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Embryo attachment

Fatemeh Naseri, Sara Hosseini, Marefat Ghaffari Novin, Ahmad Hosseini, Mohammad Hasan Heidari, Mohammad Salehi
Embryo manipulations may cause the misexpression of various genes, most of which play critical roles in the regulation of implantation. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of embryo biopsy on the expression of miR-Let-7a and its gene targets including ErbB4, Tgf-α, Itg-αv, Itg β3 on the implantation of mouse embryo. Embryos were produced by in vitro fertilization followed by blastomere biopsy at the eight-cell stage. The effects of blastomere removal on the expression of genes ErbB4, Tgf-α, Itg αv, Itg β3, and miR-Let-7a as well as the alteration of the blastocyst cell number were compared in both biopsied and non-biopsied groups...
December 2, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
Zhen Luo, Xue Xu, Takami Sho, Jing Zhang, Weina Xu, Jianbo Yao, Jianxiong Xu
Significant embryo loss remains a serious problem in pig production. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) play a critical role in embryonic implantation and placentation. However, the potential mechanism of ROS on porcine trophectoderm (pTr) cell fate during peri-implantation period has not been investigated. This study aimed to elucidate the effects of ROS on pTr cell phenotypes and the regulatory role in cell attachment and differentiation. Herein, results showed that exogenous H2 O2 inhibited pTr cell viability, arrested cell cycle at S and G2/M phase, increased cell apoptosis and autophagy protein light chain 3B (LC3B) and Beclin-1, while these effects were reversed by different concentrations of N-acety-l-cysteine (NAC) post-treatment...
November 28, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
Fiona D'Souza, Shubhashree Uppangala, Gitanjali Asampille, Sujith Raj Salian, Guruprasad Kalthur, Riccardo Talevi, Hanudatta S Atreya, Satish Kumar Adiga
The metabolomic profile of an embryo culture medium can aid in the advanced prediction of embryonic developmental potential and genetic integrity. But it is not known if this technology can be used to determine the in vitro potential of inner cell mass (ICM) in adherence and proliferation. Here, we investigated the developmental potential of mouse 2-cell embryos carrying cisplatin-induced DNA lesions (IDL), beyond blastocyst stage using ICM outgrowth assay. The genetic integrity of ICM cells was determined by comet assay...
November 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Szczepan M Bilinski, Waclaw Tworzydlo
The embryos and first instar larvae of the epizoic earwig, Arixenia esau, develop sequentially in two different compartments of the female reproductive system, that is ovarian follicles and the lateral oviducts (the uterus). Here we show that the second (intrauterine) phase of development consists of three physiologically disparate stages: early embryos (before dorsal closure, surrounded by an egg envelope), late embryos (after dorsal closure, surrounded by an egg envelope) and the first instar larvae (after "hatching" from an egg envelope)...
November 23, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
Jihyun Kim, Jaewang Lee, Jin Hyun Jun
Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) is one of the main causes for the repeated failure of IVF, and the major reason for RIF is thought to be a miscommunication between the embryo and uterus. However, the exact mechanism underlying embryo-uterus cross-talk is not fully understood. The aim of the present study was to identify differentially expressed microRNAs (miRNAs) among blastocysts, non-outgrowth and outgrowth embryos in mice using microarray analysis. A bioinformatics analysis was performed to predict the potential mechanisms of implantation...
November 15, 2018: Reproduction, Fertility, and Development
Alexandra L Nguyen, David Drutovic, Berta N Vazquez, Warif El Yakoubi, Amanda S Gentilello, Marcos Malumbres, Petr Solc, Karen Schindler
Errors in chromosome segregation during female meiosis I occur frequently, and aneuploid embryos account for 1/3 of all miscarriages in humans [1]. Unlike mitotic cells that require two Aurora kinase (AURK) homologs to help prevent aneuploidy (AURKA and AURKB), mammalian germ cells also require a third (AURKC) [2, 3]. AURKA is the spindle-pole-associated homolog, and AURKB/C are the chromosome-localized homologs. In mitosis, AURKB has essential roles as the catalytic subunit of the chromosomal passenger complex (CPC), regulating chromosome alignment, kinetochore-microtubule attachments, cohesion, the spindle assembly checkpoint, and cytokinesis [4, 5]...
November 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Cláudia Pereira, Rita M Reis, José B Gama, Ricardo Celestino, Dhanya K Cheerambathur, Ana X Carvalho, Reto Gassmann
The kinetochore is a dynamic multi-protein assembly that forms on each sister chromatid and interacts with microtubules of the mitotic spindle to drive chromosome segregation. In animals, kinetochores without attached microtubules expand their outermost layer into crescent and ring shapes to promote microtubule capture and spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) signaling. Kinetochore expansion is an example of protein co-polymerization, but the mechanism is not understood. Here, we present evidence that kinetochore expansion is driven by oligomerization of the Rod-Zw10-Zwilch (RZZ) complex, an outer kinetochore component that recruits the motor dynein and the SAC proteins Mad1-Mad2...
November 5, 2018: Current Biology: CB
John T Gamble, Yuriyah Reed-Harris, Carrie L Barton, Jane La Du, Robert Tanguay, Juliet A Greenwood
Glioblastoma (GBM) is a deadly disease due to its ability to quickly invade and destroy brain tissue. Slowing or stopping GBM cell progression is crucial to help those inflicted with the disease. Our lab created an embryo-larval zebrafish xenograft model as a tool to study human GBM progression in an observable brain environment. The zebrafish brain is a dynamic and complex environment providing an optimal setting for studying GBM cell progression. Here we demonstrate the ability of our model to quantitate GBM proliferation, dispersal, blood vessel association, microtumor formation, and individual cell invasion by evaluating the importance of an extracellular matrix protein, laminin alpha 5 (lama5), on U251MG cell progression...
December 2, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Karel de Bree, Bernadette S de Bakker, Roelof-Jan Oostra
The notochord is a major regulator of embryonic patterning in vertebrates and abnormal notochordal development is associated with a variety of birth defects in man. Proper knowledge of the development of the human notochord, therefore, is important to understand the pathogenesis of these birth defects. Textbook descriptions vary significantly and seem to be derived from both human and animal data whereas the lack of references hampers verification of the presented data. Therefore, a verifiable and comprehensive description of the development of the human notochord is needed...
2018: PloS One
Floriana Burgio, Natalie Rimmer, Uwe Pieles, Johanna Buschmann, Marina Beaufils-Hugot
For the fabrication of appropriate bone tissue engineered constructs, several prerequisites should be fulfilled. It should offer long-term stability, allow proper cell attachment and proliferation, furthermore be osteoinductive and easy to be vascularized. Having these requirements as background, we fabricated a novel porous 3D-printed hydroxyapatite (HA) scaffold and treated it with oxygen plasma (OPT). MG-63 pre-osteoblast-seeded bone constructs allowed good cell attachment and proliferation, even better when cultivated in a perfusion flow bioreactor...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Yulia A Burmistrova, Boris V Osadchenko, Fedor V Bolshakov, Yulia A Kraus, Igor A Kosevich
Progress of Evo-Devo requires broad phylogenetic sampling providing the data for comparative analysis as well as new objects suitable for experimental investigation. Representatives of the early-branching animal phylum Cnidaria and particularly hydrozoans draw great attention due to the high diversity of embryonic and post-embryonic development and life-cycles in general. Most detailed studies on embryonic development in hydrozoans were performed on the species shedding their gametes with subsequent embryo development in the water column...
October 2018: Development, Growth & Differentiation
Amirah Adlia, Ilham Tomagola, Sophi Damayanti, Ardyanto Mulya, Heni Rachmawati
Conjugation of curcumin and gold with green chemistry is an approach to improve the effectiveness of curcumin as anti-fibrosis. In this work, curcumin and gold were conjugated to deliver curcumin to the liver. Curcumin-gold nanoparticles (cAuNPs) were prepared by varying curcumin pH and concentration. The successful of cAuNPs formation were identified by using UV-visible and FTIR spectrophotometers. The particle size and morphology were analyzed using particle size analyzer and cryo-TEM respectively. In vitro antioxidant assay was performed to determine the curcumin activity after conjugation...
September 21, 2018: Scientia Pharmaceutica
Wenyang Hou, Loydie A Jerome-Majewska
TMED2, a member of the transmembrane emp24 domain (TMED) family, is required for transport of cargo proteins between the ER and Golgi. TMED2 is also important for normal morphogenesis of mouse embryos and their associated placenta, and in fact Tmed2 homozygous mutant embryos arrest at mid-gestation due to a failure of placental labyrinth layer formation. Differentiation of the placental labyrinth layer depends on chorioallantoic attachment (contact between the chorion and allantois), and branching morphogenesis (mingling of cells from these two tissues)...
September 17, 2018: Developmental Biology
D J A Santos, J B Cole, D J Null, T M Byrem, L Ma
Pregnancy-associated glycoproteins (PAG) are secreted by the trophoblast and are detectable in maternal circulation around the time of attachment of the fetal placenta, as well as in blood and milk throughout gestation. The understanding of the genetic mechanisms controlling PAG levels can confer advantages for livestock breeding programs given the precocity and the ease of obtaining this phenotype from routine pregnancy diagnosis. The aim of this study was to characterize PAG levels by estimating genetic parameters and correlations with other dairy traits, and to identify genomic regions and candidate genes associated with PAG levels in milk...
November 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Jingjing Sun, Angelike Stathopoulos
To support tissue and organ development, cells transition between epithelial and mesenchymal states. Here, we have investigated how mesoderm cells change state in Drosophila embryos and whether fibroblast growth factor (FGF) signaling plays a role. During gastrulation, presumptive mesoderm cells invaginate, undergo an epithelial-to-mesenchymal state transition (EMT) and migrate upon the ectoderm. Our data show that EMT is a prolonged process in which adherens junctions progressively decrease in number throughout the migration of mesoderm cells...
October 1, 2018: Development
Peng Zhao, Zhe Wu Jin, Ji Hyun Kim, Hiroshi Abe, Gen Murakami, José Francisco Rodríguez-Vázquez
Prenatal twisting of the femoral neck seems to result in an angle of anteversion or torsion, but the underlying process has not been elucidated. This study analyzed sagittal, frontal and horizontal sections of 34 embryo and fetal specimens of gestational age (GA) 6-16 weeks (crown-rump length 21-130 mm). At GA 6-7 weeks, the iliopsoas (IP) and gluteus medius (GME) muscles were inserted into the anterior and posterior aspects of the femur, respectively, allowing both insertions to be viewed in a single sagittal section...
September 4, 2018: Folia Morphologica (Warsz)
Naseer A Baba, Manjit Panigrahi, Ankita D Verma, Abdul Sadam, Sourabh Sulabh, Supriya Chhotaray, Subhashree Parida, Narayanan Krishnaswamy, Bharat Bhushan
Progesterone (P4 ) plays a key role in the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy in most mammals. Unravelling the expression of progesterone-regulated genes can expand the understanding of the embryonic mortality. Accordingly, we studied the relative mRNA expression of the P4 -regulated genes in the buffalo. Uteri were collected from the abattoir and categorized into nonpregnant late luteal phase, stage I (28-38th days of gestation) and stage II (48-56th days of gestation) of pregnancy (n = 6/group)...
August 28, 2018: Reproduction in Domestic Animals, Zuchthygiene
Peter T Ruane, Rebekka Koeck, Stephane C Berneau, Susan J Kimber, Melissa Westwood, Daniel R Brison, John D Aplin
In vitro culture during assisted reproduction technologies (ART) exposes pre-implantation embryos to environmental stressors, such as non-physiological nutritional, oxidative and osmotic conditions. The effects on subsequent implantation are not well understood but could contribute to poor ART efficiency and outcomes. We have used exposure to hyperosmolarity to investigate the effects of stress on the ability of embryos to interact with endometrial cells in an in vitro model. Culturing mouse blastocysts for 2h in medium with osmolarity raised by 400mOsm induced blastocoel collapse and re-expansion, but did not affect subsequent attachment to, or invasion of, the endometrial epithelial Ishikawa cell line...
October 16, 2018: Reproduction: the Official Journal of the Society for the Study of Fertility
Yuuri Yasuoka, Masanori Taira
Introducing exogenous DNA into an embryo can promote misexpression of a gene of interest via transcription regulated by an attached enhancer-promoter. This protocol describes plasmid DNA microinjection into Xenopus embryos for misexpression of genes after zygotic gene expression begins. It also describes a method for coinjecting a reporter plasmid with mRNA or antisense morpholinos to perform luciferase reporter assays, which are useful for quantitative analysis of cis -regulatory sequences responding to endogenous or exogenous stimuli in embryos...
August 21, 2018: Cold Spring Harbor Protocols
Chenyang Huang, Haixiang Sun, Zhilong Wang, Yang Liu, Xi Cheng, Jingyu Liu, Ruiwei Jiang, Xindong Zhang, Xin Zhen, Jidong Zhou, Linjun Chen, Lijun Ding, Guijun Yan, Yue Jiang
Recurrent implantation failure (RIF) caused by various etiological factors remains a challenge for fertility clinicians using assisted reproductive technology (ART) worldwide. Dysregulation of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) in the endometria of women with RIF is involved in impaired endometrial receptivity and embryo adhesion. However, the mechanism through which LIF expression is regulated in women with RIF is still poorly understood. Our previous study noted that the abnormally increased endometrial Krüppel-like factor 12 (KLF12) in RIF women led to impaired decidualization and embryo implantation...
2018: Cell Death Discovery
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