesterone on oviductal physiology is limited. METHODS: The receptivity of the fallopian tubal epithelium after levonorgestrel and progesterone treatment was examined through western blots for receptivity markers and JAr-spheroid-fallopian tubal epithelial cell attachment assays...
June 20, 2018: Reproductive Biology and Endocrinology: RB&E
Leona Matsumoto, Yasushi Hirota, Tomoko Saito-Fujita, Norihiko Takeda, Tomoki Tanaka, Takehiro Hiraoka, Shun Akaeda, Hidetoshi Fujita, Ryoko Shimizu-Hirota, Shota Igaue, Mitsunori Matsuo, Hirofumi Haraguchi, Mayuko Saito-Kanatani, Tomoyuki Fujii, Yutaka Osuga
Although it has been reported that hypoxia inducible factor 2 α (Hif2a), a major transcriptional factor inducible by low oxygen tension, is expressed in the mouse uterus during embryo implantation, its role in pregnancy outcomes remains unclear. This study aimed to clarify functions of uterine HIF using transgenic mouse models. Mice with deletion of Hif2a in the whole uterus (Hif2a-uKO mice) showed infertility due to implantation failure. Supplementation with progesterone (P4) and leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) restored decidual growth arrest and aberrant position of implantation sites in Hif2a-uKO mice, respectively, but did not rescue pregnancy failure...
July 2, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Vinay Shukla, Pooja Popli, Jyoti Bala Kaushal, Kanchan Gupta, Anila Dwivedi
Tubulin polymerization promoting protein 3 (TPPP3) is known to be expressed in the endometrium in a cyclic manner, its functional role in the physiology of implantation remains unknown. Here we demonstrate a novel function of TPPP3 during the window of implantation and in the establishment of pregnancy using a mouse model. The increased protein expression of TPPP3 and β-catenin during peri-implantation period i.e. D5 (receptive phase, 0800 h) was observed as compared to that on D1 (non-receptive phase, 0800 h)...
June 12, 2018: Biology of Reproduction
Emily L Fishman, Kyoung Jo, Quynh P H Nguyen, Dong Kong, Rachel Royfman, Anthony R Cekic, Sushil Khanal, Ann L Miller, Calvin Simerly, Gerald Schatten, Jadranka Loncarek, Vito Mennella, Tomer Avidor-Reiss
The inheritance of the centrosome during human fertilization remains mysterious. Here we show that the sperm centrosome contains, in addition to the known typical barrel-shaped centriole (the proximal centriole, PC), a surrounding matrix (pericentriolar material, PCM), and an atypical centriole (distal centriole, DC) composed of splayed microtubules surrounding previously undescribed rods of centriole luminal proteins. The sperm centrosome is remodeled by both reduction and enrichment of specific proteins and the formation of these rods during spermatogenesis...
June 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Aref Shahini, Kalyan Vydiam, Debanik Choudhury, Nika Rajabian, Thy Nguyen, Pedro Lei, Stelios T Andreadis
Skeletal muscle (SkM) regeneration relies on the activity of myogenic progenitors that reside beneath the basal lamina of myofibers. Here, we describe a protocol for the isolation of the SkM progenitors from young and old mice by exploiting their outgrowth potential from SkM explants on matrigel coated dishes in the presence of high serum, chicken embryo extract and basic fibroblast growth factor. Compared to other protocols, this method yields a higher number of myoblasts (10-20 million) by enabling the outgrowth of these cells from tissue fragments...
July 2018: Stem Cell Research
Tanzil Ur Rahman, Kamran Ullah, Meng-Xi Guo, Hai-Tao Pan, Juan Liu, Jun Ren, Lu-Yang Jin, Yu-Zhong Zhou, Yi Cheng, Jian-Zhong Sheng, He-Feng Huang
High androgen level impairs endometrial receptivity in women experiences the recurrent miscarriage. The mechanism of androgen actions on endometrium is still uncertain. We hypothesized that androgen has a direct effect on the endometrium in women with recurrent miscarriage. In the present study, we assess the impact of androgen (A2 ) at high concentration (10-7 M) on Ishikawa cells compared with the physiological concentration of androgen (10-9 M). To go into deeper analysis, we use global stable isotopes labeled profiling tactic using iTRAQ reagents, followed by 2D LC-MS/MS...
May 15, 2018: Oncotarget
A Aberkane, W Essahib, C Spits, C De Paepe, K Sermon, T Adriaenssens, S Mackens, H Tournaye, J J Brosens, H Van de Velde
STUDY QUESTION: What are the changes in human embryos, in terms of morphology and gene expression, upon attachment to endometrial epithelial cells? SUMMARY ANSWER: Apposition and adhesion of human blastocysts to endometrial epithelial cells are predominantly initiated at the embryonic pole and these steps are associated with changes in expression of adhesion and extracellular matrix (ECM) genes in the embryo. WHAT IS KNOWN ALREADY: Both human and murine embryos have been co-cultured with Ishikawa cells, although embryonic gene expression associated with attachment has not yet been investigated in an in vitro implantation model...
July 1, 2018: Molecular Human Reproduction
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